India's Concept Of Non-Violence And Gandhi
India's Concept Of Non-Violence And Gandhi
By Dr. Ravindra Kumar
India is a great country. Its greatness is not in name only. India is an ancient civilization; its harmonious and composite culture is thousands of years old. India has been a leading nation in the fields of spirituality, science and arts for centuries; it has been accepted as a Jnana-Guru of the world. India brought the gift of the greatest, unique and adaptable concept of universal acceptance to the world; it gave the slogan of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam to humanity. Furthermore, India gave so many matchless learned men, the Jagatgurus, representing different branches of knowledge. The Light of Asia, Gautama Buddha, and the greatest initiator of Ahimsa, Mahavira, were born on Indian soil.
Indias greatness also lies in the fact that its land welcomed and offered refuge to all human beings from different parts of the globe. It did not matter if these people had their own religious-community, faith, traditions or values; after reaching Indian soil they received a permanent abode without any discrimination. Resultantly, the followers of the worlds six major religious-communities dwell in India today as well as people belonging to other religious-communities.
Besides national language Hindi, twenty-one regional languages are recognized by the Indian Constitution. However, one thousand six hundred eighteen languages are spoken by the people on a local level throughout India; these dialects are the medium of day-to-day practices of the commonmen. Furthermore, descendants of six ethnic groups are in India. Indian people celebrate twenty-nine major religious festivals. All those who stay on Indian soil are Indians; they are wayfarers of the Indian Way.
The Indian soil welcomes all. Indians see the image of God in a guest. Providing hospitality is one of the main characteristics of the Indian Way. The one who desired a permanent home on the Indian land not only received permission, but received opportunities to march forward on the way to progress as well. Those who assimilated Indias values reached the heights of prosperity and became her own forever. Parsees-the followers of Spitama Zoroaster who reached India from Iran approximately one thousand five hundred years ago-are the living proof of this.
Those who could not fully assimilate Indian values for whatever reason also became part of the Indian Way. However, they did find themselves isolated; and they still find themselves in this same situation today. In comparison to others, they are far behind in development. It is indeed a good lesson to be learnt by those who desire advancement while staying on the Indian soil.
India and Non-Violence
Non-Violence [Ahimsa], which is the first human value, is also a perpetual and natural value. It has played a vital role in Indias greatness, especially from the perspective which I previously discussed. It is Ahimsa which accorded dynamism in the lives of Indians. It directs their day-to-day behaviours in such a manner that they can ensure their own existence; their conflicts-inevitable in daily life-are transformed and resolved. Furthermore, it has given ever new dimensions to the process of cooperation; the outcomes of which are present in the form of unprecedented and unending development in various walks of life
Now, prior to discussing India and Ahimsa in-depth, it is necessary for us to clarify the meaning of it and the main Indian concepts pertaining to it.
In Jainism Ahimsa has been analyzed minutely. The Twenty-Fourth Jain Tirthankara, Mahavira, gave a unique dimension to Ahimsa via his own humanely practices-making it a subject of self-control, pure conduct and discipline. It is for this reason I have called him the greatest initiator of Ahimsa. The essence of Jain Ahimsa lies in the following words, Complete aloofness from Himsa [violence] is Ahimsa.
Clearly, Jainism brings Ahimsa within that comprehensive and extensive scope in which common mans entry is quite difficult. In it the smallest form of violence is accountable. Every form of violence, big or small, committed by a human being knowingly or unknowingly is worthy of consideration. Therefore, it is not possible for everyone to follow Jainisms brand of Ahimsa in the practical sense. Moreover, the Jain Ahimsa is completely based upon negative concepts pertaining to it. For this reason it also becomes impractical for the commonmen and can only be practiced by an initiator of anew age like Mahavira himself.
The Vedic [Hindu] Philosophy, which directs day-to-day practices of most Indians on the basis of guidelines, decided by the Vedas, especially the Rig-Veda itself, considers Ahimsa to be an evil-free Dharma. Of course, this Dharma establishes itself in the form of duty as well as goodness. Therefore, along with not harming anyone by thought, speech or deed, and not depriving someone of life, relying for support of violence to maintain order and to accord justice is the basis of Vedic Ahimsa.
Although like Jainism, Buddhism also emphasizes upon self-control, but generally it is not in favour of any such appeal which becomes impractical for the commonmen, as far as the application of Ahimsa in daily routines by commonmen is concerned. Body-control, word-control and mind-control are the means of violence-control; they are the means of developing non-violence. Gautama Buddha called upon humanity to develop non-violence on this basis. He communicated the message of making Karuna [compassion] the basis of maximum possible human practices a vehicle through which non-violence can develop in all walks of life.
Some five hundreds years ago, another religious philosophy, known as the Sikh, arose on the Indian soil. As the Sikh philosophy came into existence in accordance with the Indian traditions and like Gautama Buddha, outlet of its founders and developers was also from the followers of Vedic religious-community, this philosophy also had deep impact of Vedic philosophy on it. Like Buddhism it accorded its due place to Ahimsa. All Sikh Gurus, and Guru Nanak Dev in particular, emphasized upon pure and virtuous humanly deeds and self-control to pave the way for developing Ahimsa in mans daily practices. Furthermore, like Buddha who conformed to the prevailing conditions of his time by making compassion the basis of developing Ahimsa, Guru Nanak, the first Sikh Guru, made harmony the basis of non-violence during his time and motivated people to regulate their actions according to it.
The four common points which we find in the context of non-violence in the four chief philosophies established and developed in India that played vital roles in making India great by strengthening the Indian Way are as follows:
1. Within the domain of non-violence are all living beings;
2. In spite of being eternal, natural and the first human value, it is a subject of practice according to the demands of time and space;
3. It is an active value; it has nothing to do with cowardice as it is an ornament of the brave; and
4. It is not a subject to be practiced occasionally; in theory and in practice it is all-timely
Non-Violence and Gandhi
All the above four points which are present almost with unanimity in four major philosophies which were established and developed in India-Vedic-Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh-can easily be found in the Gandhian concept pertaining to non-violence. And, I would go to the extent of saying all the above four points are present overall in Gandhis ideas and practices-the centre of which is non-violence. Gandhi brought a good harmony among all Indian concepts pertaining to Ahimsa. This clearly indicates that Gandhian non-violence is an excellent introduction to the Indian concept of Ahimsa overall. If someone desires to know and understand non-violence in India, he should do so by understanding the Ahimsa of Mahatma Gandhi.
Accepting those Rishis greater geniuses and warriors than Newton and Wellington who discovered the rule of Ahimsa in the primitive age, Gandhi declared non-violence to be an active force. Gandhi proved on several occasions that Ahimsa is not the meek submission before the will of the wrongdoer; rather Ahimsa is a fight using soul-force against the will of a tyrant which ultimately yields victory. In this regard through his own non-violent actions, he astonished the whole world.
For centuries it was the opinion of many in the world that Ahimsa was a subject limited to hermits or cave-dwellers. They believed that it was an individual matter and could be applied in the religious sphere only. Gandhi, however, shattered this myth. He used Ahimsa in the political sphere and proved that it could be successfully applied in all walks of life and at all levels-individual to international-so long as the appliers intention is clear and full of honesty.
Gandhi spoke of achieving victory over the injustices of the worlds mightiest empire through the non-violent actions of the individual. And as we know from history, his ambition was achieved. For confirmation, the whole series of events pertaining to Indias freedom struggle [1920-42] under his own leadership is before us.
In fact, for the first time in history, Gandhi added a new dimension to Ahimsa in theory and practice by working to unite the commonmen. He established non-violence as a means which could be most effective in the political sphere. By doing so, although he accepted not hurting anyone by own thought, utterance and deed and not depriving of someone of life to be the supreme spirit of Ahimsa, but made the intent behind the act the acid test of it. Hence, he removed the doubt that Ahimsa is a subject beyond the reach of the masses.
Mahatma Gandhi clarified the eternality of non-violence, and spoke of its naturalness before the commonmen. He expected the whole world and Indians in particular to be as warriors and develop non-violence to the maximum possible extent. People should apply Ahimsa in their behaviours, ensuring their own personal freedom while securing freedom for all citizens of the world.
Indians have been capable of achieving this goal; history proves this fact. The main reason for Indias capability is its peoples commitment to non-violence. During the course of his non-violent actions Mahatma Gandhi too believed this, and on the basis of this he stated, India attracts me. It has everything that a human being with the highest possible aspirations can want.
Being an ancient civilization India has maintained its special place in the world; today has its own identity and role to play. Without a doubt, India must march forward with the eternal and natural value of Ahimsa at its centre. By plying its role in international affairs it must lead the world, and on the basis of Mahatma Gandhis following message it must transform the slogan of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam into reality:
I feel that Indias mission is different from that of others. India is fitted for the religious supremacy of the world. There is no parallel in the world for the process of purification that this country has voluntarily undergone. India is less in need of steel weapons, it has fought with divine weapons, it can still do so. Other nations have been votaries of brute force.India can win all by soul force. Poets have sung about it and seers have described their experiences.