Video | Business Headlines | Internet | Science | Scientific Ethics | Technology | Search

 


Kiwi scientist helps find what makes cells different

March 27, 2014

Kiwi scientist helps find what makes cells different

Ever wondered why some part of your body get fat but others don’t? The answer lies in the many different types of cells we have in our bodies.

A global project that includes Massey University Albany lecturer in Bioinformatics and Genomics Dr Sebastian Schmeier is helping us to understand why cells act differently.

Different types of cells turn different genes on and off, and this gives the cells their unique properties. But understanding why different genes are on or off in a particular type of cell is a mystery that Dr Schmeier and collegues are working to understand.

All genes have central control regions, called promoters, that decide whether they are turned on or turned off. In a major breakthrough, the project on which Dr. Schmeier works, known as the FANTOM5 project, has identified the central control regions for all human genes.

“To understand why, for example, fat cells behave differently to brain cells, we need to know how different genes are turned on and off in different cells. The problem has been that the locations that control gene behaviour haven’t been known,” says Dr Schmeier. “Using a technology developed by RIKEN in Japan called Cap Analysis of Gene Expression, we have finally been able to find all these regions.”

This work, which has just been published in the prestigious journal Nature, will allow researchers to develop a much better understanding of how cell types differ.

The work will also help in the fight against diseases. “Many human diseases result from genes being inappropriately turned on or turned off,” says Dr Schmeier. “Identifying the regions that control these decisions will allow us to understand why this happens.”

Dr Schmeier worked with 250 researchers from over one hundred different institutes across the world on the project.

“My contribution was computational analysis of the data,” says Dr Schmeier. “Analysing huge datasets like those produced by RIKEN is becoming a major area of biology, and Massey University’s Albany campus has developed a real strength in this area. The publication in Nature is another demonstration of this.”

Scientific coordinator of FANTOM5 Dr Alistair Forrest says: “We are complex multicellular organisms composed of at least 400 distinct cell types. This beautiful diversity of cell types allows us to see, think, hear, move and fight infection, yet they all have the same genes. The difference between all these cells is which genes they use – for instance, brain cells use different genes than liver cells, and therefore they work very differently.

“In FANTOM5, we have, for the first time, systematically investigated exactly what genes are used in virtually all cell types across the human body and the regions which determine where the genes are read.”

The FANTOM (functional annotation of the mammalian genome) project is a RIKEN initiative launched in 2000 originally to build a complete gene catalogue with cDNA technologies.

FANTOM5 is the fifth stage of the project, and provides the first holistic view of the control of gene activity for the majority of cell types that make up a human. To do this, the RIKEN organisers recruited a multidisciplinary network of experts in cell biology and computational biology.

For more information on the project, go to http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/

ENDS

© Scoop Media

 
 
 
 
 
Business Headlines | Sci-Tech Headlines

 

BusinessDesk: APN's NZME Sees Future In Paywalls, Growth In Digital Sales

APN News & Media has touted a single newsroom concept for its NZME unit in New Zealand, similar to what Germany's Die Welt uses, saying an 'integrated sales proposition' is helping it win market share, including ... More>>

Labour Party: Global Milk Prices Now Lowest In 6 Years

The latest fall in the global dairy price has brought it to the lowest level in six years and shows there must be meaningful action in tomorrow’s Budget to diversify the economy, says Labour’s Finance spokesperson Grant Robertson. “Dairy prices ... More>>

BusinessDesk: NZ Inflation Expectations Creep Higher In June Survey

May 19 (BusinessDesk) - New Zealand businesses lifted their expectations for inflation over the next two years, sapping any immediate pressure on the Reserve Bank to cut interest rates, and prompting the kiwi dollar to jump higher. More>>

BusinessDesk: Lower Fuel Costs Drive Down NZ Producer Input, Output Prices

May 19 - Producer input and output prices fell in the first quarter, mainly reflecting lower fuel costs and weakness in prices of meat and dairy products. More>>

Media: Fairfax Media NZ Announces Senior Editorial Team

Fairfax Media New Zealand has today confirmed its new editorial leadership team, as part of a transformation of its newsrooms aimed at enhancing local and national journalism across digital and print. More>>

Science: Flavonoids Reduce Cold And Cough Risk

Flavonoids reduce cold and cough risk Research from the University of Auckland shows eating flavonoids – found in green tea, apples, blueberries, cocoa, red wine and onions – can significantly reduce the risk of catching colds and coughs. The research, ... More>>


BusinessDesk: RBNZ House Alert Speech The Catalyst For Government Action

Prime Minister John Key all but conceded that pressure from the Reserve Bank of New Zealand for concerted action on rampant Auckland house prices was one of the main catalysts for the government's weekend announcements about tightly ... More>>

BusinessDesk: How To Fall Foul Of The New Housing Tax Rules: Tips From IRD

Just because you rented out your investment property doesn't absolve you from paying tax, says the Inland Revenue Department in a summary of commonly made mistakes by non-professional property investors when it comes to their tax liability.More>>

Legal: Superdiversity Law, Policy And Business Stocktake Announced

Mai Chen, Managing Partner at Chen Palmer New Zealand Public and Employment Law Specialists and Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Auckland, today announced the establishment ... More>>

Housing: More House Price Gains Expected

House price expectations remain high, with a net 56% of respondents expecting house prices will increase. Fears of higher interest rates are fading, consistent with the RBNZ’s signals this year. Affordability and a lack of houses for ... More>>

TDDA: State-Of-The-Art Drug Testing Laboratory To Open In Auckland

World leading drug testing agencies, The Drug Detection Agency (TDDA) and Omega Laboratories, open New Zealand laboratory More>>

Network: Bigpipe Launches Ultra-Fast Broadband Into Wellington

Bigpipe Launches Ultra-Fast Broadband into Wellington Naked broadband provider Bigpipe has extended its national reach, announcing today, the launch of its unlimited UFB offering into Wellington. The Spark Venture business is giving Wellingtonians the ... More>>

Get More From Scoop

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sci-Tech
Search Scoop  
 
 
Powered by Vodafone
NZ independent news