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Cablegate: S/Crs Coordinator Herbst's Meetings in Canada

VZCZCXRO6361
PP RUEHGA RUEHHA RUEHQU RUEHVC
DE RUEHOT #0026/01 0072139
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 072139Z JAN 08
FM AMEMBASSY OTTAWA
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 7105
INFO RUCNCAN/ALL CANADIAN POSTS COLLECTIVE
RUEHXP/ALL NATO POST COLLECTIVE
RUEHPU/AMEMBASSY PORT AU PRINCE 0154
RUCNDT/USMISSION USUN NEW YORK 0370
RUEKJCS/OSD WASHDC
RUEKJCS/JCS WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 OTTAWA 000026

SIPDIS

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PREL MOPS CA HA
SUBJECT: S/CRS COORDINATOR HERBST'S MEETINGS IN CANADA

1. (SBU) Summary: In meetings with Canadian officials to
discuss areas for collaboration in improving post-conflict
stabilization and reconstruction, Ambassador John Herbst of
the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and
Stabilization (S/CRS) heard that there is an emerging
consensus in Canadian defense circles that the military role
in post-conflict scenarios is primarily to support the
development of local governance and that the military will
often be in a supporting role to civilian agencies in this
function. Canadian officials stressed the need for better
established doctrine and a desire to stay closely connected
to the U.S. and other international players in the
development of new joint capabilities. The Royal Canadian
Mounted Police (RCMP) briefed Ambassador Herbst on its
current operations, which includes 166 police trainers and
advisors in Afghanistan, Haiti, and Sudan drawn from a mix of
the federal RCMP as well as local and provincial police.
Canadian officials also compared notes on a number of
bureaucratic stumbling blocks to an effective post-conflict
response, including funding, organization, triggers, and
political will. End Summary.

2. (SBU) S/CRS Coordinator Ambassador John Herbst met with
Canadian counterparts December 21 to discuss areas for
further collaboration as the U.S. and Canada improve their
abilities to respond to post-conflict stabilization and
reconstruction missions.

DND SEEKS COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO POST CONFLICT
--------------------------------------------- ----

3. (SBU) Anne Bradfield, Director General for Force
Development Analysis in the Department of National Defence
(DND), said there is an emerging consensus at DND that in
post-conflict stabilization the military should not play a
lead role, but rather a supporting role to civilian agencies.
She described three waves in the evolution of
thinking about post-conflict operations. First was CIMIC --
civil-military cooperation teams that support military
operations by garnering local support through civil affairs
and humanitarian projects. Next was the 3D approach,
which sought to integrate diplomatic, development, and
defense tools in support of a foreign policy objective.
The emerging concept is for a "comprehensive approach," which
puts all available tools in support of the center of
gravity, which is generally governance. Bradfield said this
evolution in thinking was on display during recent
briefings for the commander of the next rotation in the
Afghan mission. There was more emphasis on governance and
an emerging understanding that security operations will be
conducted in support of governance, and the new commander
wanted to ensure he had a clear understanding of how this
shift was playing out in terms of resources and
responsibilities. Bradfield said this would change the way
the PRTs are organized and will change military operations to
emphasize longevity and staying power, rather than short-term
offensive operations.

4. (SBU) Bradfield expressed frustration with MNE-5 which she
said had led to a number of positive tactical gains but is
lacking an overarching objective and end-state. She cited
dismissive attitudes by the chair toward the role of NGOs and
questioned the logic of bringing in various countries in the
process who do not have established post-conflict
capabilities. She also noted some SHAPE officials dismissed
a Canadian presentation dealing with the "comprehensive
Qa Canadian presentation dealing with the "comprehensive
approach" because it was not yet approved by SHAPE
headquarters. Bradfield wondered if, rather than putting our
heads down and pushing forward, we would not benefit more
from taking some time out to figure out what we have achieved
and where we need to collectively go in the MNE process.

5. (SBU) Bradfield also expressed a need to develop doctrine
that would then be institutionalized and lead to greater
clarity in training and operations. She decried the current
situation where Canadian agencies conduct lessons learned
exercises and make changes to their SOPs in isolation, and
seek to push things in a true "whole of government" direction
with all agencies reading from the same script. Bradfield
expressed a desire to continue to collaborate closely with us
as we develop new doctrines and capabilities, and to achieve
as much "jointness" in our systems as possible.

PCO SEEKS CLARITY IN ENGAGING THE CIVILIAN CAPABILITIES
--------------------------------------------- ----------


OTTAWA 00000026 002 OF 003


6. (SBU) The Privy Council's Assistant Secretary to the
Cabinet for Foreign Affairs (rough equivalent to an NSC
Director) Jill Sinclair voiced interest in U.S. efforts to
plan and organize for post-conflict stabilization, in
particular the triggers that we use to know when to engage.
She asked about our planning and perceived role for S/CRS
teams in current and future hot spots and about our ability
to achieve inter-agency harmony in the process and
how we align new capabilities with standing DOD
organizations. Sinclair also said she was interested in
staying in close touch as we work these issues in NATO and
the G-8.

RCMP KEEPS UP A RESPECTABLE PACE OF DEPLOYMENTS
--------------------------------------------- --

7. (SBU) The RCMP's Director General for International
Policing Dave Beer said that the RCMP's goal is to have 200
police officers in a deployable status (either deployed or
ready to deploy) at any given time. There are currently 166
deployed, including 100 in Haiti, 25 in Afghanistan, and 15
in Darfur. They are conducting a mix of training and
conventional civ/pol duties, some armed and some unarmed, as
part of international missions. Between two-thirds and
three-fourths of the officers are from partner agencies, e.g.
local police forces, and not the RCMP itself. The RCMP pays
all costs for the deployment, including reimbursing the
sending agency for salaries; personnel are guaranteed their
jobs will be available when they return.

8. (SBU) Beer described the Afghanistan mission as having the
highest profile of anything the RCMP is doing abroad,
although it is much smaller than the Haiti mission. He said
the main role is training the Afghan police but there
is not yet adequate security to deploy a conventional
civilian police mission, which will require NATO militaries
to continue their lead role in police development in the
field for the near future. He described the slow progress
in the Afghan police force, who are being killed at a ratio
of 22 to 1 compared to the Afghan National Army, while
getting paid only 70% of what a soldier earns, when they are
paid at all.

TRIGGERS, THE UN ROLE, THE BENCH, AND SUCCESS
---------------------------------------------

9. (SBU) Ambassador Herbst later attended a luncheon that
included participation from the Stabilization and
Reconstruction Task Force (START), Public Safety Canada, the
RCMP, DND, PCO, Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA), and the Department of Foreign Affairs and
International Trade (DFAIT). Canadian colleagues raised the
issue of how to develop a system of triggers that can link
what is happening in a foreign country on the brink to the
political process and decision-making in our own countries.
One participant suggested that the UN remains the best place
to do reconstruction and stabilization and urged the U.S. to
support efforts to make the UN more effective at such
missions. He recounted historical data that indicates UN-led
missions are more successful than those done unilaterally or
in coalition.

10. (SBU) There was also a discussion of the development of a
"bench" of secondary responders for post-conflict
stabilization, and high-regard for the U.S. effort to
systematize and fund a robust bench, in contrast to the
Canadian system, which one participants described as
"volunteers on paper." Finally, there was a discussion of
what constitutes "success" in post-conflict stabilization,
Qwhat constitutes "success" in post-conflict stabilization,
and the need to be realistic about what can be achieved.

MIX OF DISASTER AND NON-DISASTER RESPONSE
-----------------------------------------

11. (SBU) Assistant Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs for
International Security Colleen Swords described some of the
bureaucratic complexities Canada faces as it develops a more
robust post-conflict response mechanism. She said
triggers remain undeveloped, but even with an approved
trigger mechanism to highlight an emerging crisis it is not
a given that the government will see it is in Canada's
interest to respond. Swords said that because the START
team has a role in natural as well as man-made disasters, it
can often be pulled off in large numbers and expend
considerable amounts of its budget in what are increasingly
"routine" crisis. Funding for both man-made and natural

OTTAWA 00000026 003 OF 003


disasters also come from multiple sources, Swords said, e.g.,
only CIDA can fund most Iraq projects, while the helicopters
for Darfur come from the START team. There has also been a
proliferation of task forces to show emphasis to a certain
issue or area, according to Swords, including for Sudan,
Afghanistan, and Haiti, but this then creates a new
bureaucratic dynamic. Swords reiterated that Canada remains
eager to increase international involvement and
synchronization.

Visit Canada,s Economy and Environment Forum at
http://www.intelink.gov/communities/state/can ada

BREESE

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