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Survey reveals export education challenges

7 November, 2002 Media Statement

Survey reveals export education challenges

A survey of English language provision for international students shows New Zealand faces important challenges in maintaining its reputation as a provider of high quality export education, Education Minister Trevor Mallard said today.

“It’s important we retain and enhance our reputation as a provider of top-notch export education, but the survey I’m releasing today reveals that quality is variable across the billion-dollar industry,” Trevor Mallard said.

Initiatives are underway to address issues highlighted in the survey, including a resource on cross-cultural awareness and guidelines for teachers in schools.

The proposed export education industry levy and fund is also aimed at addressing the issues with teacher recruitment and qualifications that the survey also highlights, Trevor Mallard said.

Submissions on a recently-released discussion document on the export education industry levy close on November 15.

“While the Government has responsibility for English language provision for migrant and refugee students, providing for the rapid growth in the numbers of full fee paying students should rest with providers themselves,” Trevor Mallard said.

The survey, conducted for the Ministry of Education, reported on the types of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) programmes and the support offered by providers, staffing issues, and practice relating to ESOL governance, business planning and marketing.

“Providers that enrol international students as their core business, such as established language schools, appear most likely to have quality policies and procedures for ESOL provision. But those with few international students or who are new to the industry are less likely to have established polices and practices.”

The survey shows that apart from the majority of private language schools, many providers do not have business plans or policies for English language provision.

“This is concerning, but I expect the position to improve significantly over the next year through the professional development programmes that are now available for schools and tertiary providers, and the ESOL guidelines for schools that are to be published this year,” Trevor Mallard said.

REPORT FOLLOWS...

A Census of Providers of ESOL Programmes

for International Students

Volume 1

Overview Report

August 2002

A Census of Providers of ESOL Programmes

for International Students

Volume 1

Overview Report

August 2002

Contents

Preface 4

1. Introduction and objectives 5

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 Objectives 5

2. Methodology 6

3. Main findings 7

3.1 Overview 8

3.2 Schools 10

3.3 Tertiary institutions 19

3.4 English language schools/centres 25

Fileref: g:\client(a-e)\education\esol survey\reporting\final\esol survey_final_vol 1.doc

Preface

This Overview Report presents the results of the Census of Providers of ESOL Programmes to International Students.

It should be read in conjunction with the reference volumes for the report:

Volume 2 - Complete Reference Report of Findings from the Census.

Volume 3 - Verbatim Responses to Open-ended Questions.

1. Introduction and objectives

1.1 Introduction

Significant rates of growth are being recorded in the number of foreign fee-paying (FFP) international students undertaking study in New Zealand. This growth is and continues to be experienced by both the public and private sectors.

For example, between 1993 and 2000, the numbers of FFP students increased by 384% in primary schools (from 208 to 1,006), 258% in secondary schools (from 1,748 to 6,254), and 191% in public tertiary institutions (3,945 to 11,498) .

In order to provide a better information base of the industry, the Ministry of Education commissioned BRC Marketing & Social Research to conduct a census of providers of ESOL programmes for international students. These providers included primary and secondary schools, community education facilities, universities, polytechnics, English language schools, (other) private training establishments (PTEs), colleges of education, and wananga. This information base will, in turn, be used to inform the development of policy and practices relating to fee-paying international students studying in New Zealand.

This report presents the results of this census conducted between 23 May 2002 and 28 June 2002.

1.2 Objectives

Given the purpose of the survey, the questionnaires were designed primarily to collect the following information:

- Various indicators of industry size.

- Types of English language programmes and support offered by providers.

- Staffing resource and various issues relating to capability and capacity.

- Provider practice relating to ESOL governance/business planning.

- Provider practice relating to marketing and the provision of ESOL information.

2. Methodology

In order to ensure the data presented in this report are representative of the industry, the research process commenced with the building of a database of possible providers. Key sources of information for this database included the Ministry of Education and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority.

The Ministry of Education initially estimated that approximately 800 providers would be listed on the database. However, by the end of this stage, over 1,000 were listed. The initial database was made up as follows:

Total number of providers

with international students

Number %

Schools 653 64

Community education facilities 67 7

International student office of tertiary institutions 169 17

Language schools and language centres within

tertiary institutions 126 12

Total 1,015 100

To confirm contact details for these providers and identify the individual within each organisation who best qualified to participate in the survey, BRC interviewers contacted each organisation by telephone in order to obtain this information.

Self-completion questionnaires developed by the Ministry of Education were subsequently mailed to the identified person within each provider organisation. Some pre-survey publicity was undertaken in order to introduce the survey.

Reminder letters and calls were made to all respondents in order to maximise the response to the survey. By the final cut-off date for returns, 584 questionnaires had been returned, which is 58% of the total number initially sent.

This response rate needs to be considered in the light of the “environment” in which the questionnaires were sent (viz. the announcement of a government levy on education providers enrolling international students, the industrial dispute in secondary schools, and other Ministry of Education requests such as those in relation to the Code of Practice), and the perception of some providers that the time allowed for the completion and return of questionnaires was too short.

3. Main findings

In considering the main findings of the census, it is important to bear in mind the following limitations:

- The database of possible providers (which was compiled from different sources) was the best possible database at the time of the survey.

- Despite the formative work undertaken by the Ministry of Education to develop and “pre-test” the questionnaires for the survey, some issues arose during the completion of the survey that were managed as best as possible at the time. These issues included evidence that some respondents misinterpreted some of the questions and some providers feeling that all or parts of the questionnaire did not apply to them/their sector.

- Given the “environment” in which the questionnaires were sent, the overall response rate of 58% is a reasonable rate of response. A total of 61% of schools and 53% of the international students offices in tertiary institutions returned questionnaires. The response rate for English language schools was lower at 44%.

3.1 Overview

The following sections list the main finding by sector: schools, (the international student offices of) tertiary institutions , and English language schools/centres (language centres are those within tertiary institutions).

Key results relating to the industry as a whole are as follows.

- There is a significant number of providers.

„« A total of 545 providers with international students (in 2001) responded to this census.

„« This comprises 421 schools, 74 tertiary institutions, and 50 English language schools/centres.

- The English language schools/centres dominate the industry.

„« Although the English language schools/centres are the smallest sector by number, they had the largest numbers of international students enrolled in 2001, with a mean of 464 students enrolled. This compares to a mean of 135 students enrolled in tertiary institutions (academic, mainstream, or vocational programmes) and a mean of 20 students in schools.

„« As a result of applying these averages, English language schools/centres are estimated to account for 56% of the total population of international students enrolled with all providers nationwide. Tertiary institutions are estimated to account for 24% and schools 20% of the total international student population.

- Significant numbers of staff are involved in providing ESOL programmes.

„« Given the number of students enrolled in English language schools/centres, it is not surprising that these providers employed considerably greater numbers of ESOL staff (in 2002) - an average of 26.4 ESOL staff, compared to an average of 2.4 in schools.

„« By applying these averages, we estimate that 57% of all ESOL staff in schools and English language schools/centres nationwide are employed in English language schools/ centres. (Note that the international student offices of tertiary institutions were not asked about their staffing.)

- Some staff are not formally qualified.

„« While most of the ESOL staff employed by English language schools/centres in 2002 held formal TESOL qualifications, on average only about half of ESOL staff in schools were TESOL qualified.

- There appears to be an insufficient supply of suitably qualified staff.

„« Significant numbers of providers (over half of English language schools/centres and over a third of schools) reported difficulty in recruiting teachers with TESOL qualifications.

- There may be some staff development issues.

„« The large majority (82%) of school respondents and almost all (94%) of the English language schools/centres indicated that their ESOL staff had, in the past two years, participated in some form of professional development in ESOL or NESB.

„« However, ESOL staff in English language schools/centres had had more extensive professional development opportunities than ESOL staff in schools.

„« A third (33%) of English language schools/centres and a quarter (24%) of schools rated it “difficult” or “very difficult” to access professional development opportunities in TESOL for their ESOL staff.

- Providers, particularly schools, would benefit from more guidance from the Ministry of Education.

„« The majority (71%) of school respondents and two-fifths (40%) of English language schools/centres respondents thought it would be useful to have guidelines relating to ESOL for international students.

„« School respondents often mentioned the need for more information, guidance, and/or professional support.

3.2 Schools

Nearly two-fifths of provider schools had only 1 to 5 international students

- Of all schools (including community education facilities), most had either 1 to 5 (38%) or 6 to 20 (32%) international students in 2001 (Table 1).

- The mean number of international students in schools was 20, which is the lowest of all the providers surveyed.

Table 1: Number of international students by provider type

S1, Q2. In 2001, how many full fee-paying international students were enrolled (in all programmes, not only English language programmes) in your organisation?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=421 n=206 n=201 n=12*

% % % %

1 to 5 international students 38 54 21 25

6 to 20 international students 32 36 27 42

21 to 50 international students 21 10 33 8

51 or more international students 9 - 18 17

No response <1 - <1 8

Total

Mean 100

20 100

8 100

31 100

62

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 7 in Volume 2 of this report.

- The large majority (80%) of school respondents indicated that their international students made up 5% or less of the total school population.

Almost all provider schools provided English language programmes and support

- Almost all (96%) provider schools provided some kind of English language programmes and support for international students in 2001.

- A diverse range of English language programmes and support was provided by schools. The most frequent of these were “withdrawal ESOL” (63%) and “in-class support” (60%). (Table 2.)

Table 2: English Language programmes and support by provider type

S3, Q1. What English Language programmes and support were available at your organisation in 2001 for international students?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=421 n=206 n=201 n=12*

% % % %

No English Language support or programmes available in 2001 4 4 3 -

Full-time English Language 19 12 24 42

Part-time English Language 28 17 36 67

ESOL option 48 22 76 25

Withdrawal ESOL 63 81 48 8

IELTS preparation programme 28 - 57 33

TOEFL preparation programme 8 - 16 -

Computer Assisted Learning 17 14 20 8

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) 8 <1 16 -

In-class support 60 73 49 33

Subject-specific tutoring (in English/bilingual) 17 10 24 8

Individual assignment support 30 13 48 17

Private tuition 16 10 23 8

Other 8 7 9 8

No response 2 1 1 8

Total ** ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 54 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Three-quarters (76%) of all the schools also had programmes and support for New Zealand resident students.

- In 60% of schools, their ESOL programmes for international students were “totally integrated” with their ESOL programmes for New Zealand resident students.

- The large majority (83%) of the secondary schools provided guidance to their international students on prerequisites for tertiary study. (None of the primary schools provided such guidance.)

The large majority of schools assessed the English language capability of their international students

- The large majority (83%) of schools reported assessing their international students for their English language capability.

- Of those who did assess their students, 84% said that this was done “after enrolment/on arrival”.

- Most schools who assessed international students reported this was done by an “ESOL specialist” (65%).

- The large majority of schools indicated that these assessments focused on the students’ “listening” (79%), “speaking” (87%), “reading” (83%), and “writing” (82%) abilities, with “vocabulary” (62%) focused on to a slightly lesser extent.

- The factors that schools most commonly took into account (either to “a large extent” or to “a very large extent”) when considering when to place students in the mainstream were the “age group” of the students (51%), their “level of English” (48%), and the “experience of teachers” (38%). However, over a third (35%) of school respondents (predominantly primary schools) pointed out that their students were mainstreamed straight away.

- At the time of assessment, an average of 76% of the international students in schools were reported to have English language levels at the “beginner” or “elementary” level (Table 3).

Table 3: English language levels at time of assessment by provider type

S2, Q4. In your opinion, what were the English language levels of these international students when they were first assessed?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=336 n=156 n=171 n=7*

Mean % Mean % Mean % Mean %

Beginner level 42 66 21 30

Elementary level 34 26 42 28

Intermediate level 19 5 30 35

Advanced level 5 2 7 8

Total 100 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 122 in Volume 2 of this report.

Nearly half of schools had cross-cultural awareness programmes

- Nearly half (48%) of provider schools had cross-cultural awareness programmes to help integrate international students (Table 4).

Table 4: Cross-cultural awareness programmes by provider type

S4, Q1. Does your organisation have any formal or informal programmes (beyond those incorporated in English Language teaching programmes) to develop cross-cultural awareness to help integrate international students?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=421 n=206 n=201 n=12*

% % % %

Yes 48 32 67 25

No 49 64 31 67

No response 3 4 2 8

Total 100 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 131 in Volume 2 of this report.

- These cross-cultural programmes in schools involved working with “international students” in 92% of cases. Also in a majority of cases, they involved working with “domestic NESB students” (70%) and “other domestic students” (73%) (Table 5).

Table 5: Students for cross-cultural programmes by provider type

S4, Q2. Which of the following do these programmes involve working with?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=203 n=66 n=134 n=3*

% % % %

International students 92 86 95 67

Domestic NESB students 70 85 63 67

Other domestic students 73 77 72 33

No response 2 6 1 -

Total ** ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 134 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Cross-cultural awareness programmes for international students most commonly involved some kind of language or cultural exchange including contributions to social studies units (25%), an orientation programme or activities (23%), and an International or Cultural Week or similar event (23%). Also common was a buddy system or peer tutoring (19%).

- Similarly, the programmes for domestic NESB students most commonly included language or cultural exchange including contributions to social studies units (30%), an International or Cultural Week or similar event (26%), a buddy system or peer tutoring (22%), and an orientation programme or activities (15%).

- Cross-cultural awareness programmes involving other domestic students most commonly involved some kind of language or cultural exchange, particularly social studies units where students learnt about the countries of origin of their fellow students (34%), a buddy system or peer tutoring, as the tutors/mentors (31%), and an International or Cultural Week or similar event (23%).

- The majority (71%) of schools indicated that they used the understandings or knowledge of their international students in the curriculum.

- These understandings and knowledge were most commonly used in “cultural exchange” activities or programmes and also, though to a lesser extent, in “language exchange” activities.

Schools employed an average of 2.4 ESOL staff

- The mean number of ESOL staff employed in schools at the time of the survey was 2.4 staff. On average, these comprised 0.8 permanent part-time, 0.7 permanent full-time, 0.6 non-permanent part-time, and 0.2 non-permanent full-time staff (Table 6).

Table 6: ESOL staff by provider type

S5, Q1. How many staff does your organisation currently employ to teach ESOL or provide specialist ESOL support?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=406 n=198 n=195 n=11*

Mean Mean Mean Mean

Permanent full-time staff 0.7 0.3 1.1 0.5

Non-permanent full-time staff 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.6

Permanent part-time staff 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.1

Non-permanent part-time staff 0.6 0.5 0.6 3.6

Total mean 2.4 1.7 2.8 5.9

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

The number (n) of schools in each column on which the calculations are based is the number of responses to the question, including those who answered “”.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 163 in Volume 2 of this report.

- On average, schools reported that 1.1 of their ESOL staff had no formal TESOL qualifications.

- Other than ESOL specialists, people in schools who most commonly worked with international students to actively support their English language development were the “teacher aide” (54%) and “parents/caregivers” (30%).

- A third (35%) of provider schools reported employing staff who shared the same language and/or culture as their international students.

Over a third of schools found it difficult to recruit teachers with TESOL qualifications

- Over a third (37%) of schools reported that it was difficult to recruit teachers with TESOL qualifications, but 25% of schools said they “[didn’t] know” how easy or difficult it was.

- Only 9% of schools reported having specialist ESOL vacancies at present, and these schools had an average of 1.4 vacancies. However, 39% of schools reported that, when hiring mainstream subject teachers, they look for people with the background and/or experience to teach NESB students.

- Although 18% of school respondents indicated that they provided “no initial preparation” to new mainstream teachers to assist them to teach NESB students, 61% indicated that they provided “background information and resources” and 41% had “staff meetings”.

- The large majority (82%) of school respondents indicated that their ESOL staff had, in the past two years, participated in some form of professional development in ESOL or NESB. Most commonly these staff had participated in “externally provided professional development programmes” (61%) (Table 7).

Table 7: Professional development by provider type

S5, Q8. While employed by your organisation, which of the following ESOL or NESB professional development programmes, courses, or opportunities have ESOL staff participated in in the past two years?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=380 n=181 n=189 n=10*

% % % %

No professional development programmes 8 10 5 20

In-house professional development 35 39 31 30

Externally provided professional development programmes 61 47 77 20

Seminars, workshops, etc. with guest speakers 38 25 50 30

Short courses 31 30 31 30

Courses leading to nationally recognised ESOL qualifications 32 22 42 40

Other 3 2 3 10

No response 10 11 7 30

Total ** ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is taken from Table 211 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Regarding professional development in the past two years for mainstream staff, school respondents most commonly indicated that they had participated in “in-house professional development” (40%).

- While nearly a third (31%) of schools rated it “easy” or “very easy” to access professional development opportunities in TESOL for their ESOL staff, a quarter (24%) rated it “difficult” or “very difficult”.

- However, regarding accessing professional development opportunities in TESOL for their mainstream staff, only 15% rated it as “easy” or “very easy”, compared to 30% who rated as “difficult” or “very difficult”.

Over half of schools had a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision

- Over half (53%) of schools reported having a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision for international students.

- Of those who had a policy or plan, schools were most likely to include a “budget” (82%), “pastoral support/care objectives” (80%), the “physical and emotional environment for students” (67%), “student number goals” (65%), and “attendance requirements” (64%) (Table 8).

Table 8: Aspects of policy by provider type

S6, Q2. If your organisation has a formal policy or business plan, which of the following are included in this policy or plan?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=225 n=83 n=138 n=3*

% % % %

Budget 82 66 91 100

Facilities/property 45 33 52 100

Student number goals 65 41 80 67

Staff number goals 25 8 35 33

Staff-student ratio goals 36 28 41 67

Staff qualification goals 32 13 41 100

Staff development objectives 35 25 41 33

Physical and emotional environment for students 67 54 74 100

Pastoral support/care objectives 80 60 93 67

Marketing and promotion 47 11 68 67

Attendance requirements 64 31 83 100

Other 16 20 14 -

No response 3 6 1 -

Total ** ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 229 in Volume 2 of this report.

The majority of schools provided information relating to ESOL to prospective international students

- While nearly a fifth (19%) of schools indicated that they provided “no information” relating to ESOL to prospective international students, 77% did provide such information. Two-thirds (66%) of the schools indicated that they provided information about the “English language support available” (Table 9).

Table 9: Marketing information by provider type

S7, Q1. What information relating to ESOL is provided to prospective international students wishing to enrol in your organisation?

All schools with ffp students Primary/

intermediate school Secondary/

composite school Community education facility

n=421 n=206 n=201 n=12*

% % % %

No information 19 29 7 8

English Language requirements 28 3 53 42

English Language support available 66 50 84 33

English Language assessment procedures 23 7 38 33

Other 14 16 10 33

Not applicable - don’t actively market to international students # 2 3 1 8

No response 4 6 2 8

Total ** ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

# This option was not given in the questionnaire, but was created later to categorise respondents’ comments.

This table is the same as Table 242 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Under a third (30%) of schools provided translations of this information.

- The languages that schools most commonly translated the information for prospective students into were “Korean” (65%), “Traditional Chinese” (44%), and “Simplified Chinese” (42%).

The majority of schools thought ESOL guidelines would be useful

- The majority (71%) of school respondents thought it would be useful to have guidelines relating to ESOL for international students.

- The most common suggestions on what those guidelines should include were assessment guidelines, procedures, or tools (22%), programme guidelines or a course outline (19%), more resources or support material, including kits, best practice models, examples, a reference materials (15%), and guidelines regarding entry requirements and enrolment of international/NESB students in schools (11%). In addition, 15% of respondents (mostly secondary school respondents) expressed the need for curriculum guidelines, achievement standards, and/or a national curriculum for ESOL.

Schools often expressed the need for more help or information regarding ESOL provision

- Regarding additional information and suggestions, schools most commonly said that they needed more information, guidance, or professional development (28%), described the (good) things that they were doing or indicated that they thought they were doing a good job (14%), and mentioned the need for a curriculum for ESOL (13%).

- Other comments school respondents made most commonly raised funding issues, particularly those to do with a perceived lack of funding (22%), issues with students’ English language levels on entry into the school (18%), difficulties getting appropriately qualified staff or accessing training opportunities for them (14%), difficulties faced with having large numbers of students or rapid growth in student numbers (14%), and that they needed more help, support, resources, information, or guidelines (13%).

3.3 Tertiary institutions

Nearly two-fifths of provider tertiary institutions had only 1 to 5 international students

- Among the tertiary institutions (international student offices), the largest proportion (39%) had only 1 to 5 international students enrolled in 2001. (Table 10.)

- The mean number of international students enrolled in tertiary institutions in 2001 was 135.

- There were marked differences between public tertiary institutions and private tertiary organisations in the numbers of international students enrolled.

Table 10: Number of international students by provider type

S1, Q2. In 2001, how many full fee-paying international students were enrolled (in all programmes, not only English language programmes) in your organisation?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students Public tertiary institution Private tertiary organisation

n=74 n=24* n=50

% % %

1 to 5 international students

39

4

56

6 to 20 international students

24

13

30

21 to 50 international students

11

21

6

51 or more international students

24

58

8

No response 1 4 -

Total

Mean 100

135 100

354 100

35

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 15 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Over half (54%) of tertiary institutions indicated that their international student population constituted 5% or less of their total student population.

Over half of provider tertiary institutions provided ESOL programmes or support

- The largest proportion (39%) of the tertiary institutions did not provide any ESOL programmes or support in 2001 for international students enrolled in their academic, vocational, or mainstream programmes; however, 56% did provide such programmes.

- The types of programme or support that were most commonly available were “in-class support” (34%), “individual assignment support” (28%), and “English for Academic Purposes (EAP)” (24%) (Table 11).

Table 11: English Language programmes and support by provider type

S3, Q1. What English Language programmes and support were available at your organisation in 2001 for international students?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students Public tertiary institution Private tertiary organisation

n=74 n=24* n=50

% % %

No English Language support or programmes available in 2001

39

13

52

Full-time English Language 19 42 8

Part-time English Language

20

42

10

ESOL option 11 25 4

Withdrawal ESOL 1 4 -

IELTS preparation programme

16

42

4

TOEFL preparation programme

3

8

-

Computer Assisted Learning

9

21

4

English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

24

54

10

In-class support 34 29 36

Subject-specific tutoring (in English/bilingual)

14

13

14

Individual assignment support

28

42

22

Private tuition 20 25 18

Other 19 38 10

No response 5 - 8

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 57 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Under a third (32%) of tertiary providers also offered ESOL programmes for New Zealand resident students. However, more public tertiary institutions (67%) than private tertiary organisations (16%) provided such programmes.

- A majority (63%) of tertiary institutions indicated that their ESOL programmes for international students were “totally integrated” with their ESOL programmes for New Zealand resident students.

- Nearly half (45%) of tertiary institutions that had assessed their international students for their English language capability indicated that none of these students had undertaken a bridging course prior to commencing their academic or vocational studies. However, over a quarter (28%) indicated that 1% to 50% of the international students had undertaken a bridging course.

The majority of tertiary institutions assessed the English language capability of their international students

- The majority of tertiary institutions (72%) reported assessing international students for their English language capability.

- In tertiary institutions, the person who typically undertook the testing was most commonly the “academic staff in the department(s) concerned” (43%) or an “authorised IELTS/TOEFL administrator” (25%). (Only 6% reported that assessment was conducted by an “ESOL specialist”.)

- The majority of tertiary institutions indicated that these assessments focused on the students’ “listening” (83%), “speaking” (75%), “reading” (74%), and “writing” (68%) abilities.

- At the time of assessment, an average of only 19% of the international students in tertiary institutions were reported to have English language levels at the “beginner” or “elementary” level, while an average of 36% were reported to be at the “advanced” level (Table 12).

Table 12: English language levels at time of assessment by provider type

S2, Q3. In your opinion, what were the English language levels of these international students when they were first assessed?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students Public tertiary institution Private tertiary organisation

n=49 n=20* n=29*

Mean % Mean % Mean %

Beginner level 3 2 4

Elementary level 16 14 17

Intermediate level 46 39 51

Advanced level 36 46 29

Total 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 125 in Volume 2 of this report.

Two-fifths of tertiary institutions had cross-cultural awareness programmes

- Two-fifths (39%) of the tertiary institutions indicated that they had cross-cultural awareness programmes to help integrate international students (Table 13).

Table 13: Cross-cultural awareness programmes by provider type

S4, Q1. Does your organisation have any formal or informal programmes (beyond those incorporated in English Language teaching programmes) to develop cross-cultural awareness to help integrate international students?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students Public tertiary institution Private tertiary organisation

n=74 n=24* n=50

% % %

Yes 39 50 34

No 47 46 48

No response 14 4 18

Total 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 140 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Cross-cultural programmes in tertiary institutions predominantly involved working with “international students” (93%), and in fewer cases involved working with “domestic NESB students” (45%) and “other domestic students” (55%) (Table 14).

Table 14: Students for cross-cultural programmes

S4, Q2. Which of the following do these programmes involve working with?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students

n=29*

%

International students 93

Domestic NESB students 45

Other domestic students 55

No response -

Total **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 143 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Among these tertiary institutions (n=26), cross-cultural awareness programmes that involved international students most commonly included orientation programmes or activities (58%).

- Similarly, cross-cultural awareness programmes in tertiary institutions (n=13) that involved domestic NESB students most commonly included orientation programmes or activities (38%).

- Tertiary institutions that had cross-cultural awareness programmes involving other domestic students (n=16) most commonly included in these programmes some kind of orientation programme or activities (19%), a buddy or peer support system (19%), and activities to raise cultural awareness (19%).

- Over half (55%) of the tertiary institutions indicated that they used the understandings and knowledge of their international students in the curriculum.

- These understandings and knowledge were most commonly used in “cultural exchange” activities or programmes.

Over a quarter of tertiary institutions had a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision

- Over a quarter (28%) of tertiary institutions reported having a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision for international students enrolled in their academic, vocational, or academic programmes. Public tertiary institutions (50%) were more likely than private tertiary organisations (18%) to have such a policy or plan.

- Of the tertiary institutions who had a policy or plan, the items most likely to be included were “pastoral support/care objectives” (95%), “marketing and promotion” (90%), “attendance requirements” (86%), and a “budget” (82%) (Table 15).

Table 15: Aspects of policy

S5, Q2. If your organisation has a formal policy or business plan, which of the following are included in this policy or plan?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students

n=21*

%

Budget 81

Facilities/property 67

Student number goals 71

Staff number goals 52

Staff-student ratio goals 76

Staff qualification goals 62

Staff development objectives 67

Physical and emotional environment for students 67

Pastoral support/care objectives 95

Marketing and promotion 90

Attendance requirements 86

Other 10

No response -

Total **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 235 in Volume 2 of this report.

Two-thirds of tertiary institutions provided information relating to ESOL to prospective international students

- While a fifth (20%) of tertiary institutions indicated that they provided “no information” relating to ESOL to prospective international students, 66% did provide such information. Two-thirds (66%) of the schools indicated that they provided information about the “English language requirements” at their institution (Table 16).

Table 16: Marketing information by provider type

S6, Q1. What information relating to ESOL is provided to prospective international students wishing to enrol in your organisation?

All tertiary institutions with ffp students Public tertiary institution Private tertiary organisation

n=74 n=24* n=50

% % %

No information 20 8 26

English Language requirements

66

88

56

English Language support available

36

67

22

English Language assessment procedures

28

50

18

Other 3 8 -

No response 14 4 18

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 251 in Volume 2 of this report.

- A quarter (25%) of tertiary institutions provided translations of this information.

- Tertiary institutions were most likely to translate their information for prospective students into “Simplified Chinese” (67%) and “Japanese” (60%).

Tertiary institutions did not identify any major problems or issues regarding ESOL provision

- Regarding additional information and suggestions, tertiary institutions (n=14) most commonly said that they were currently developing policies or their code of practice (29%) and noted that certain levels of English are necessary prior to enrolment in their institution (21%).

- Other comments respondents from tertiary institutions (n=23) made most commonly commented on issues with students’ English language levels (35%), said that they had no (real) problems or that everything was going well (35%), and said that students’ English language levels were less of a problem that their study skills or subject-related skills (17%).

3.4 English language schools/centres

Over a quarter of English language schools/centres had over 500 international students enrolled

- International students were enrolled on a much larger scale in the English language schools/centres. Overall, 28% of these organisations enrolled over 500 international students in 2001, while 32% had 101 to 500 students and 36% had 100 or fewer international students enrolled (Table 17).

- The mean number of international students in English language schools/centres was 464.

- Importantly, there are some differences between the English language schools/centres by region, with those in Auckland having significantly greater numbers of students (mean=686) than those in the rest of the country (mean=261).

Table 17: Number of international students by provider type

S1, Q2. In 2001, how many full fee-paying international students were enrolled (in all programmes, not only English language programmes) in your organisation?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=50 n=25* n=25*

% % %

1 to 100 international students 36 28 44

101 to 500 international students 32 28 36

501 or more international students 28 40 16

No response 4 4 4

Total

Mean 100

464 100

575 100

354

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 23 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Half (50%) of the respondents from English language schools/ centres indicated that the international students enrolled in 2001 constituted 100% of their student population, while 48% said these students were less than 100% of the population.

Almost all provider English language schools/centres schools provided full-time English language programmes

- A diverse range of English language programmes and support was provided by English language schools/centres. Almost all (98%) of these respondents indicated that they offered “full-time English language” for their international students. Aside from this, the most commonly available programmes and support were an “IELTS preparation programme” (80%), “part-time English language” (66%), and “English for Academic Purposes (EAP)” (58%) (Table 18).

Table 18: English Language programmes and support by provider type

S3, Q1. What English Language programmes and support were available at your organisation in 2001 for international students?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=50 n=25* n=25*

% % %

Full-time English Language 98 96 100

Part-time English Language 66 68 64

ESOL option 16 8 24

Withdrawal ESOL - - -

IELTS preparation programme 80 80 80

TOEFL preparation programme 14 28 -

Computer Assisted Learning 34 20 48

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) 58 40 76

In-class support 30 28 32

Subject-specific tutoring (in English/bilingual) 16 16 16

Individual assignment support 30 16 44

Private tuition 38 48 28

Other 24 28 20

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 60 in Volume 2 of this report.

- Over half (56%) of the English language schools/centres also provided ESOL programmes or support to New Zealand resident students.

- In 68% of English language schools/centres, their ESOL programmes for international students were “totally integrated” with their ESOL programmes for New Zealand resident students.

- Almost all (96%) of the English language schools/centres provided guidance to their international students on prerequisites for tertiary study.

Almost all English language schools/centres assessed the English language capability of their international students

- Almost all (96%) of the English language schools/centres reported assessing international students for their English language capability.

- Most English language schools/centres who assessed international students reported this was done by an “ESOL specialist” (65%).

- The majority of English language schools/centres indicated that these assessments focused on the students’ “listening” (79%), “speaking” (75%), “reading” (71%), “writing” (79%), and “grammar” (81%) abilities, with “vocabulary” (67%) focused on to a slightly lesser extent.

- At the time of assessment, an average of 46% of the international students in English language schools/centres were reported to have English language levels at the “beginner” or “elementary” level, although an average of 40% were reported to be at the “intermediate” level (Table 19).

Table 19: English language levels at time of assessment by provider type

S2, Q3. In your opinion, what were the English language levels of these international students when they were first assessed?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=45 n=23* n=22*

Mean % Mean % Mean %

Beginner level 12 16 8

Elementary level 34 34 34

Intermediate level 40 41 40

Advanced level 14 9 18

Total 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 128 in Volume 2 of this report.

The majority of English language schools/centres had cross-cultural awareness programmes

- The majority (70%) of the English language schools/centres had cross-cultural awareness programmes to help integrate international students (Table 20).

Table 20: Cross-cultural awareness programmes by provider type

S4, Q1. Does your organisation have any formal or informal programmes (beyond those incorporated in English Language teaching programmes) to develop cross-cultural awareness to help integrate international students?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=50 n=25* n=25*

% % %

Yes 70 68 72

No 30 32 28

No response - - -

Total 100 100 100

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 147 in Volume 2 of this report.

- These cross-cultural programmes in English language schools/ centres most commonly involved encouraging students to participate in extra-curricular activities including sports (37%), orientation programmes or activities (34%), and social events such as dinners (17%).

- The large majority (83%) of English language schools/centres indicated that they used the understandings or knowledge of their international students in the curriculum.

- These understandings and knowledge were most commonly used in “cultural exchange” activities or programmes.

English language schools/centres employed an average of 26.4 ESOL staff

- English language schools/centres employed a mean of 26.4 ESOL staff. On average, these comprised 12.8 permanent full-time, 7.3 non-permanent full-time, 3.1 permanent part-time, 2.9 non-permanent part-time, and staff (Table 21).

Table 21: ESOL staff by provider type

S5, Q1. How many staff does your organisation currently employ to teach ESOL or provide specialist ESOL support?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=49 n=25* n=24*

Mean Mean Mean

Permanent full-time staff 12.8 13.3 12.3

Non-permanent full-time staff 7.3 6.2 8.5

Permanent part-time staff 3.1 3.2 2.9

Non-permanent part-time staff 2.9 2.2 3.6

Total mean 26.4 25.0 27.8

Note: Components may not always add to 100% exactly because of rounding.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 184 in Volume 2 of this report.

- The most commonly held TESOL qualification among ESOL staff employed at English language schools/centres was an “RSA Certificate in TEFLA, Trinity College Certificate in TESOL, or similar”, which was held by an average of 12.8 staff as their highest TESOL qualification.

- Other than ESOL specialists, the staff member in English language schools/centres who most commonly worked with international students to actively support their English language development was a “counsellor” (61%).

- Almost all (96%) of the English language schools/centres reported employing staff who shared the same language and/or culture as their international students.

Over half of the English language schools/centres found it difficult to recruit teachers with TESOL qualifications

- Over half (57%) of English language schools/centres reported that it was difficult to recruit teachers with TESOL qualifications.

- One-third (33%) of English language schools/centres reported having specialist ESOL vacancies at present, with these providers having an average of 3.7 vacancies.

- Almost all English language schools/centres (94%) reported some form of induction for their new teachers, lectures, or tutors to assist them teach NESB students in the classroom. The large majority provided “staff meetings” (86%), “background information and resources” (80%), and “in-house professional development” (78%).

- Similarly, almost all English language schools/centres (94%) indicated that their ESOL staff had participated in some form of professional development in ESOL or NESB during the past two years. Most commonly these staff had participated in “in-house professional development” (88%), “seminars, workshops, etc with guest speakers” (71%), and “externally provided professional development programmes” (69%). In addition, 51% had participated in “courses leading to nationally recognised qualifications” (Table 22).

Table 22: Professional development by provider type

S5, Q8. While employed by your organisation, which of the following ESOL or NESB professional development programmes, courses, or opportunities have ESOL staff participated in during the past two years?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=49 n=25* n=24*

% % %

No professional development programmes 4 8 -

In-house professional development 88 84 92

Externally provided professional development programmes 69 60 79

Seminars, workshops, etc. with guest speakers 71 60 83

Short courses 33 20 46

Courses leading to nationally recognised ESOL qualifications 51 44 58

Other 29 16 42

No response 2 4 -

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 220 in Volume 2 of this report.

- While a third (33%) of English language schools/centres rated it “easy” or “very easy” to access professional development opportunities in TESOL for their staff, the same proportion (33%) rated it “difficult” or “very difficult”.

Almost all English language schools/centres had a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision

- Almost all (92%) of the English language schools/centres reported having a formal policy or business plan for ESOL provision for international students.

- Of those who had a policy or plan, English language schools/centres were most likely to include “marketing and promotion” (98%), “attendance requirements” (96%), and “staff-student ratio goals” (96%). However, each of the items listed in the questionnaire were included in a large proportion of respondents’ policies or business plans, and another five items were each included in 91% of these providers’ policies or business plans (Table 23).

Table 23: Aspects of policy by provider type

S6, Q2. If your organisation has a formal policy or business plan, which of the following are included in this policy or plan?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=46 n=23* n=23*

% % %

Budget 87 87 87

Facilities/property 91 96 87

Student number goals 89 87 91

Staff number goals 70 65 74

Staff-student ratio goals 96 91 100

Staff qualification goals 91 96 87

Staff development objectives 91 96 87

Physical and emotional environment for students 91 96 87

Pastoral support/care objectives 91 91 91

Marketing and promotion 98 96 100

Attendance requirements 96 96 96

Other 26 22 30

No response 2 4 -

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 239 in Volume 2 of this report.

Almost all English language schools/centres provided information relating to ESOL to prospective international students

- Only 6% of English language schools/centres indicated that they provided “no information” relating to ESOL to prospective international students - 94% did provide such information. The majority of English language schools/centres provided information to prospective international students on “English language requirements” (72%) and “English language support available” (70%) (Table 24).

Table 24: Marketing information by provider type

S7, Q1. What information relating to ESOL is provided to prospective international students wishing to enrol in your organisation?

All English language schools with ffp students Private English language school Language school/centre within tertiary

n=50 n=25* n=25*

% % %

No information 6 8 4

English Language requirements 72 64 80

English Language support available 70 64 76

English Language assessment procedures 58 56 60

Other 40 36 44

No response - - -

Total ** ** **

Note: Total may exceed 100% because of multiple response.

* Caution: low base number of respondents - results are indicative only.

This table is the same as Table 258 in Volume 2 of this report.

- The large majority (79%) of English language schools/centres provided translations of this information.

- The languages that English language schools/centres were most likely to translate their information for prospective students into were “Japanese” (76%) and “Korean” (62%), although translations in “Simplified Chinese” (51%) and “Traditional Chinese” (49%) were also common.

Two-fifths of English language schools/centres thought ESOL guidelines would be useful

- Two-fifths (40%) of English language schools/centres thought that it would be useful to have guidelines relating to ESOL for international students.

- The things that English language schools/centres (n=17) most commonly wanted to see included in any guidelines related to ESOL for international students were the levels of English required for tertiary study and expectations of tertiary institutions (24%) and pastoral care or homestay guidelines (24%).

Few English language schools/centres made additional comments regarding ESOL provision

- Of the small number of respondents from English language schools/centres (n=12) who gave additional information or suggestions relating to ESOL provision for international students, the most frequent type of comment was that more information needed to be provided for international students (25%).

- Of the English language schools/centres respondents (n=18) who made additional comments, 22% indicated they had difficulty in finding staff or in accessing ESOL training for staff, and 17% raised funding issues.


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