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Cablegate: Usaid Administrator Fore's Visit to Southern Sudan: Lunch

VZCZCXRO2146
PP RUEHGI RUEHMA RUEHROV
DE RUEHKH #1884/01 3341054
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 301054Z NOV 07
FM AMEMBASSY KHARTOUM
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 9379
INFO RUCNFUR/DARFUR COLLECTIVE
RHMFISS/CJTF HOA

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 02 KHARTOUM 001884

SIPDIS

DEPT FOR AF/SPG, S/CRS, AF SE NATSIOS
ADDIS ABABA FOR USAU
DEPT PLS PASS USAID FOR AID/A(BFEINSTEIN)
AA/AFR(KALMQUIST), AFR/SUDAN

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PGOV PREL KPKO SOCI AU UNSC SU
SUBJECT: USAID ADMINISTRATOR FORE'S VISIT TO SOUTHERN SUDAN: LUNCH
WITH SPLM CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

1. (SBU) Summary: SPLM Crisis Committee members told Administrator
Fore that the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) is providing an
opportunity to advance democracy and development throughout Sudan.
They identified the "three areas," independent media, and rural
development as priorities. Deputy SG Yasir Armin said that
fundamental change will only come from within Sudan and that only
the SPLM is in a position to do this. End Summary.

2. (U) On November 23, Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance
(DFA)/USAID Administrator Henrietta Fore met with members of the
Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) Crisis Management
Committee in Juba to discuss the ongoing conflict within the
Government of National Unity (GNU) over CPA implementation.

Participants:

U.S.
----

DFA/Administrator Fore
CDA Fernandez
Kate Almquist, USAID Asst. Admin.
Patrick Fleuret, USAID Sudan Dir.
John Struble, Acting C/G (notetaker)
Allan Reed, USAID South Sudan Dir.
Special Asst. Barbara Feinstein

SPLM
----

Samson Kwaje, GoSS Agriculture Min.
Anne Itto Leonardo, SPLM Deputy Secretary General (South)
Yasir Arman, SPLM Deputy Secretary General (North)

-------------------------
Democracy and Development
-------------------------

3. (SBU) Administrator Fore emphasized U.S. support for the CPA and
asked the SPLM guests for their "on the ground" perspectives on the
situation. Anne Itto noted that the South, as well as Sudan as a
whole, are benefiting from the CPA. She said that the CPA offers an
opportunity for the SPLM and the Government of South Sudan (GoSS) to
champion democracy throughout the whole of Sudan. This is only
possible with the peace provided by the CPA. She added that the
SPLM is seeking to implement a vision of peace and justice
throughout the region, including by encouraging Darfur rebel unity
in negotiations with the GNU and mediating peace between the
government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army.

4. (SBU) Itto continued that development also depends on peace.
Under the CPA, the southern economy has begun to function again and
to grow. Sudan must use this opportunity to develop the capacity of
its people. Only the SPLM is well placed to lead this effort. To
successfully promote democracy and development in Sudan as a whole,
she said, the SPLM must itself democratize and mobilize for the
effort. Then it must reach out in the North to other, like-minded
political parties.

--------------------------------------------- ----
The Three Areas, Free Media and Rural Development
--------------------------------------------- ----

5. (SBU) Administrator Fore asked how the U.S. could focus its
assistance to support CPA implementation. Agriculture Minister
Kwaje noted that development of the "three areas" along the
North-South border (Southern Blue Nile State, the Nuba Mountains in
Southern Kordofan, and Abyei) has been almost forgotten. The
National Congress Party (NCP) is using this neglect as an
opportunity to attack the SPLM, saying "The SPLM has failed to
develop the three areas." There now needs to be a focus on
developing these areas.

6. (SBU) Samson Kwaje said there is a critical need to develop news
media to disseminate accurate information, especially outside of
Juba. The GoSS recently signed an agreement with a South African
company to develop a broadcast satellite media outlet in the South,
putting South Sudan TV before a larger audience. The GoSS needs to
develop its capacity to inform and educate its population and
counter misinformation. For example, he said many people in the
South do not understand the SPLM's political strategy in its
conflict with the NCP, falsely believe that it has pulled out of the
GNU, abandoned the people of the three areas (like Nuba Mountains
and Blue Nile) and that the CPA has collapsed. He also said that
the population needs to be educated about the census to be held in

KHARTOUM 00001884 002 OF 002


2008 and the elections in 2009. CDA Fernandez added that the SPLM
also needs to be aggressively getting its "new Sudan" message out in
Arabic in the North and a South African satellite will not do that,
the SPLM should be on in Arabic on Arabsat and Nilesat.

7. (SBU) Yasir Arman commented that Southern Sudan is too dependent
on its share of oil exports and badly needs to develop other revenue
sources. Therefore, he said, the GoSS needs to focus on rural
development. Agriculture production should be increased, both to
become self-sufficient in food and as a source of export revenues.
There also is a critical need to improve the delivery of health
services in rural areas. Anne Itto agreed that "agriculture
sustains peace."

-----------------------------------
Change Through Pressure from Within
-----------------------------------

8. (SBU) Arman went on to say that the NCP retains a monopoly on
the levers of power in Sudan: military forces, government revenues,
and information. He described Khartoum as "the head of the snake."
To transform Sudan as a whole, it will be necessary to transform
Khartoum. He said that, in spite of the CPA, the NCP continues to
seek to marginalize the SPLM. The NCP acts in the name of the GNU
without bothering to consult its SPLM partners.

9. (SBU) Arman asked how the U.S. intends to deal with the NCP. He
argued that if offered carrots, the NCP will only continue to
misbehave. The NCP is unwilling to change fundamentally. It only
accepts change under pressure, but pressure for fundamental change
must come from inside Sudan. The SPLM offers the only democratic
alternative to the NCP, he said. To challenge the NCP, the SPLM
needs assistance in establishing an independent media to counter NCP
lies.

10. (U) Administrator Fore reviewed this message before
transmission.

FERNANDEZ

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