Cablegate: Seventh Annual Trafficking in Persons (Tip)

DE RUEHUL #0587/01 0590833
R 280833Z FEB 07





E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: A. STATE 202745 B. 04 SEOUL 4843 C. 05 SEOUL 5240
D. 05 SEOUL 3880 E. 06 SEOUL 689 F. 06 SEOUL 1072
G. 06 SEOUL 4306 H. 06 SEOUL 4340 I. 04 SEOUL 6235
J. 06 SEOUL 1035 K. 06 SEOUL 4001 L. 05 SEOUL 5330

1. (U) Post's submission for the seventh annual
Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report follows.
Responses are keyed to questions in Ref A.


2. (SBU) The ROKG continued to make efforts to
fight trafficking in persons during the April 2006
to March 2007 reporting period. Government efforts
to educate the public and promote compliance with
the 2004 Anti-Prostitution/Anti-Trafficking Laws
(Ref B) helped raise awareness of prostitution and
trafficking as a crime (Ref C, D). Ministry of
Gender Equality and Family's (MOGEF) financial
support for NGOs helped further the development of a
legal and social infrastructure for victims of the
sex industry. Local law enforcement agencies and
Embassy officials cooperated closely in ongoing
investigations of visa brokers connected with
international trafficking. Government and NGOs
devoted substantial time and resources to anti-
prostitution and anti-trafficking programs. In
paragraph 53 below, we highlight the Ministry of
Labor's Employment Permit System (EPS) designed to
protect migrant workers in Korea for consideration
as an international best practice.

3. (SBU) Despite progress, the ROK remained a
source, transit and destination country for
trafficking in persons. The trafficking of Korean
women to the United States and elsewhere for sexual
purposes remained a serious problem. Labor
trafficking also posed a formidable challenge to the


4. (SBU) A. The ROK was a source, transit, and
destination country for women trafficked for the
purposes of sexual exploitation. Precise numbers of
trafficking victims remained unavailable. NGOs and
other observers continued to believe that the number
of Korean sex workers was substantial. Prostitution
occurred in a variety of settings, including glass-
front brothels, karaoke rooms, massage parlors, and
private night clubs ("room salons"). The government
reported that, as of May 2006, red-light districts
numbered 1,097, compared to 1,679 in September 2004.
However, some observers report that prostitution
activity may have shifted to more discreet settings,
including residential neighborhoods. Also,
solicitation increasingly took place on-line or
through cellular-phone text-messaging services.

5. (SBU) B. While women in the ROK sex industry
were overwhelmingly Korean, NGOs believed that
several thousand foreign women from Russia, China,
Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, Thailand,
and other countries in Southeast Asia were also

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involved. Observers told us that foreign women were
trafficked to the ROK through employment agencies,
travel companies, and international marriage brokers.
The ROK also issued E-6 visas ("entertainer visas")
to foreign entertainers to come for work in Korea.
Historically, many E-6 visa recipients had fallen
victim to trafficking upon their arrival in Korea.
Although the ROKG had dramatically reduced the
levels of E-6 visas due to these concerns, in 2005
they issued 4,759 visas, 2,381 to Philippine
nationals alone. (NOTE: Foreign women have
historically worked in neighborhoods surrounding U.S.
Forces Korea (USFK) base camps. USFK continued to
enforce its zero-tolerance policy toward
prostitution and other measures to fight
prostitution and human trafficking. During the
reporting period, the KNPA agreed to accompany USFK
"Courtesy Patrols" in all regions in Korea to
provide local law enforcement support to USFK in
order to question and detain any American soldier or
civilian employee suspected of purchasing sex from a
prostitute. Many clubs are changing the nature of
their trafficking from prostitution to debt bondage
requiring the foreign women to sell drinks to
soldiers and other patrons. END NOTE.).

6. (SBU) B. (Cont.) Traffickers used debt bondage
and threats of exposure to ensure compliance.
Victims accumulated debt as traffickers encouraged
them to borrow money for clothes, makeup,
accessories or rent. Victims accumulated further
debt through penalties for being late to work, being
sick, or committing other alleged infractions of
work rules. Some victims reported that they were
approached by friends or acquaintances and promised
easy and lucrative incomes. Others reported that
they approached employment agents who placed them in
cafes or other establishments where they were
compelled to provide sexual services. Korean
victims were predominantly young women in difficult
economic or social situations, often characterized
by family violence or broken families.
International victims were predominantly young women
from rural areas of Southeast Asia who were looking
for economic or marriage opportunities in Korea.

7. (SBU) B. (Cont.) Korean women were trafficked
to the United States, sometimes via Canada (where
Korean nationals may travel without a visa) or
Mexico. They also entered the United States on non-
immigrant visas, sometimes issued on the basis of
false documents. Korean women were also trafficked
to Japan, Hong Kong, Guam, Australia, New Zealand,
Canada and Western Europe. Several NGOs speculated
that the trafficking of Korean women overseas may
have increased since the enactment of the 2004

8. (SBU) B. (Cont.) Among the victims trafficked
to the United States with non-immigrant visas, a
growing number appeared to be traveling on student
visas. Post's Fraud Prevention Unit (FPU), working
in cooperation with local authorities, uncovered a
ring of fraudulent-document producers and visa
brokers who worked in the U.S., Korea and possibly
other Asian countries (Ref E). The brokers assisted
poorly qualified applicants to obtain real I-20
forms and fraudulent Korean university diplomas and

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transcripts. Upon arrival in the U.S., organizers
forced some Korean women to work in the sex industry
as strippers, prostitutes, or masseuses. To date,
there have been nine arrests of visa brokers as a
result of this ongoing investigation. In total, FPU
reported a total of 28 visa brokers/document forgers
were arrested last year, an increase of 33 percent
from 2005 (Refs F, G, H).

9. (SBU) B. (Cont.) The National Assembly, the
Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF), the
MOJ, the Korean National Police, and local police in
a number of jurisdictions demonstrated the political
will to address trafficking in persons. We look
forward to improved cooperation from the MOL as they
give more attention to the labor aspects of
trafficking in persons. In November 2004, the MOJ
at Embassy Seoul's request initiated a Trilateral
Working Group (TWG) to address in quarterly meetings
the trafficking of Korean women from the ROK into
the U.S. through Canada (Ref I). During the last
year, the MOJ convened the TWG meeting twice, once
in late March (Ref J) and once in November (Ref K).
During the meeting in November, the MOJ announced
the formation of a joint law-enforcement task force
that will work specifically on visa fraud and human
trafficking. Local USG law enforcement contacts
reported an increase in information sharing and
cooperation with the ROKG since the announcement.

10. (SBU) C. The government's main limitation
remained societal attitudes regarding prostitution.
While attitudes were changing, many Koreans still
regarded prostitution as a customary part of
business and social relations. Further, some sex
workers argued that they had a right to choose their
vocation, even if it was prostitution. The ROKG
devoted substantial resources to its anti-
prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts. In 2006,
the government spent 18.5 billion won (USD
18,950,000) on financial aid to victims and support
centers. Corruption was not reported to be a major

11. (U) D. The MOGEF engaged in efforts to monitor
its anti-trafficking programs and periodically made
available its assessments. In April, the MOGEF
released a comprehensive plan designed to integrate
international brides and mixed-race citizens into
Korean culture more effectively. Included in the
plan was an acknowledgement of concerns about
marriage brokers and suggested regulations that the
National Assembly could apply to these brokers. The
plan also included a number of provisions for
services and support for international brides and
mixed-race citizens.


12. (U) A. In 2006, the ROK acknowledged that
trafficking was a problem to the extent that foreign
women may be trafficked to areas surrounding
military camps and Korean women to the U.S. The MOL
has yet to acknowledge trafficking concerns in the
labor force, especially among foreign workers. The
MOL reported that over 1,800 migrant workers filed

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claims of delayed payment totaling 4.5 billion won
(USD 4.6 million), although the actual number of
employers who withheld payment was likely much
higher. Noting that there are an estimated 190,000
illegal migrant workers in Korea, the UN Special
Envoy on Human Rights of Migrants said it was likely
that many of these workers human rights were not
fully protected given their illegal status in the
country. During the parliamentary audit in October,
over 81 percent of foreign workers were found to
have been suffering from delayed payments, excessive
working hours, dangerous working conditions or
physical assault from employers.

13. (U) B. The following government agencies were
involved in anti-trafficking efforts: Ministry of
Justice; Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office; Korean
National Police Agency (KNPA); Ministry of Gender
Equality and Family (MOGEF); Ministry of Labor;
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Ministry of
Culture and Tourism; Maritime Police Administration;
and, the National Information Agency.

14. (U) C. The MOGEF managed a hotline that
provided English, Russian and Chinese interpretation
services and facilitated social, legal and medical
assistance for victims. The MOGEF carried out a
widespread public information campaign against
prostitution, placing 6,380 posters in 915 subway
and train stations in major cities. The MOGEF
coordinated a media campaign that included seminars
and movie and photo viewings to highlight the second
anniversary of the country's anti-prostitution/anti-
trafficking laws. The KNPA distributed educational
material to Korean and foreign women working in
entertainment venues on their rights and how to
report any abuses.

15. (U) D. The MOGEF sponsored various
occupational training and employment support
programs for women. The government also provided
women entrepreneurs with grants and low interest
loans. In addition, election laws provided that in
National Assembly elections, 50 percent of each
party's proportional representatives and 30 percent
of each party's geographic representatives must be
women. In March 2005, the National Assembly
eliminated the "hojuje," a household registration
system that made women legally subordinate to the
male family head.

16. (U) D. (Cont.) To help reduce the demand for
prostitution and human trafficking, the MOJ's
Probation and Parole Division created a "John
School" to educate men about the hidden costs of
prostitution (Ref L). Last year alone, over eleven
thousand men participated in the program, which was
a mandatory eight-hour class for first offenders
arrested for purchasing, or attempting to purchase,
sex. The curriculum included testimony from
trafficking victims, HIV/AIDS awareness, and other
social and health information. The government also
targeted military servicemen and reserve forces with
an anti-prostitution campaign.

17. (U) E. During the reporting period, the MOGEF
co-sponsored seminars with NGOs in four major
metropolitan areas. The government also continued

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to appoint an Ambassador-at-large for Women's Rights
who worked extensively on human trafficking issues
with civil society, NGOs and representatives from
other countries. The Ambassador was appointed for a
one year term by the MOFAT. (NOTE: See paragraph
52 for more information about the current Ambassador.

18. (U) F. The ROKG adequately monitored its
borders. Addressing a problem noted in previous TIP
reports, the government took measures to assert law
enforcement jurisdiction in the international
transit lounge of Incheon International Airport.
During the reporting period, immigration authorities
at Incheon intercepted 3,829 persons suspected of
traveling with fraudulent documents.

19. (U) G. Fourteen government ministries
coordinated their anti-trafficking efforts through a
task force that met twice during the reporting
period. The government, NGOs and police also have
joint consultative bodies in 12 regions to further
coordinate local efforts. In addition, the Korea
Independent Commission Against Corruption (KICAC)
worked to eliminate corruption in the government and
private sector.

20. (SBU) H. In 2003, the government created a
Planning Unit on the Prevention of Prostitution.
Its 12 members included government officials, three
academics, one clergyman, five NGO representatives
and one legal adviser. In March 2004, the Planning
Unit created a Master Plan on the Prevention of
Prostitution. The 2004 Anti-Prostitution/Anti-
Trafficking Laws were a main component of this plan.


21. (U) A. In September 2004, the ROKG implemented
legislation that specifically prohibited trafficking
in persons and established a network of support
resources for victims. The 2004 "Act on the
Punishment of Intermediating in the Sex Trade and
Associated Acts," provided for the punishment of
human trafficking for the purpose of the sex-trade
and authorized the seizure of money and property
acquired through trafficking. The law prohibited
the sex-trade; intermediating in the sex-trade;
human trafficking for the purpose of the sex-trade;
employing and recruiting others for the purpose of
selling sex, or introducing and intermediating work
with the knowledge that sex is traded; and
advertising for activities or an agency where the
sex-trade is carried out. The law provided that
sex-trade victims would not be subject to punishment
and would also be entitled to certain procedural
safeguards, such as closed trials. "Victims" under
this law were persons forced to sell sex by means of
deceptive schemes, force or drug use. Juveniles,
persons with serious disabilities and persons
trafficked for the purposes of the sex-trade were
also deemed victims. Further, monetary claims of
traffickers against victims were invalidated
regardless of the form or the pretext of the

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22. (U) A. (Cont.) Provisions of the Criminal Act
and the Special Criminal Act could also be used to
prosecute crimes related to trafficking in persons.
For example:

-- Kidnapping minors by force or deception was
illegal under Criminal Act Article 287 on Kidnapping
of a Minor and was punishable by imprisonment of up
to ten years;

-- Abuse of a person under one's protection or
supervision was illegal under Criminal Act Article
273 on Cruelty and was punishable by imprisonment of
up to two years or a fine of up to five million won
(USD 5,119). A person who delivered a child under
sixteen years of age who was under his protection or
supervision to a proprietor or agent who would
employ the child in work that was dangerous to life
or limb was illegal under Criminal Act Article 274
on Hard Labor by a Child and was punishable by
imprisonment of up to five years;

-- Kidnapping a person by force or deception for the
purpose of gain, transportation to a foreign country
or marriage was illegal under Criminal Act Article
288 and was punishable by imprisonment of no less
than one year, Article 289 (penal servitude of no
less than five years) and Article 291 (penal
servitude of up to five years);

-- Falsely arresting or illegally confining another
was illegal under Criminal Act Article 276 on False
Arrest/Illegal Confinement and was punishable by
imprisonment up to five years or a fine of up to
seven million won (USD 7,167) and by Article 277 on
Aggravated False Arrest/Aggravated Illegal
Confinement which provided for penal servitude of up
to seven years;

-- Intimidating another person was illegal under
Criminal Act Article 283 on Intimidation and
punishable by imprisonment of up to three years, or
a fine of up to five million won (USD 5,119);

-- Using violence against another was punishable by
Criminal Act Article 260 on Violence and was
punishable by penal servitude for no more than two
years or a fine of up to five million won (USD

-- Inflicting bodily injury on another was illegal
under Criminal Act Article 257 on Inflicting Bodily
Injury and was punishable by imprisonment of up to
seven years or a fine of up to 10 million won (USD

23. (U) A. (Cont.) In addition, the Labor
Standards Act prohibited forced labor, violence, and
illegal exploitation and provided for penalties of
imprisonment of up to five years or fines of up to
30 million won (USD 30,717). The Child Welfare Act
and the Youth Protection Act prohibited child abuse
and provided for imprisonment of up to ten years and
fines of up to thirty million won (USD 30,717). The
Immigration Control Act, the Passport Act, the
Employment Security Act, and the Act Relating to
Protection for Dispatched Workers also had

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provisions that prohibited crimes related to human

24. (U) B. In addition, penalties for human
traffickers were as follows:

-- A person who forced another by violence or
intimidation to sell sex was subject to imprisonment
of up to 10 years, a fine of up to 100 million won
(USD 102,385), or both;

-- A member of a criminal organization or group who
forced another by violence or intimidation to sell
sex was subject to imprisonment of at least one

-- a person who forced sex-trade on another by
detention or by showing group force was subject to a
prison term of at least three years;

-- a person who solicited sex-trade customers or
intermediated sex-trade jobs was subject to
imprisonment of up to three years, a fine of up to
30 million won (USD 30,717), or both;

-- a person who received compensation for
intermediating in the sex-trade as a business or
introduced or intermediated sex-selling jobs was
subject to imprisonment of up to seven years, a fine
of up to 70 million won (USD 71,668), or both;

-- a person who bought or sold sex services was
subject to a prison term of up to one year, a fine
of up to three million won (USD 3,071), or both.

25. (U) C. Punishment of Labor Trafficking
Offenses: Article 46 of the Employment Security Act
included penalties for a person who placed,
recruited or supplied labor, by means of violence,
threat, detention or unlawful restraint against
mental or physical freedom. The prescribed
penalties for trafficking for labor exploitation
were imprisonment for up to five years and fines up
to twenty million won (USD 20,476). Article 6 of
the Labor Standards Act stipulated that an employer
shall not force a worker to work against his own
free will through the use of violence, intimidation,
confinement or by any other means which unjustly
restrict mental or physical freedom. Employers who
violated this Article were subject to imprisonment
of up to five years and a fine of up to thirty
million won (USD 30,717).

26. (U) D. Under the Criminal Act, rape and
indecent act by compulsion were punishable by
imprisonment of three to ten years (Article 297,
298). Penalties for rape or sexual assault and for
sex trafficking were roughly equivalent.

27. (U) E. Prostitution in the ROK was illegal.
The 2004 "Act on the Punishment of Intermediating in
the Sex Trade and Associated Acts" provided for the
punishment of human trafficking for the purpose of
the sex-trade and authorized the seizure of money
and property acquired through trafficking. The law
prohibited the sex-trade; intermediating in the sex-
trade; human trafficking for the purpose of the sex-
trade; employing and recruiting others for the

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purpose of selling sex, or introducing and
intermediating work with the knowledge that sex is
traded; and, advertising for activities or an agency
where the sex-trade is carried out.

28. (U) E. (Cont.) Significantly, the 2004 law
provided that sex-trade victims would not be subject
to punishment and would also be entitled to certain
procedural safeguards, such as closed trials.
"Victims" under this law were persons forced to sell
sex by means of deceptive schemes, force or drug use.
Juveniles, persons with serious disabilities and
persons trafficked into the sex-trade were also
deemed victims.

29. (SBU) F. According to 2006 MOJ statistics, an
anti-prostitution crackdown in the fall booked the
names of over 13,000 individuals for investigation.
Of these, 2,001 individuals were indicted. A
similar crackdown was conducted in the summer months
with comparable results. In addition to the
prostitution crack downs, the MOJ reported that
there were 190 trafficking-related arrests during
the year. Of these 190 arrests, 36 were indicted
and 25 received sentences. Of the 25 who received
sentences, 2 were fines, 1 was dismissed, 1 was
referred to juvenile proceedings, and 21 were
sentenced to imprisonment. Of the 21 sentenced to
imprisonment, 10 received suspended sentences. For
those whose sentences were not suspended, the
remaining 11, the sentence of imprisonment ranged
from one year and three months to six years. The
average sentence was three years.

30. (SBU) G. Police sources said transnational
traffickers were based in the U.S., Korea, or
elsewhere in Asia. Most sources said that the
traffickers are individuals or small groups of
people working with similarly small groups in other
countries. There was increasing concern that some
international marriage brokers were using fraud in
their methods which may have put some women in a
trafficking situation, despite the honest intentions
of the marriage-seeking Korean husband. Many of
these brokers failed to provide accurate information
about either spouse, or a lack of qualified
interpretation prevented the couples from making
informed decisions when choosing a spouse. During a
visit to Korea in December 2006, the UN Special
Envoy on Human Rights of Migrants, Jorge Bustamante,
said that the international marriage phenomenon in
Korea had some of the characteristics of trafficking.
The ROKG had no information on crime organizations
involved in human trafficking cases and had no
evidence that profits made by transnational crime
organizations, travel agencies or marriage agencies
were transferred to terrorist groups, guerrilla
groups, judges or banks.

31. (SBU) H. The ROKG reported that it
investigated cases of trafficking using, to the
extent possible: emergency arrest, restraint,
search and seizure, communication intercepts,
location tracking via mobile phones, electronic
monitoring of credit cards and undercover
investigations. The MOL relied on its force of
labor inspectors to look out for possible
trafficking, but many employers at smaller companies

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still routinely withheld the passports of foreign
workers as a matter of habit. During the reporting
period, the MOL increased the number of inspections
by 18 percent to a total of 17,700 inspections.

32. (U) I. The Supreme Prosecutor's Office (SPO)
provided training at the Legal Research and Training
Institute to prosecutors focused on human
trafficking or crimes of violence, police
authorities who handled violent crimes, and others
who worked on anti-trafficking operations. The KNPA
also provided training on intelligence gathering and
investigative methods through courses offered at the
Police Comprehensive Academy and the National
Scientific Criminal and Investigation Laboratory.
Labor inspectors are trained to look for evidence of
forced labor.

33. (SBU) J. The ROKG cooperated with other
governments through the Act on International
Judicial Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters and
the Extradition Act. Police cooperated with the
Embassy during the course of international
trafficking and visa-broker investigations.
Following meetings in Washington in December, the
KNPA announced that they will send police officers
to work with the FBI in the United States on a task
force to combat human trafficking from the ROK. The
ROK also participated in international organized
crime prevention seminars in Japan and Kazakhstan
during the year.

34. (SBU) K. A criminal could be extradited to the
U.S. and the other 21 signatory nations of the
Extradition Act. Extradition to a non-signatory
country was possible through a mutual guarantee. To
date, no persons have been extradited for human

35. (U) L. There was no evidence of government
involvement in or tolerance of trafficking.

36. (U) M. There was no evidence of government
involvement in trafficking.

37. (SBU) N. Some NGOs have expressed growing
concern about Korean sex tourism to China, the
Philippines, Cambodia, Thailand, and elsewhere in
Southeast Asia. Although prosecutors had the
authority to bring extraterritorial charges of sex
crimes against Korean nationals, no charges were

38. (U) O. The ROK ratified ILO Convention 182
concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for
the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in
March 2001; the Optional Protocol to the Convention
on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children,
Child Prostitution and Child Pornography in
September 2000; and the Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
especially Women and Children, in December 2000.
The ROK has not signed ILO Conventions 29 and 105 on
forced labor.

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39. (U) A. The 2004 "Act on the Prevention of the
Sex Trade and Protection of its Victims," authorized
the establishment of assistance facilities and
counseling centers that would help sex-trade victims
reintegrate into society. In particular, the ROKG
would have to provide support facilities for victims,
including foreign victims, that would provide for
room and board, counseling, medical support, and
legal assistance. The law identified four types of
facilities: (1) general assistance facilities,
which provide board and housing for up to 18 months
and support the independence of sex-trade victims;
(2) juvenile assistance facilities, which provide
board and housing for up to one year and support the
independence of juvenile sex-trade victims through
school enrollment and education; (3) assistance
facilities for foreign women, which provide board
and housing for up to three months and support the
victims' return home; and (4) self-support
assistance centers, which provide job and technical
training, employment information and other social
adjustment services for sex-trade victims. Under
the law, state and local governments are also
authorized to establish counseling centers, which
would also engage in the rescue of sex-trade victims.
In 2006, there were 25 general shelters, 16 shelters
for teenage victims, three shelters for foreign
nationals, three rehabilitation shelters, five group
homes and 27 counseling centers. The MOGEF also
operated a Center for Women's Human Rights to
provide overall coordination and assistance to
trafficking prevention facilities.

40. (U) A. (Cont.) For foreign women, the Ministry
of Justice had the authority to grant victims of
trafficking either a G-1 visa ("others" visa
category under the immigration law) or to suspend
their departure until damage claims and redress of
rights had been settled. Like ROK nationals,
foreign women were eligible for board and lodging,
professional counseling, legal and medical services.

41. (U) B. The ROKG financially supported NGOs
that provided social, legal and medical services to
trafficking and sex-trade victims. Victims in
shelters were eligible to receive medical assistance
in accordance with the Medical Expenses Act.
Medical services not stipulated by the Medical
Expenses Act were covered by various rehabilitation
funds. During 2006, centers specifically designated
for foreign victims recorded 102 cases of legal
support, 130 cases of medical support, 1,282 cases
of counseling support and 126 cases of educational

42. (U) C. If classified as a victim of the sex-
trade, a person would be referred to the MOGEF-
supported shelter or support facility. Persons
classified not as victims but as willing
participants in the sex-trade (and in violation of
the law) would also be eligible for treatment and

43. (U) D. ROK law stipulated that victims of
trafficking were to be treated as victims, not
criminals. The law further specified that
deportation orders for foreign victims of

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trafficking who reported a trafficking offense were
to be suspended until the conclusion of the
investigation or until their claims were redressed.
The 2004 Anti-Prostitution/Anti-Trafficking Laws
specifically define a trafficking victim as someone
who is forced into sexual exploitation. Under
existing labor laws, there was no specific
definition of labor trafficking so the vast majority
of ROK government, civil and even NGO groups did not
consider forced labor to be a trafficking offense.
This narrow definition of trafficking limited the
attention and therefore action of the ROKG in the
labor sector.

44. (U) E. The Act on the Punishment of
Intermediating in Sex Trade and Associated Acts
stipulated that monetary compensation should be
given to those who reported crimes involving human
trafficking. The amount of money would be
determined by the reporter's contribution to solving
the case, financial damage suffered by the reporter
because of the report, and whether the reporter was
involved in the crime. The Crime Victims Support
Division, which had branches at over 50 prosecutors'
offices nationwide, supported victims by providing
information on their cases, personal protection, and
counseling services. The Division also helped
victims take legal action.

45. (U) F. The Act on the Protection of Reporters
and Associated Persons of Specific Crime stipulated
that, when the court or other legal authorities
investigated a victim in a human trafficking case,
or put the victim on a witness stand, personal
protection measures should be taken for the victim,
and the victim could apply for related financial aid.
The law also stipulated that the victim in a sex-
trade case was free to leave the country according
to her will. The government was not authorized to
prevent a victim in a sex-trade case from leaving
the country.

46. (U) F. (Cont.) The Act on Special Cases
Concerning the Punishment of Specific Violent Crimes
and the Act on the Protection of Reporters of
Specific Crimes provided that when a victim in a
human trafficking case reported a crime or testified
in court, the victim's identity and related
information could not be disclosed. The Act on the
Punishment of Sexual Crimes and Protection of
Victims Thereof protected the victim during
prosecution and trial by prohibiting the disclosure
of the victim's identity and allowing a closed-door
hearing. According to the Act on the Punishment of
Intermediating in Sex Trade and Associated Acts,
when the court or the authorities questioned a
victim, their representative could be present. The
law also stated that, during the investigation, the
victim was eligible to receive protection and
guidance from counselors specializing in sex-trade
victim counseling.

47. (U) G. The ROKG provided training programs for
central and regional government officials in 2006.
The training covered on-site investigation and
protection of trafficking victims; trafficking
prevention by developing ongoing relationships with
NGOs; and trafficking prevention-related laws and

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policies. The training was delivered through four
sessions with a total of 145 attendees. Separate
training was given to the KNPA over two sessions.
99 employees of the KNPA attended these two sessions.

48. (U) G. (Cont.) The ROKG reported in 2006 that
its embassies and consulates did not support victims
of human trafficking, or NGOs that assisted
trafficking victims.

49. (U) H. Repatriated nationals who were victims
of trafficking were eligible for the same social,
legal and medical support services available for
domestic victims of trafficking.

50. (U) I. A variety of international
organizations and NGOs worked with trafficking
victims, including International Organization for
Migration, the Asia Foundation, Korea Women's
Associations United, Women Migrants Human Rights
Center, Hansori House of Friends, the Jeon Jin Sang
Social Welfare Center in Anyang, Magdalena House and
Saewoomtuh for Prostituted Women. The NGOs provided
information and counseling services, as well as
medical, legal, and social support.


51. (U) Ms. Cho Young-sook currently works as the
President of the Center for Women's Human Rights
(CWHR) in Korea. The center's mission is to
"eradicate sexual exploitation as a part of national
efforts to achieve gender equality in Korean
society." CWHR also develops programs for
prostitution and trafficking victims' recovery and
social reintegration and for advocacy of victims'
human rights. A long-time activist for women's
rights in Korea, Cho was one of the leading
supporters of the comprehensive Anti-
Prostitution/Anti-Trafficking Laws that were passed
in 2004. Prior to becoming the President of CWHR,
Cho served as the Secretary General of the Korea
Women's Association United for over a decade. Ms.
Cho was vetted through CLASS and has no hits.

52. (U) Ms. Kang Geum-shil served as the only
female Minister of Justice in Korea's history from
February 2003 to July 2004. It was during this
period that Korea debated and eventually passed the
sweeping Anti-Prostitution/Anti-Trafficking Laws
that are the basis for Korea's efforts in these
areas today. In addition to Ms. Kang's efforts to
support the 2004 laws, she is currently serving her
second term as Korea's Ambassador-at-large for
Women's Human Rights. In this capacity, Ms. Kang is
focusing her efforts on ensuring that the foreign
brides increasingly coming to Korea are treated
fairly and equally under the law and in society. Ms.
Kang traveled to Vietnam to personally meet with
NGOs to ensure that Vietnamese women interested in
marrying Korean men were well informed and better
prepared to adapt to a new life in Korea. By
helping to educate foreign brides, Ms. Kang hopes to
eliminate concerns of human trafficking related to
international marriage in Korea. Ms. Kang was
vetted through CLASS and has no hits.

SEOUL 00000587 013 OF 013


53. (U) Started in 2005, the Employment Permit
System (EPS) is a highly structured method for ROKG
to utilize and protect foreign migrant workers for
up to a three-year stay in Korea. Replacing the
prior system known as the Employment Trainee System,
EPS begins with a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
between the sending country and Korea. Although the
specific contents of the MOU are not public, it is
said to include strict guidelines on how workers are
recruited and dispatched to Korea. Under the prior
trainee system, a third-party organization was
responsible for the administration of the program
which was fraught with high fees and corruption on
the part of sending countries. Under EPS, sending
governments are subjected to a high-level of public
scrutiny and can be banned from the program if
"irregularities" are reported. There are currently
10 countries participating in the program with
another five set to join in 2007. Korea is planning
to bring in over 100,000 foreign workers this year
under the EPS program to complement and partially
replace the nearly 150,000 workers already in the
program. Upon arrival in Korea, foreign workers are
given a three-day orientation that includes an
explanation of workers' rights and Korean labor law.
The workers are also given contact information to
report any concerns about labor or human rights
violations. Along with EPS, the Ministry of Labor
funds two well-staffed Migrant Workers Centers to
support the large number of foreign workers, the
second of which opened in December 2006. The
centers provide a number of welfare services
including free health and legal support in addition
to quality-of-life services such as language and
computer classes. The centers also staff a call
center of bilingual counselors who take calls from
migrant workers and help to resolve any complaints
against employers in 12 different languages.


54. (SBU) Mission point of contact for TIP issues
is Political Officer David Moyer, tel. 82-2-397-4158,
fax 82-2-733-4791. In the drafting of this report,
Embassy Seoul spent approximately 185 hours
researching trafficking issues and coordinating with
contacts. This total includes:

Ambassador: 1 hour
DCM: 1 hour
MC/POL: 1 hour
03-level POL: 2 hours
04-level POL: 176 hours
04-level CON: 4 hours (visa broker reports)


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