News Video | Policy | GPs | Hospitals | Medical | Mental Health | Welfare | Search

 


Antimicrobial resistance in animals in New Zealand

Antimicrobial resistance in animals in New Zealand

Antibiotics have revolutionised health care both in humans and animals. Their use has reduced pain and suffering, prolonged lives and allowed for procedures (such as complex surgeries) which would not be achievable without them. However, there is increasing discussion internationally and locally about antimicrobial resistance.

There are a number of speakers presenting on this topical issue at the 2014 New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Conference, being held at Claudelands, Hamilton, from Monday 16 to Friday 20 June.

On Wednesday 18 June
• 11am, Stephen Page, Antimicrobial resistance – The big picture.
• 11.40am, Kate Hill – NZ situation of antimicrobial resistance in companion animals.
• 1.10pm, Andy Millar – NZ situation of antimicrobial resistance in large animals.

On Thursday 19 June
• 8.30am, Scott McDougall – What do we know about antimicrobial resistance in dairy cattle?
• 10am, Scott McDougall – Current prescribing for mastitis.

The following four papers are summarised below.

1 Antimicrobial resistance – companion animals in New Zealand
Kate Hill, PhD Candidate Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University
Wednesday 18 June, 11.40am.

Considerable attention has focussed on the agricultural use of antimicrobials as a potential public health risk due to the possible evolution and maintenance of drug resistant bacteria. However, more recently, the transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria between people and their pets has been receiving increased attention due to the extremely close relationships people can develop with their domestic pets, and the increase in the standard of veterinary care available.

Currently little is known about MDR bacteria in companion animal populations in NZ. Hill cites, for instance a study by Karen Cooper, Paws, Claws and Udder Things, Gribbles Veterinary Pathology Laboratory which looked at MRSA having been recognised as causing infections in cats and dogs in New Zealand, with seven MRSA isolated in Waikato veterinary diagnostic laboratory in 2005/6. The seven isolates were all of the same strain, which had originally arrived in New Zealand with medical personnel from the UK, and which is now one of the most common hospital-associated strains here.

Hill concludes that the close proximity of humans to dogs and cats, in that many are allowed to sleep in the bedroom, means that transmission of bacteria from people to pets and the reverse is most likely occurring in New Zealand.

She says the veterinary profession must strive to fill the knowledge gap surrounding antibacterial resistance in dogs and cats in New Zealand.

2. Antimicrobial resistance in New Zealand: the situation in production animals
Andy Millar, Synlait Farms Ltd, Rakaia
Wednesday 18 June, 1.10pm

Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a politically charged subject, and (in addition to impacts on animal welfare and human health) has significant potential to impact on our position on the global market.

Millar argues that domestically, the agricultural sector needs to maintain community licence to operate, and there is a need to assure the general public that use of antimicrobials in production animals is justified and that the risk of AR is being managed appropriately.

He says overall results from New Zealand surveys indicate the current state of AR in New Zealand farm animals is relatively good.
• The levels of resistance in production animals are similar or lower than those reported overseas.
• There is no evidence of increasing prevalence of resistance in food producing animals.
• There is a very low prevalence of resistance to antibiotics of most importance to humans.
• The levels of resistance were lower than in human isolates of the same species over the same time period.
• Antibiotic use, particularly in our pasture based systems, is lower than more intensive systems used in other parts of the world.

Millar says “this is an enviable position to be in and one we should work hard at to maintain.”
The interlinkage of the human ‘microbiome’ with each other and with animals and the environment yields an extremely complex system. Within this, various pathways of transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AR) have been described, yet the level of contribution of these mechanisms to AR in humans is unknown.

He says there remains limited information regarding the prevalence of AR in the production animal population, and there is even less work describing any association between the husbandry procedures used within our farming systems and the emergence of AR. He says accurate understanding of the risk of AR within and emanating from our livestock requires quantitative epidemiological data.

Currently we have information on sales (sales reported) of antimicrobials, patterns of antibiotic resistance in target pathogens, and some purposive survey data investigating resistance in pathogenic bacteria and well as indicator commensal species.

He examines current monitoring activities. Isolates from very young bobby calves, pigs and broiler poultry and Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterococci were included in a 2011 MAF survey.

3. What do we know about antimicrobial resistance in dairy cattle?
Scott McDougall, Cognosco, Anexa Animal Health, Morrinsville.
Thursday 19 June, 8.30am

McDougall’s paper discusses understanding of antimicrobial resistance in dairy cattle and looks at a number of studies here in New Zealand and overseas.
He finds the risk of common bovine pathogens (particularly mastitis pathogens, firstly developing resistance, and secondly being transferred to the human population) appears relatively low.

Use of antimicrobials requires management to reduce these risks. In reaching this conclusion he cites antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programmes, such as:
• The recent collaboration between ESR and veterinary laboratories to identify Salmonella strains of enteric and commensal pathogens.
• Reports over the past 20 years assessing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle in New Zealand.

4. Current prescribing for mastitis
Scott McDougall, Cognosco, Anexa Animal Health, Morrinsville
Thursday 19 June, 10am (Dairy cattle stream)

Mastitis is the major indication for use of antimicrobials in dairy cows, with about 85% of doses prescribed for this reason. While there is limited evidence of emerging antimicrobial resistance associated with this prescribing, good stewardship principles suggest that prescription should be based on high probability or evidence of presence of bacterial infection, known sensitivities, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the product being used and likely compliance.

McDougall examines the efficacy of therapies citing studies conducted in New Zealand assessing bacteriological cure rates following treatment of clinical mastitis and use of dry-cow therapy of dairy. He says this gives us confidence around some of the actives currently available on the market.

ENDS

© Scoop Media

 
 
 
 
 
Culture Headlines | Health Headlines | Education Headlines

 
Scoop Review Of Books: Q&A: Prue Hyman On ‘Hopes Dashed?’

For Scoop Review of Books, Alison McCulloch interviewed Prue Hyman about her new book, part of the BWB Texts series, Hopes Dashed? The Economics of Gender Inequality More>>

Gordon Campbell: On Chuck Berry (And James Comey, And Bill English)

Back when many people were still treating rock’n’roll as a passing fad – was calypso going to be the new thing? – Chuck Berry knew that it had changed popular music forever. What is even more astonishing is that this 30-ish black r&b musician from a middle class family in St Louis could manage to recreate the world of white teenagers, at a time when the very notion of a “teenager” had just been invented. More>>

Howard Davis Review:
The Baroque Fusion Of L'arpeggiata

Named after a toccata by German composer Girolamo Kapsberger, L'Arpeggiata produces its unmistakable sonority mainly from the resonance of plucked strings, creating a tightly-woven acoustic texture that is both idiosyncratic and immediately identifiable. Director Christina Pluhar engenders this distinctive tonality associated with the ensemble she founded in 2000 by inviting musicians and vocalists from around the world to collaborate on specific projects illuminated by her musicological research. More>>

African Masks And Sculpture: Attic Discovery On Display At Expressions Whirinaki

Ranging from masks studded with nails and shards of glass to statues laden with magical metal, the works are from ethnic groups in nine countries ranging from Ivory Coast to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. More>>

Obituary: Andrew Little Remembers Murray Ball

“Murray mined a rich vein of New Zealand popular culture and exported it to the world. Wal and Dog and all the other Kiwi characters he crafted through Footrot Flats were hugely popular here and in Australia, Europe and North America." More>>

ALSO:

Organised Choas: NZ Fringe Festival 2017 Awards

Three more weeks of organised chaos have come to an end with the Wellington NZ Fringe Arts Festival Awards Ceremony as a chance to celebrate all our Fringe artists for their talent, ingenuity, and chutzpah! More>>

ALSO:

Wellington.Scoop: Wellington Writer Wins $US165,000 Literature Prize

Victoria University of Wellington staff member and alumna Ashleigh Young has won a prestigious Windham-Campbell Literature Prize worth USD$165,000 for her book of essays Can You Tolerate This? More>>

ALSO:

Scoop Review Of Books: We’re All Lab Rats

A couple of years ago, there were reports that Silicon Valley executives were sending their children to tech-free schools. It was a story that dripped of irony: geeks in the heart of techno-utopia rejecting their ideology when it came to their own kids. But the story didn’t catch on, and an awkward question lingered. Why were the engineers of the future desperate to part their gadgets from their children? More>>

  • CensusAtSchool - Most kids have no screen-time limits
  • Netsafe - Half of NZ high school students unsupervised online
  • Get More From Scoop

     
     

    LATEST HEADLINES

     
     
     
     
    Health
    Search Scoop  
     
     
    Powered by Vodafone
    NZ independent news