2001 Census Snapshot 16 - Iwi
Eighty percent of the 604,100 people of Mäori descent counted in the 2001 Census reported one or more iwi affiliations, according to Statistics New Zealand. The remaining 20 percent did not know the name(s) of their iwi. Ngäpuhi was the largest iwi, with 102,981 members, followed by Ngäti Porou, the next largest with 61,701 members. Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu, the fourth largest iwi overall, was the largest South Island iwi, with 39,180 affiliates.
The majority of the Mäori descent population lived in the North Island (86 percent), with one-quarter living in the Auckland region and a further 13 percent living in the Waikato region.
Most iwi members lived in urban areas in 2001, with proportions ranging from 88 percent for Te Atiawa to 81 percent for both Ngäti Awa and Tühoe.
Of the 10 largest iwi, Tühoe and Ngäti Tüwharetoa had the youngest populations, with 42 percent and 40 percent respectively under the age of 15 in 2001. The Mäori descent population overall is youthful, with 37 percent aged less than 15 years and only 3 percent aged 65 years and over, at the time of the 2001 Census.
The proportion of people of Mäori descent who reported that they were able to converse in te reo Mäori varied considerably by iwi. Of the 10 largest iwi, Tühoe (42 percent) had the highest proportion of people who could hold a conversation in te reo Mäori, while Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu (13 percent) had the lowest proportion.
In the 2001 Census, 604,110 people or 18 percent of the New Zealand population said they were of Mäori descent. This is an increase of 4 percent since the 1996 Census.
Four out of five people of Mäori descent (80 percent) reported one or more iwi affiliations. Of these people, 64 percent reported one iwi, 24 percent reported two iwi and 12 percent reported three or more iwi. People of Mäori descent living in the South Island were more likely to give single iwi responses than those in the North Island.
Twenty percent of the Mäori descent population (111,810 people) who answered the iwi question did not know the name(s) of their iwi. Young people were less likely to know their iwi than older people; 21 percent of the under-40 year age group did not know the name of their iwi compared with 14 percent of the 40 and over age group.
Membership of iwi varied across the different iwi groups. The 10 largest iwi in 2001 were:
Ngäti Porou 61,701
Ngäti Kahungunu(1) 51,552
Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu 39,180
Ngäti Tüwharetoa 29,301
Ngäti Maniapoto 27,168
Te Atiawa(2) 17,445
Ngäti Awa 13,044
(1) Includes Ngäti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa, Ngäti Kahungunu ki Heretaunga, Ngäti Kahungunu ki Wairarapa, Ngäti Kahungunu region unspecified, Ngäti Kahungunu ki Whanganui a Orotu, Ngäti Kahungunu ki Tamatea, and Ngäti Kahungunu ki Tamakinui a Rua.
(2) Includes Te Atiawa (Taranaki), Te Atiawa (Te Whanganui a Tara/Wellington), Te Atiawa ki Whakarongotai, Te Atiawa (Te Waipounamu/South Island), and Te Atiawa region unspecified.
Note that people could give more than one response.
As in 1996, Ngäpuhi was by far the largest iwi in 2001, with 102,981 members. Almost 1 in 4 (23 percent) of the Mäori descent population who stated an iwi were affiliated to Ngäpuhi.
Ngäti Porou was the second largest iwi with 61,701 members in 2001. Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu, the fourth largest iwi overall, was the largest South Island iwi with 39,180 affiliates. No other South Island or Chatham Island iwi recorded more than 2,500 members in the 2001 Census.
The Mäori descent population is a youthful population overall. In 2001, 37 percent of the Mäori descent population were aged less than 15 years, and only 3 percent were aged 65 years and over. Of the 10 largest iwi, Tühoe and Ngäti Tüwharetoa had the youngest populations.
Forty-two percent of Tühoe and 40 percent of Ngäti Tüwharetoa were under the age of 15 years in 2001. By contrast, Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu and Te Atiawa each had the lowest proportion of people under 15 years of age – both 35 percent.
One-quarter of the Mäori descent population lived in the Auckland region, and a further 13 percent in the Waikato region. In total, 86 percent of the Mäori descent population lived in the North Island.
Of Mäori affiliated to North Island-based iwi, most lived in the North Island, although considerable numbers did not live in their tribal area or rohe. For example, just 19 percent of Ngäti Porou, an East Coast-based iwi, lived in the Gisborne region. Fifty-six percent of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu, a South Island-based iwi, lived in the South Island.
The majority of iwi members lived in urban areas in 2001. For the 10 largest iwi, proportions living in urban areas ranged from 88 percent (Te Atiawa) to 81 percent (Ngäti Awa and Tühoe).
2. Social Characteristics
Of those people of Mäori descent who stated that they were able to speak a language, the proportion who were able to converse in te reo Mäori varied considerably by iwi. Of the 10 largest iwi, Tühoe (42 percent) and Ngäti Awa (36 percent) had the highest proportions of people who could hold a conversation in te reo Mäori, compared with 20 percent of Te Atiawa and 13 percent of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu members.
The two most common religions reported by the Mäori descent population were Anglican (15 percent) and Catholic (14 percent). Eight percent of Mäori descendants stated an affiliation with the Ratana religion and a further 2 percent with the Ringatü religion. Of the 10 largest iwi, members of Ngäti Tüwharetoa (18 percent) and Ngäti Kahungunu (13 percent) were most likely to affiliate with Ratana. Tühoe (18 percent) and Ngäti Awa members (16 percent) had the highest proportions of members who stated Ringatü as their religion.
In 2001, 59 percent of the Mäori descent population aged 15 and over held a formal educational qualification. Of the 10 largest iwi, members of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu and Te Atiawa had the highest proportion of members with a qualification (70 and 68 percent respectively).
Sixty-nine percent of adults of Mäori descent were in the labour force in 2001. Labour force participation rates varied between 72 percent (Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu) and 68 percent (Ngäpuhi) among the 10 largest iwi. The lowest unemployment rate was for Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu (10 percent).
One in five adults of Mäori descent said they had worked without pay for organisations or groups such as marae in the four weeks prior to the 2001 Census. Participation in this type of voluntary work ranged from 28 percent of Ngäti Awa and 26 percent of Tühoe members to 21 of Ngäpuhi and 20 percent of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu members.
Just over one-third (35 percent) of the Mäori descent population aged 15 years of age and over owned their own home in 2001 (with or without a mortgage). The proportion of homeowners in the 10 largest iwi ranged from 45 percent of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu members to 27 percent of Tühoe members.
Most people of Mäori descent (90 percent) lived in households with access to a telephone and 29 percent had Internet access. Of the 10 largest iwi, members of Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu and Te Atiawa were most likely to have household access to a telephone (96 percent and 94 percent respectively), while Tühoe members had the lowest level of household telephone access (84 percent). Ngäi Tahu/Käi Tahu had the highest proportion of members living in households with access to the Internet (40 percent).
These results come from the 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings conducted by Statistics New Zealand.
This release and other 2001 Census releases, along with additional information, are available free on the Statistics New Zealand website: www.stats.govt.nz, under "Census 2001". You are welcome to reproduce and publish this information provided you acknowledge Statistics New Zealand as the source. The counts for this 2001 Census Snapshot are taken from tables prepared for a series of topic-based reports that have been published since 28 March 2002.
The counts for this 2001 Census Snapshot are taken from tables prepared for the Iwi report published 19 November 2002.
To discuss the availability of further information from the 2001 Census or other collections, contact our Information Centre by telephoning: Auckland 09 920 2100 Wellington 04 931 4600 Christchurch 03 964 8700 or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
The seventeenth and final 2001 Census Snapshot – Families and Households – will be published on 29 November 2002.