News Video | Policy | GPs | Hospitals | Medical | Mental Health | Welfare | Search


New Approach Needed to Identify Vulnerable Children Earlier

Growing Up in New Zealand study: Report Suggests New Approach to Identify Vulnerable Children Earlier

Auckland, 21 July 2014 – Routinely collected health data on pregnant women could be used in a better way to identify ‘at risk’ children earlier and more effectively, according to a new report from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study released today.

Exploring the Definition of Vulnerability for Children in their First 1000 Days’” evaluates how commonly New Zealand children experience twelve family and environmental risk factors that have previously been shown to increase the chances that children will have poor developmental outcomes. These factors are routinely recorded by health professionals in New Zealand during the antenatal period, and include being born to a teenage mother, living in overcrowded accommodation, and having parents who receive an income-tested benefit.

The twelve risk factors have previously been considered for European populations as a tool to assess early vulnerability in children - however this is the first time they have been evaluated together for their applicability in the New Zealand context using information collected from a cohort of almost 7,000 New Zealand toddlers in their first two years of life. The ethnicity and socio-demographic characteristics of these children and families are broadly generalisable to those of all children being born in New Zealand today.

“Whether a child is considered ‘at risk’ and likely to have a poor developmental outcome later in life is often based on just a single factor, such as maternal depression, having a teenage mother or growing up in poverty” explains Growing Up in New Zealand Director Associate Professor Susan Morton. “However, one risk factor on its own is not sufficient to define which children are most vulnerable. Our analysis found that in reality these single risk factors tend to cluster, and that we may be in a better position to understand which children and families need the greatest support in early life if we consider combinations of factors, rather than single risk factors.”

To identify families who could benefit from early intervention Dr Morton suggests implementing a ‘check-list’ approach to assess how many of the twelve risk factors children are exposed to, even before they are born, rather than relying on a single marker of risk or waiting for a child to develop signs of poor early development.

“Additional support could be provided to families experiencing more than three of the twelve risk factors, regardless of which risk factors they are exposed to, for example.”

The advantage of using the twelve risk factors described in this report to determine the risk for vulnerability is that they are criteria that are already routinely measured by health professionals during the antenatal period.

“We already collect the information required from families in routine health checks, especially during pregnancy, so potentially this routine information could be used to classify the level of support a family receives when their child is born.”

The report also found that Māori and Pacific children tend to be exposed to a greater number of risk factors for vulnerability than New Zealand European or Asian children, and that exposure to multiple risk factors increases the likelihood that children will experience poor health outcomes during their first 1000 days of development.

“By nine months of age we already see increased rates of ear infections and more serious respiratory illnesses requiring hospitalisation in children who have been exposed to clusters of risk factors for vulnerability from the time they were born,” says Dr Morton.

The report also describes a higher incidence of low birth weight infants, a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding beyond the first month of life, and more incomplete immunisations for infants born to mothers exposed to greater vulnerability during their pregnancy.

Future reports in the ‘Vulnerability and Resilience’ series will address how the exposure to vulnerability risk factors affects children’s cognitive outcomes, education, socialisation and behaviour as they grow older, and evaluate why some children seem more resilient to negative outcomes than others, despite growing up in family structures and neighbourhoods that appear comparably disadvantaged.

“Not all children who are exposed to multiple risk factors for vulnerability will have poor outcomes. If we can understand what characteristics of their parents, families, communities and environments are likely to promote resilience in the face of exposure to these risk factors we will be able to develop more effective programmes to optimise early life wellbeing and support good outcomes for all our New Zealand children,” says Dr Morton.

The twelve risk factors used for defining vulnerability in the cohort:
1. Teenage pregnancy (Young maternal age)
2. Mother with no formal secondary school qualifications (Maternal education)
3. Maternal depression
4. Poor maternal physical wellbeing in late pregnancy
5. Mother smoking regularly/daily during and after pregnancy
6. Mother with no current partner (Relationship status)
7. Reporting highly stressful money problems (Financial stress)
8. Living in a decile 9 or 10 NZDep 2006 area
9. Mother actively seeking work but not currently working (Unemployment)
10. Living in public rental accommodation
11. Having two or more persons on average per bedroom (Overcrowding)
12. Being in receipt of an income tested government benefit

Click here for the full report.

About Growing Up in New Zealand
Growing Up in New Zealand is a longitudinal study tracking the development of approximately 7,000 New Zealand children from before birth until they are young adults. The study has collected detailed multidisciplinary information about children’s early development and reflects the ethnical diversity of today’s pre-school children.

Growing Up in New Zealand is designed to provide unique information about what shapes children’s early development in contemporary New Zealand and how interventions might be targeted at the earliest opportunity to give every child the best start in life.

Early information from the study provides insight into areas like vulnerable children, housing, breastfeeding/early solids, immunisation, languages, early childhood education, interaction with health and other key services, paid parental leave and maternal return to the workforce.

Growing Up in New Zealand is University of Auckland-led research and funded by multiple government agencies. The government contract for the study is managed by the Families Commission.


© Scoop Media

Culture Headlines | Health Headlines | Education Headlines


13/10: 40 Years Since The Māori Land March Arrived At Parliament

Traffic into Wellington came to a standstill as thousands of Māori and Pākehā streamed along the motorway into the capital on 13 October 1975, concluding the Māori land march to parliament. More>>


Scoop Review Of Books: Before The Quakes

Remembering Christchurch: Voices from decades past: The Christchurch I lived in for my first 23 years was where four-year-olds walked alone to kindergarten, crossing roads empty of all but a couple of cars per hour. My primary school, Ilam, was newly built on a grassy paddock surrounded by rural land... More>>

6-11 October: New Zealand Improvisation Festival Hits Wellington

Wellingtonians will have a wide selection of improv to feast on with a jam packed programme containing 22 shows, three companies from Australia, two companies from Auckland, one from Nelson, one from Christchurch and seven from Wellington. More>>


Bird Of The Year: New Zealanders Asked To Vote For Their Favourite Native Bird

Te Radar, David Farrier, Heather du-Plessis Allan and Duncan Garner are just some of the New Zealanders championing their favourite native bird in Forest & Bird’s annual Bird of the Year competition, which kicks off today.. More>>


Werewolf Film: It Follows - Panic In Detroit

Philip Matthews: When you heard last month that Wes Craven had died and you wanted to pay homage, you could have sat down with any one of five of his films that helped reinvent American horror at least three times over three decades... Or you could just have watched one of the greatest recent horror films that would probably not exist without Craven. More>>


Werewolf Music: Searching For The White Wail - On Art Pepper, etc

If the word ‘hipster’ means anything – which it arguably doesn’t – it seems to be more of an impulse than a condition. One always headed for the margins, and away from the white-bred, white-bread mainstream... More>>


Get More From Scoop



Search Scoop  
Powered by Vodafone
NZ independent news