Cablegate: Romania,S Seventh Annual Anti-Trafficking In


DE RUEHBM #0237/01 0601536
R 011536Z MAR 07





E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: STATE 00202745


Embassy Bucharest's submission for the annual Trafficking in
Persons report follows below with answers keyed to reftel.


A. Romania is a country of origin and transit for
trafficking in persons (TIP). While the majority of TIP
cases pertain to international trafficking between Romania
and Western Europe, there are cases of domestic trafficking
as well. Victims - primarily women and children - are
trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation, labor
exploitation and forced mendicancy. The total number of
victims identified by the Government of Romania (GOR) in 2006
was 2285.

Out of the 2285 identified victims, 316 were minors, 542 men
and 1427 women.
Types of exploitation:
- 1451 sexual exploitation;
- 624 labor exploitation;
- 183 begging;
- 27 other forms.

In 2006, 12% of the identified TIP victims were victims of
internal trafficking. This is the first time that the GOR
has officially recorded the number of victims exploited
within Romania,s borders.

In 2006, the International Organization for Migration (IOM)
assisted 137 victims. IOM figures indicate that the average
age of the victims they assisted was 22 years old;
approximately 15% of the victims they assisted were minors
under the age of 18. The distribution of trafficked victims
by age is as follows: one victim under the age of 14; 19
victims between the ages of 15-17; 56 victims between the
ages of 18-20; 48 victims between the ages of 21-29; and 13
victims over the age of 30. Eight of these victims were
citizens of the Republic of Moldova; two of them were
identified in Romania, and the remainder were repatriated
through IOM Romania from other countries.

Of the 137 victims assisted by IOM, 44 were repatriated from
Italy and 33 were repatriated from Spain. In previous years,
Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia were the
destination countries for a high number of victims, but that
number has been reduced significantly in recent years. The
increase in trafficking victims destined for Italy and Spain
parallels the increase in overall migration of young
Romanians who travel to these countries for low-wage jobs.

For 2006, the available sources of information concerning TIP
cases were: the General Directorate for Combating Organized
Crime (DGCCO) within the Ministry of Administration and
Interior, which provides data regarding identified victims of
trafficking during their specific operations, including those
who are identified by border police; and the General

Prosecutors Office and Ministry of Justice regarding the
number of prosecuted and trialed cases, including the number
of arrested and convicted persons.

The number of assisted victims of trafficking was provided by
local and international nongovernmental organizations,
regional branches of the National Agency Against Trafficking
in Persons (ANITP), local authorities and state run shelters.

The TIP National Data Base, which has been operational within
the framework of ANITP since December, 2006, allows for
better identification of the victims and a faster response to
their needs. Based on its data, the first Evaluation Report
will be presented to the public in July-August, 2007. A list
of indicators (containing various data about trafficking,
victim assistance and social reintegration) was agreed upon
by ANITP, Police, Border Police, Gendarmerie and other
agencies, as well as by NGOs and provides the basis for
further reports to the National Data Base.

The Resource Centre (RC), which is a dedicated unit within
the GDCOC, found that women between the ages of 18 and 25 are
more likely to become victims of trafficking for sexual
purposes than any other age group or gender. Children are
more likely to become victims of trafficking if they came
from State Centers, single-parent homes and/or a
dysfunctional family environment (e.g. families with
financial difficulties, abuse, or alcoholism). Victims are
sometimes approached by family &friends8 or other persons
of influence, and are promised &good8 jobs. In the case of
child victims, parents are typically assured that their
children would have a better life and/or receive money in
exchange for their children. The victims are moved outside
of Romania under the guise of &organized tourism.8 In most
cases victims travel legally. However, there are cases where
false documents are used or the victim travels across the
border illegally. Although no statistics from GOR or other
sources exist regarding TIP and the Roma community, Roma
leaders recognize that some Roma are victims of TIP,
underscoring that the poverty and social instability in a
number of Roma communities makes Roma particularly vulnerable
to trafficking.

B. The profile of traffickers is broad and varied. In some
cases traffickers belong to internationally organized groups,
which can also be specialized in other crimes such is drugs,
guns, etc.; however in the majority of cases, traffickers
come from small groups with loose structures, including
family members or other individuals that are often known to
the victims. Some victims may at some point become
traffickers, particularly recruiters, as they see no other
opportunities in life.

The number of victims identified by the GOR likely does not
reflect the total number of victims of TIP-related crimes.
Many victims are reluctant to identify themselves, primarily
because of the social stigma associated with TIP activities.
There is also a general distrust among TIP victims of
government officials and their readiness to assist them.
Many victims either seek no assistance or prefer to take
advantage of other options rather than accept government


A Program of National Interest for victim assistance was
proposed by the ANITP in the last Quarter of 2006 to make
Governmental funds available for NGOs in order to ensure a
better quality of the services for TIP victims. It was
approved by Minister of Administration and Interior with this
view and around 800,000 RON (more than 300,000 USD) should be
available no later than June, 2007.

Following the passage of Law no. 1584/2005, ANITP became
fully operational in May 2006, and created 8 regional
centers ) 4 of them in their own offices (Iasi, Galati,
Constanta, Timisoara), or hosted by police units (Pitesti,
Craiova, Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest). In order to improve
anti-trafficking efforts, passage of Law no. 1083/2006
extended the number of the regional centers from 8 to 15,
with three staff members for each (an increase from the
previously required two staff members.) Between September
and December 2006, the newly existing staff in the regional
centers had already made an impact in anti-trafficking
efforts by identifying a total of 79 victims.

In order to provide more support to the victims who testify
against traffickers and avoid their stepping back because of
traffickers influence, ANITP, in collaboration with the GDCOC
and Ministry of Justice, launched in November 2006 the
Victim/Witness Coordination Program in the southern and
eastern regions of the country. Approximately 26 victims were
included in the initial phase of the program. This program
will be highlighted at the end of this report as a &best

C. The GOR has made progress in addressing the limitations
they have in their ability to combat TIP. The ANITP
representatives in the regional centers have improved the
referral mechanisms in their respective regions, however a
central referral system that covers the entire country is
still lacking. Funding for anti-TIP activities has increased
in 2006 and the ANITP now has a provision in place to provide
more than 300,000 USD to NGOs who are involved in TIP issues.
The level of cooperation that exists between ANITP and the
NGOs has improved, in that ANITP has increased its reach to
the NGO community in order to address the TIP problem. ANITP
currently is working hard to improve cooperation and overcome
the bureaucratic obstacles that exist between the national
and local governments.

D. The GOR monitors Anti-Trafficking efforts through the
ANITP and in 2006 has improved its ability to gather
statistics regarding TIP. The GOR has been very forthcoming
in sharing these statistics with NGOs, other governments and
international organizations.


A. The Romanian government recognizes that trafficking in
persons is a serious problem. In 2006, the President of
Romania identified human trafficking as one of the more
important issues that needed to be addressed by the

government. The GOR,s commitment to anti-trafficking was
demonstrated through increased authorities for ANITP (and
increased funding) throughout the course of 2006. The GOR is
also very active in the Southeast European Cooperative
Initiative (SECI) Bucharest-based regional anti-crime center,
and throughout 2006 a Romanian official headed the Task Force
on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings within SECI. SECI
is a regional model for sharing of law enforcement
information, including about TIP, and its TIP task force is
one of SECI's most successful endeavors.

B. ANITP is the governmental agency that leads the efforts
of all other agencies involved in anti-trafficking. The
director of ANITP is the chairman of the Inter-ministerial
Working Group (IWG) on Human Trafficking. Other government
agencies involved in anti-TIP activities include: the
Ministry of Administration and Interior (MAI), the General
Inspectorate of Border Police(GIBP), General Prosecutor,s
Office (GPO), Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Labor
and Social Solidarity (MLSS), Ministry of Education and
Research (MER), Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Finance
(MOF), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Human Rights Department),
National Authority for Child Protection (NACP), Ministry of
Public Administration (MPA), Ministry of European
Integration, National Office for Refugees, Ministry of
Culture and Religion, National Audio-Visual Council, National
Authority for the Labor Force, Ministry of Youth, Agency for
Student Camps and Tourism and the National Authority for
Child Protection and Adoptions. All of these agencies are
members of the IWG.

C. The GOR partnered with several different NGOs to produce
anti-trafficking campaigns. There have been several
information and education campaigns both at the national and
at the local level in which the government has been either
the initiator or a key partner to international organizations
or NGOs. Some campaigns were financed by the government,
while others were financed by international donors through

Campaigns developed in 2006:

- 2 EXIT campaigns developed in partnership with MTV
Great Britain, ADPARE and the National Agency against
Trafficking in Persons (in Cluj and Constansa). In those
campaigns 13.000 young people participated between the ages
of 16 and 25 and were distributed fliers and CDs;

- Romania was part of the European effort for preventing
TIP during the World Cup 2006, Germany, by promoting, in
partnership with AIDROM, &Don,t pass on human beings8

- A national campaign developed by the National Agency
against Trafficking in Persons, with the financial support
from the US Embassy, &Be careful, you will pay8 was
launched in December 2006 and addressed young people between
the ages of 16 and 25. This campaign also promoted the
Agency,s toll-free phone number 0 800 800 678;

- The National Authority for Protection of Children

Rights continued the public education campaign regarding the
rights of the child &THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD ARE LAW,8
which ran throughout 2006;

- Between July 20 and December 7 2006 the Office for
Labor Force Migration and Labor Abroad Department developed
an information campaign, &Choose legal labor force

- The Ministry of Education and Research included the
problem of trafficking in persons in the Counseling and
Orientation school programs in the gymnasium, high-school and
in arts and crafts schools.

- The National Program of Education for Democratic
Citizenship (NPEDC) directly targeted the trafficking
phenomenon, having distinct chapters for the prevention and
countering the trafficking in persons, for the whole
pre-university educational system.

- The Ministry of Education and Research has developed
government-NGO partnerships; there are collaboration
protocols signed among the county school inspectorates, the
governmental and non-governmental institutions in order to
ensure the diversification and the improvement of the
prevention activities, effectiveness.

- Within the campaign &Be careful, you will pay!8 the
Roma population was included in the target group and
prevention materials were translated into the Romany

D. The Ministry of Labor, Social Solidarity and Family
(MLSSF), together with the National Employment Agency, the
National Agency for Family Protection and the National Agency
for Equal Opportunities, apply specific measures in order to
socially integrate persons, especially women, who belong to
low-developed areas and who find themselves in trafficking
situations. MLSSF has adopted a set of specific measures to
combat TIP, which focus on improving the economic and social
status of persons who are at risk of being trafficked, as
well as provide potential victims with a better understanding
of the legal procedures for employment abroad. In this
regard, the GOR has signed a series of bilateral agreements
with other European countries in order to bring the work
force movement under regulation.

The National Anti-Poverty and Promoting Social Inclusion Plan
also set a strategy to promote &social inclusion,8 with the
following specific objectives: to increase employment
opportunities and combat all forms of discrimination against
women, to promote equal opportunities in all fields and all

E. The relationships between government officials and NGOs
concerned with trafficking improved in 2006. There is
particularly good cooperation at the working level that is
often driven by a growing network of personal contacts.

At the national level, NGOs and international organizations
participate in the IWG meetings. NGOs report that their

presence in these meetings is useful at the level of
information exchange, but their power in influencing policy
is limited.

A few counties reported that they created similar
working-level multi-agency teams comprised of representatives
of civil society and various governmental institutions
involved in anti-trafficking activities at the local level.
These multi-agency teams meet on a regular basis and have had
some positive results, but these are isolated examples.
There are still improvements that can be made at the
county-level, which the ANITP began to address in 2006.

F. The GOR monitors its borders through the General
Inspectorate of Border Police (GIBP). The GIBP monitors
immigration and immigration patterns and uses this analysis
to prevent trafficking from occurring. Analysis in 2006
showed a reduction in trafficking across the western border
into Hungary and Serbia. The GOR continued to work closely
with European partners to help strengthen Romania,s borders.

G. Coordination on TIP issues among the government,
international organizations and NGOs occurs within the
framework of the IWG, which is made up of various
governmental ministry representatives and international
organizations and is coordinated by the Ministry of
Administration and Interior (MAI). NGOs and US Embassy
representatives are invited to all IWG meetings. In December
2005, the Romanian government passed a law establishing the
National Agency for the Prevention of TIP and for Monitoring
the Protection of TIP Victims.
The GOR has a specialized investigative and prosecutorial
unit for public corruption based on the task force model.
The government formed an inter-ministerial council at the end
of 2005 that meets regularly to coordinate the fight against
corruption. The Minister of Justice acts as the council's
coordinator, and invites NGO representatives and journalists
to the council's meetings. This council oversees
implementation of the 2005-2007 National Anticorruption
Strategy, which aims to prosecute high-level corruption,
increase transparency in public administration, prevent
corrupt business practices, and increase the integrity of the
H. A five year National Action Plan for Combating
Trafficking in Human Beings was adopted in 2001. National
agencies responsible for the implementation of the Plan
NGOs were consulted in the process of adopting the decision,
and are intended to act as partners during all phases of
implementation. The National Action Plan was widely
disseminated through seminars and training sessions. In
2004, the government adopted a separate National Action Plan
on the Prevention of Trafficking in Children. The Ministry
of Administration and Interior working in conjunction with
UNICEF developed a draft anti-trafficking strategy for
2006-2010 accompanied by a detailed action plan for
2006-2008. A final form of the strategy and action plan was
endorsed by each ministry and then adopted by the government
in December 2006.


--------------------------------------------- ----------

A. Law no. 678/2001 specifically prohibits trafficking, and
seeks to protect and assist trafficked victims. Article 2 of
the law specifically covers both trafficking for sexual
exploitation and trafficking for non-sexual purposes (e.g.
forced labor). Moreover, the law sets forth prosecution
measures and punishments for traffickers. Law no. 39/2003
for Combating Organized Crime specifically defines TIP as a
serious crime, and includes TIP offenses. Article 2 of the
law defines an organized criminal group as follows: &a
structured group formed of three or more persons that exist
for a period of time and acts in a coordinated manner for the
purpose of committing one or more grave offenses, in order to
obtain directly or indirectly a financial benefit or other
material benefit.8 The GOR does use other laws in the
prosecution of trafficking cases, especially laws prohibiting
pimping. All of these laws taken together cover the full
scope of trafficking offenses.

TIP victims have the right to seek a civil remedy and this
can occur simultaneously with the criminal proceeding, at the
conclusion of the criminal proceeding or can occur completely
separate from the criminal case.

B. Violations of Article 12 of Law no. 678/2001 carry
sentences of three to twelve years and raise the sentence to
five to fifteen years for aggravating circumstances. The
sentence provided in Article 13 paragraph 1 is from five to
fifteen years if the victims are below the age of 18. The
same article carries terms of seven to eighteen years in case
of trafficking of minors under certain aggravating
characteristics such as kidnapping while armed, by a group of
persons, or causing bodily injury. If the kidnapping results
in the death or suicide of the victim, the sentence goes from
fifteen to 25 years. Law 678/2001 defines trafficking in two
articles (12 and 13) and several paragraphs that interact to
provide a complex set of sentences ranging from three years
(at a minimum) to 25 (at a maximum). The sentence is
dependent on factors such as: number of perpetrators, age of
the victim, and severity of damage caused to the victim,
kidnapping or fraud, and if violence or threats were used.

C. The same penalties awarded in sexual exploitation cases
are also applied for labor trafficking offenses.

D. Article 197, which covers rape, carries a sentence of
three to 10 years, with the penalty raised to five to 15
years if the act involves any of the following: two or more
participants; is conducted by the guardian of the rape
victim; or if severe injuries result. The penalties go to 10
to 20 years if the victim is under 14. If the victim dies or
commits suicide, the sentence increases to 15 to 25 years.
These penalties overall are comparable to penalties for sex
trafficking, as sentences for both range from three to 25

E. In Romania, prostitution activities are criminalized, to
include the activities of brothel owners and pimps. However,
there is no law to punish the client, with the exception that
if the prostitute was a minor and the client admitted knowing

that fact before the act, the client can be prosecuted for
sexual acts with a minor.

F. Between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2006, the courts
rendered final convictions against 187 persons for committing
the offence of trafficking in persons. Out of these:

- 5 persons were sentenced to 6-12 months imprisonment
- 88 persons were sentenced to 1-5 years imprisonment
- 64 persons were sentenced to 5-10 years imprisonment
- 7 persons were sentenced to 10-15 years imprisonment
- 11 persons were sentenced to a penalty for which the
execution was conditionally suspended
- 10 persons (1 being a minor) were sentenced to a penalty
for which the execution was suspended under observation
- 2 persons were sentenced to a penalty for which the court
pronounced the execution at the working place.

Under the Romanian Penal Code, an individual serving prison
time for a TIP offense can be released early from prison if
two thirds of the sentence has been served and the individual
has demonstrated significant moral rehabilitation. The
Romanian legal system does not provide for plea bargains or
fines - only imprisonment sanctions are given for TIP

The legal framework encourages the traffickers to collaborate
within the criminal proceedings. Article 20 from Law no.
678/2001 provides: &The person who committed one of the
offences provided by this law and during the criminal lawsuit
denounces and helps for identification of the other
participant to the crime, shall benefit by reducing his own
penalty with a half.8
In 2006, the Government indicted 780 defendants in 183 files
for committing TIP offenses.

Labor recruiters are prosecuted under Law no. 678/2001.

G. There is no indication that human trafficking in Romania
is being conducted by large organized crime syndicates or
other large international groups; much of the trafficking is
conducted via small trafficking networks that maintain
contact with other small criminal groups for this purpose.
Employment, travel and tourism agencies have been identified
as fronts for some traffickers; however these were not common
sources of trafficking. There is no indication that
government officials are involved in trafficking activities.
With respect to the way in which the profits are directed,
there is no indication that they are destined for the
financing of various armed groups, terrorist organizations or
for bribing Romanian officials.

H. The GOR actively investigates TIP cases using a number of
methods, to include electronic surveillance and undercover
operations. The government also uses mitigated punishment
and/or immunity to encourage suspects to cooperate in TIP

I. Before a TIP case is taken to trial, the prosecutor who
leads the criminal investigation in a TIP case is
the one to establish the working team composed of judiciary

police officers, specialized in countering trafficking in
persons, border police officers, etc

The monitoring activity aims at getting evidence regarding
the traffickers, modus operandi any other pertinent
information and the information is analyzed.

The documentation on the criminal activity also involves
audio-video operative surveillance measures, authorized by
judges according to the provisions of the Criminal Procedure
Code, of Law no. 678/2001 on the prevention and countering of
trafficking in persons, or of Law. No. 39/2003 regarding the
prevention and countering of organized crime, as well as the
placement of undercover investigators/collaborators.

J. In 2006, Romanian prosecutors collaborated with their
counterparts from other countries in 61 investigations
regarding TIP offenses, out of which in 28 cases were
initiated by foreign judicial authorities and 33 were
initiated by the Romanian prosecutors.

Also, GDCOC and the Border Police have in many cases worked
with officers from other European Union countries.

K. The Romanian government extradites persons who are
charged with trafficking in other countries, if the legal
conditions for extradition are fulfilled. In 2006 there was 1
case of this kind, concerning a Greek citizen, whose
extradition from Romania was granted to the Greek authorities.

Art. 19 from the Romanian Constitution provides:
(1) No Romanian citizen shall be extradited or expelled from
(2) By exemption from the provision of para. (1), Romanian
citizens can be extradited based on the international
agreements Romania is a party to according to the law and on
a mutual basis.
(3) Aliens and stateless persons may be extradited only in
compliance with an international convention or in terms of
(4) Expulsion or extradition shall be ruled by the court.

L. There is no evidence of government involvement in or
tolerance of TIP.

In 2006, the Anti-corruption National Directorate did not
send to court any governmental official for his/her
involvement under various forms in trafficking in persons.
There were government officials suspected of issuing
identification documents that could have facilitated
activities related to trafficking, but no direct correlation
has been made.

M. Not applicable.

N. Romania does not have an identified child sex tourism
problem, although the media have reported some incidents of
sexual abuse of children by foreign nationals visiting
Romania. Romania,s child sexual abuse laws have
extra-territorial coverage. In the past, foreign pedophiles
were arrested and prosecuted in Romania for child sex


In 2006 there were no cases of foreign pedophiles extradited
to their origin country.

The National Authority for Protection of Children Rights in
cooperation with MAI, Romanian Hotel Industry Federation,
Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Tourism and NGO-s
made the project &Intersectorial collaboration between
public and private for prevention of trafficking and sexual
exploitation in hotel industry and tourism8. A conduct code
for protection of children against sexual exploitation in
tourism industry were expanded and promoted within this

O. The Romanian government has signed and ratified the
following international instruments:

- ILO Convention 182 (Law 203/2000)
- ILO Convention 29 (Decree 213/1957)
- ILO Convention 105 (Law 140/1998)
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC) on the sale of children, child prostitution, and
child pornography (Law 470/2001)
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN
Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (Law

--------------------------------------------- -

A. Under the provision of Law no. 678/2001, victims of
trafficking shall receive special physical, legal and social
protection and assistance. They are also entitled to
physical, psychological and social recovery. Upon request,
TIP victims can receive temporary accommodation in
governmental shelters for ten days. The accommodation time
can be extended by three months or for the entire duration of
the criminal procedure, upon the request of the criminal
investigation authority. Victims of trafficking are also
covered under the Protection of Crime Victims Law, which
entered into force in January 2005. The law specifies that
Romanian authorities offer: information regarding victims,
rights; psychological aid; legal aid; and financial
compensation funded by the GOR. However, there is no clear
mechanism that stipulates how these provisions are to be
applied in practice. Whether or not a victim receives these
benefits is dependent upon the service provider,s knowledge
of the law and a laborious bureaucratic process for
fulfilling requests. In 2006, governmental reports mentioned
at least nine operational state shelters for adult victims of
trafficking, each providing access to legal, medical and
psychological services to varying degrees. However, the
status of the shelters is continuously changing, as some
shelters close down and new shelters open. Keeping the
shelters functioning proved to be a challenge for county
authorities, who have limited resources for addressing many
competing social needs.

Like the shelters, the degree of services provided by the
non-residential centers is not uniform. There is no
available data regarding the number of victims assisted by
the non-residential service centers.

In 2006, 476 victims of trafficking were assisted. This is a
significant increase compared to 2005, when only 175 victims
were assisted. This indicates that aid provided by the GOR
is reaching more victims than before. Most of the assistance
provided in 2006 was in the form of social/legal assistance.

Legal aid and financial assistance is given to victims of
TIP, as well as to spouses, children and/or others if the
victim is deceased.

B. According to the law, NGOs that provide services to TIP
victims have priority in getting subsidies from the
government. NGOs also receive support from the government for
short-term activities, such as training of governmental
employees, prevention activities, and for addressing specific
needs of victims, such as issuing the identification
documents, assistance for finding employment, etc. In 2006,
governmental cooperation with NGOs has become more

C. The National Authority for Protection of Child Rights set
up an identification system for minor victims of trafficking.
Some law enforcement agencies have procedures for
identifying victims of trafficking; however there are no
national identification standards. There is no systematic
screening or effective referral process to transfer victims
detained, arrested or placed in protective custody by law
enforcement to NGOs. Rather the referral process is informal
and dependent upon whether authorities involved have direct
contact with NGOs that provide assistance to the victims.

D. According to Romanian law, modified in 2005, victims of
trafficking who are arrested for prostitution or begging
cannot be prosecuted for these offenses. Normally, victims
that come from other countries are identified prior to their
repatriation; there are sometimes delays in identifying
internal victims. Children are always considered victims in
relation to trafficking and they are the beneficiaries of
support and protection according to the Romanian laws.

E. Contained in Romanian legislation are special provisions
that provide benefits and protections for victims that assist
in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking offenses.
Many victims do not take advantage of these benefits and are
often hesitant to provide information against perpetrators of
trafficking because the victims have little trust that
Romanian authorities will follow through on their
commitments. Prosecutors responsible for TIP cases usually
keep an objective viewpoint when investigating TIP cases and
are required to remain unbiased when investigating whether a
crime took place. For this reason, TIP victims who provide
critical information in the investigation and prosecution of
trafficking offenses normally do not have an advocate when
providing information.

Victims are able to file civil suits against their
traffickers as part of the criminal process or as a separate
civil action. There are no legal impediments to a victim
seeking legal redress but the Romanian legal system is
slow-moving and often victims are not able to remain in the
location when the investigation/trial is taking place. There
is nothing preventing witnesses from leaving the country, and
foreigners who are victims of trafficking are repatriated at
the expense of the Romanian government. The repatriations
are often as dictated by bilateral treaties which Romania has
with neighboring and western European countries. Foreign
citizens who are victims of trafficking have the right to
wait 90 days to decide if the would like to cooperate in a
criminal proceeding. The victim witness coordination program
that is outlined in the &best practice8 section of this
report has begun to address this issue.

F. The GOR has both formal and informal measures for
protecting victims and witnesses of trafficking offenses.
The formal system includes assistance in changing the
witness,s identity and residence. This is a specialized
system that requires a prosecutors, request and an
assessment based upon criteria used by the witness protection
unit. Although these measures have been used to protect
witnesses in TIP cases in the past, they were not used to
protect any TIP victims in 2006. In addition, the victim can
invoke less formal judicial procedures to assist in
protecting their identity and reduce their contact with the
defendant and defendant,s associates while testifying in
court. TIP investigators in several counties describe taking
a personal interest in ensuring the protection of TIP
victims. At the same time, individual TIP victims have
continued to complain about being contacted or harassed by
traffickers and their associates.

The GOR provides shelter services for both adult and juvenile
victims of TIP offenses. There are currently nine
operational state-sponsored TIP shelters for adult victims.
The state facilities are emergency shelters and are not
designed for long-term rehabilitation. Despite this, they
offer a full range of medical, psychological, and educational
services along with social services and employment assistance
through staff that are most commonly affiliated with broader
social service programs for children. Since the state
shelters are administered through local officials, their
facilities, services, and relationship to other service
providers vary. Upon the request of the prosecutor, victims
are entitled to remain in the shelter throughout the
investigation and trial. Police and prosecutors have a
statutory obligation to inform victims of the right to go to
a state shelter and to have access to other services. In
practice, investigators report that a majority of victims do
not want to go to a state shelter. The interpretation of
applicable privacy rules often prevents law enforcement from
placing the victim in a state shelter without the victim,s
approval. The best scenario for a trafficking victim who is
interested in long-term assistance would be to be placed with
one of the NGOs that support TIP victims who are in a better
position to provide long-term care for the victim.

Minors who are victims of trafficking have a series of

possible care facilities which include: emergency centers,
transit centers, the victim,s family with the support of
social services, foster care, or placement centers. If a
child is identified as a victim of trafficking he/she would
not be placed in a juvenile justice detention center.

In 2006, the Romanian Ministry of Justice1 changed existing
law to make it easier for TIP victims to testify in court
cases using video testimony.

G. Specialized training for GOR officials continued in 2006.

The National Authority for Protection of Child Rights has
developed partnerships for specialized training from
international organizations to include: ICMPD, International
Migration Organization, UNICEF, ILO and local NGOs.

The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs encourages its
embassies to foster contacts with NGOs and international
organizations that are involved in TIP issues. The training
received by MFA officers prior to their assignment has some
applicability in assisting TIP victims, but, specific
training for MFA officers on TIP issues is limited.

Romania,s diplomatic missions have relationships with
different NGOs, specialized in providing assistance for
trafficked victims, especially with IOM (International
Organization for Migration) for assistance in the voluntary
return of trafficked victims.

H. The Romanian government does provide assistance to TIP
victims who are repatriated. The victims are repatriated at
the cost of the government and, if they are identified as a
TIP victim, they are eligible to receive the same benefits as
internal victims. These benefits were described above in
section A.

I. In 2006, laws were proposed to increase funding for NGOs.
The Romanian government cooperates with the following
international organizations and NGOs that work on TIP issues:

UNICEF, UNHCR, ANAEM France, IOM, International Labor

Red Cross - Romania - information education campaigns to
prevent child trafficking.

Salvati Copii (Save the Children)
- Activities aiming to prevent trafficking and sexual
exploitation in the hotel and tourism industries. A group of
experts developed a code of conduct for hotels and tourism
industries. Information materials were produced and
distributed in hotels and through the tourism agencies.
- Social assistance and counseling for child victims of
- Training for border police, police and social workers on
interviewing children victims of trafficking.

Caritas - anti-TIP and anti-drug information education

campaigns in schools.

AIDRom - Prevention and training activities for governmental
and non-governmental representatives to acquire the necessary
skills for identifying and solving potential situations that
could lead to trafficking and to establish a network of local
contacts involved in similar anti-TIP activities.

Young Generation - shelter, social assistance and counseling
to victims of trafficking

Social Alternatives - prevention activities, anti-trafficking
newsletter, psychological assistance to victims of

Reaching Out - long-term reintegration services to victims of
trafficking, social assistance, counseling and shelter

Adpare - shelter, counseling, reintegration services for
victims and also prevention activities including peer
education program in Bucharest schools

Betania - social assistance and counseling

Conexiuni - social assistance and counseling

Romanian Orthodox Church - BANITP Metropolitan See - shelter,
counseling and reintegration services

--------------------------------------------- ----

A. TIP Heroes: Post did not nominate anyone this year as a
TIP hero.

B. Best Practice: One of the biggest challenges in
prosecuting TIP cases is how to maintain the cooperation of
the victims throughout the trial process. In Romania, trials
are often very long and require the victims to be present in
the courtroom on multiple occasions. Furthermore, in the
Romanian judicial system prosecutors take on the role of
independent magistrates and therefore are not able to
identify themselves with the victims. The ANITP in 2006
recognized the importance of improving this process and
decided to use its infrastructure and resources to help
victims better understand the judicial process and make them
as comfortable as possible for the duration of the trial. In
its latest action plan, the ANITP made victim-witness
coordination a high and began working with the Embassy,s RLA
office to move forward. The first step was to develop a
system of coordinators who would facilitate contact between
the victims and the courts. The coordinators in the system
have four responsibilities: (1) to maintain updated contact
information for the victim and to provide the victim with
information about the status of the case; (2) to provide the
victim with general information about the court system in
order to demystify the trial process and make it less
intimidating; (3) to provide the victim with logistical
assistance in getting to court; and (4) to provide the victim
with information about services available in their region.

6. (U) Embassy POC is Philip Knecht, at 011-40-21-200-3435,
Fax 011-40-21-200-3442. The following Embassy personnel spent
the approximate time indicated in the preparation of this
report: PolOff Phil Knecht, grade, FS-04, 80 hours; Radu Pop,
Political Specialist, 50 hours; DOJ Legal Attach, Tim Ohms,
6 hours; DOJ Legal Assistant, Monica Custura, 6 hours,
Political Chief, Theodore Tanoue, grade FS-02, 6 hours; DCM,
Mark Taplin, grade FE-MC, 30 minutes.

7. (U) Amembassy Bucharest,s reporting telegrams are
available on the Bucharest SIPRNET Website:

© Scoop Media

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