Local Govt | National News Video | Parliament Headlines | Politics Headlines | Search

 


Watch out for soils in winter

Watch out for soils in winter

by Bala Tikkisetty
June 10, 2014

The winter months are when farm soils can come under particular pressure from things like pugging and compaction.

So farmers are advised pay particular attention at this time of year to ensuring, as much as possible, their soils remain healthy, as this is essential to any profitable farming operation and its long-term sustainability.

If the soil is physically healthy and fertile, crop and pasture production will be high.

The physical structure of soil controls the movement of air and water through the soil, and the ability of roots to penetrate into the soil. It also provides habitat for a number of beneficial organisms, including earthworms. Soil with good structure has a significant number of pores that provide aerobic conditions, good drainage and high water-holding capacity.

Plants require about 10 elements in large quantities (macronutrients), and about eight in small quantities (micronutrients). Of the major elements, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are obtained from oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air. Others include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, calcium and magnesium. Minor elements include iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, boron, chlorine, silicon and cobalt. In natural ecosystems when plants and animals die many of these nutrients are cycled back into the soil. However, in farming ecosystems, plant or animal biomass is removed with harvesting. To supply essential elements for plant growth farmers add nutrients to the soil in a number of ways such as using fertiliser and animal effluent application to land.

So, during the winter months, it’s important to safeguard this investment in soil health and fertility and the time and money involved.

Compaction and pugging of wet soils in winter can particularly damage the soil structure.

Pugging is caused by animals’ hooves sinking into the soil surface (sometimes as deep as 15 centimetres) when they tread in very wet soils. This leaves a ‘puddle’ effect and can lead to compacted layer of soil.

Such compaction occurs when the soil is compressed or squeezed. In addition to being caused by animal treading, vehicles or farm machinery also contribute to this problem.

Compaction on dairy and drystock sites is a particular concern as it reduces the number and size of pores available for water and gas movement in soil. It reduces aeration, nutrient uptake, root growth and distribution, and potentially decreases infiltration and increases runoff. The most sensitive indicator of compaction is macroporosity. Previous research reveals that macroporosity below 10 per cent will inhibit pasture growth.

Soil scientists have found that compacted soil can reduce the amount of dry matter in pasture by 200 kilogrammes per hectare per month. (Aerating the compacted soil at the correct depth and time can increase the amount of dry matter by about 30 per cent within six months .)

Other problems caused by pugging and compaction include more frequent and persistent surface ponding, as well as increased sediment, nutrient and effluent losses to waterways through surface run-off. It also takes longer for pugged or compacted pasture to recover after grazing and weed invasion often occurs in the bare sites pugging and compaction create.

Problems like these can be minimised by:
• reducing stock density, especially on sensitive paddocks like those that are wet
• not feeding out on sensitive paddocks
• constantly monitoring pugging and compaction during at-risk periods and moving stock off before damage occurs
• grazing the back of the paddock first.

Another important issue for soil health management and water quality is how animals are wintered.

Losses appear to be exacerbated by high density urine patches deposited at times of the year when plant growth rates are low and drainage is high (the types of conditions typical in winter). Consequently, on a per hectare basis, nitrogen leaching losses from grazed winter forage crops are high relative to losses measured under pasture.

*************

Bala Tikkisetty is a sustainable agriculture coordinator at Waikato Regional Council.

© Scoop Media

 
 
 
 
 
Parliament Headlines | Politics Headlines | Regional Headlines

 

PARLIAMENT TODAY:

  • Govt Probed Over Health & Safety
  • Questions and Answers 28-05-15
  • Week in Parliament 22-05-15
  • Saturday Sitting
  • House Rises At Midnight
  • Telco Levy Bill Passes
  • Telco Levy Bill Completes First Reading
  • Social Housing Bill Passes Under Urgency

  • Labour Party: McCully Doesn’t Deny Bribe In Saudi Sheep Scandal

    “In Parliament today I asked Murray McCully directly: Why is he the first Minister in history to back a multi-million dollar facilitation arrangement which in other jurisdictions is called a bribe? says Labour’s Export Growth and Trade spokesperson ... More>>

    ALSO:

    Welfare: Closure Of Relationships Aotearoa

    The Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) Chief Executive Lucy Sandford-Reed is concerned about the closure of a national service which provides a wide range of services to rural and urban communities throughout New Zealand. More>>

    ALSO:

    TPPA: University Of Auckland Warns Of Negative TPP Impact

    The University of Auckland May 20, 2015 University of Auckland Warns of Negative TPP Impact With the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiation drawing to a close, the University of Auckland has expressed serious concerns about its potential implications. ... More>>

    NZ Flag: Flag Referendum Gets Hit Hard In New Poll

    The latest Campbell Live text poll confirms it is time for the Prime Minister to listen to the public and shelve his flag referendum, says the New Zealand First Leader Rt Hon Winston Peters. More>>

    Gordon Campbell: The Government’s Belated Moves On Property Speculation

    Is it a property tax on capital gains or a capital gains tax on property? The Jesuitical distinctions in the government’s spin about its latest moves on property speculators are all about whether the government can claim that it jumped, or confess that it ... More>>

    Grant Robertson:
    Key Can’t Just Be Prime Minister For Parnell

    John Key must show New Zealanders in next week’s Budget that he is more than the Prime Minister for Parnell, and is also the Prime Minister for Pine Hill, Putararu and Palmerston North, Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson says. In a ... More>>


    Labour Party: More Regional Jobs Go In Corrections Reshape

    News that 194 Corrections staff are to lose their jobs will have ramifications not only for them and their families but for the wider community, Labour’s Corrections spokesperson Kelvin Davis says. Prison units at Waikeria, Tongariro and Rimutaka ... More>>

    ALSO:

  • NZ First - Prison Job Losses to Send Money Offshore
  • TPPA: ‘Team Obama’ Regroups On Fast Track, Still Not Deliverable

    ‘After yesterday’s stinging and unexpected defeat for the Obama administration’s attempt to advance Fast Track legislation in the US Senate, Senate leaders have worked up a compromise they think will get them past this blockage’, according to Auckland ... More>>

    NZ Government: 5,500 More Doctors And Nurses In Our Hospitals

    Health Minister Jonathan Coleman says a record number of doctors and nurses are working in District Health Boards across the country. More>>

    Controller and Auditor General: Katherine Rich Conflict of Interest Decision

    We are writing to you about a matter that has been raised with us by members of the public. More>>

    ALSO:

    Budget 2015: Andrew Little On The 2015 Budget

    Speaking to the Chamber of Commerce, the Labour opposition leader attacked the government’s approach to economic issues facing New Zealand. He said they have been “more than reckless in their complacency” and “the next week’s budget will do nothing ... More>>

    Defence Force: NZDF Building Partner Capacity Mission Personnel In Iraq

    NZDF Building Partner Capacity Mission Personnel in Iraq The New Zealand Defence Force Building Partner Capacity training mission contingent is in place at Taji Military Complex in Iraq. The Chief of Defence Force Lieutenant General Tim Keating says the ... More>>

    PM Press Conference: ACC Levy Cuts Announced

    In a press conference this afternoon in Wellington, ACC Minister Nikki Kaye proposed $500 million worth of ACC levy cuts. More>>

    Quakes: New Process For Red Zone Crown Offers

    Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee has announced a process to give everyone a say on the Crown offers to owners of vacant, commercial/industrial and uninsured properties in the Residential Red Zone. More>>

    ALSO:

    Get More From Scoop

     

    LATEST HEADLINES

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Regional
    Search Scoop  
     
     
    Powered by Vodafone
    NZ independent news