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Cablegate: German Out-of-Area Deployment Update

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RR RUEHAG RUEHAST RUEHDA RUEHDF RUEHFL RUEHIK RUEHKW RUEHLA RUEHLN
RUEHLZ RUEHPOD RUEHROV RUEHSR RUEHVK RUEHYG
DE RUEHRL #0105/01 0241706
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
R 241706Z JAN 08
FM AMEMBASSY BERLIN
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 0301
INFO RUEHNO/USMISSION USNATO BRUSSELS BE
RUEKJCS/SECDEF WASHINGTON DC
RUEHBS/USEU BRUSSELS BE
RUEHZL/EUROPEAN POLITICAL COLLECTIVE
RUCNFRG/FRG COLLECTIVE

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 BERLIN 000105

SIPDIS

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: MOPS PREL MARR NATO EUN GM AF SU KV BK LE GG ET
SUBJECT: German Out-Of-Area Deployment Update

REF: Berlin 1822

1. (SBU) As of January 13, Germany had 6,481 military personnel in
out-of-area deployments (compared to 7,173 in late December), plus
5,700 on stand-by for the NATO Response Force (NRF). All military
out-of-area (OOA) deployments, with the exception of those in
support of UN observer missions, require parliamentary approval. A
law regulates the parliamentary process, allowing expedited
procedures only for non-controversial deployments. What follows is
a brief run-down on Germany's current OOA deployments. (Note: OOA
deployments are defined as deployments outside the territory of the
NATO member states. End Note.)

--------------------------------------------- -
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
--------------------------------------------- -

2. (SBU) The Bundeswehr currently has 3,206 military personnel
(3,176 in December) operating under ISAF in Afghanistan based on a
one-year combined mandate approved by the Bundestag October 12.
This combined mandate includes deployment of six Tornado
reconnaissance aircraft, which were previously covered by a separate
mandate first approved in March 2007. The troop ceiling for the
mandate is 3,500, which combines the previously separate troop
ceilings for ISAF (3,000) and the Tornados (500). Because the
Tornados only require about 200 troops, the merger automatically
created additional headroom for Germany to take on additional tasks.


3. (SBU) The German government has announced its intention to use
this additional troop capacity to boost the Bundeswehr's involvement
in the training of the Afghan National Army (ANA). Some ideas under
consideration include expanding a drivers and mechanics school in
Kabul into a logisticians' training center, setting up a combat
engineer school in Kabul and establishing an infantry training
center in Mazar-e-Sharif.

4. (SBU) Germany currently provides an Operational Mentoring and
Liaison Team (OMLT) for a maneuver battalion based in Kunduz. It
also contributes to two multinational OMLTs -- one for the HQ of the
209th Corps and the other for the HQ of the 1st Brigade of the 209th
Corps. Both HQs are located in Mazar-E-Sharif. In early January,
Germany provided an additional OMLT temporarily for a second
maneuver battalion based in Mazar-E-Sharif. This German OMLT will
remain in place until Latvia is ready to take responsibility for it
in fall 2008. A new ANA brigade -- 2nd Brigade, 209th Corps -- is
scheduled to be stood up in Kunduz in the fall of 2008. Germany
plans to contribute four of the seven OMLTs required for this
brigade. Germany also plans to build garrisons for the new brigade
in the north.

5. (SBU) Germany has been active in ISAF since the operation's
creation in January 2002, and was the first country to volunteer to
lead an ISAF Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) outside of Kabul.
Germany currently commands ISAF's northern region (RC-North), where
it leads two of the five PRTs (Kunduz and Feyzabad) as well as the
Forward Support Base in Mazar-E-Sharif. Norway has announced that
it will cease providing the company-sized (approximately 150
soldiers plus support personnel) Quick Reaction Force (QRF) for
RC-North in June 2008. In the absence of any other capable or
willing countries, Germany has indicated that it will take on this
role. Parliamentarians from all parties agree that the QRF can be
covered by the current ISAF mandate. If and when Germany takes over
responsibility for the RC-North QRF, it will for the first time, in
theory, have a force that can be deployed around the country quickly
on short notice and which can conduct combat missions. This will
constitute a significant change in the character of the Bundeswehr
deployment in Afghanistan, whose forces up to now have been focused
almost solely on stabilization and force protection missions.

6. (SBU) The ISAF mandate limits normal Bundeswehr operations to
Kabul and RC-North, but allows temporary, limited deployments to
other parts of the country on a case-by-case basis. In early May,
at the request of ISAF, Defense Minister Jung approved the temporary
deployment (three to four weeks) of a three-man psychological
operations team to southern Afghanistan. German radio operators
have also been deployed temporarily to provide communication support
to Regional Command South in Kandahar. However, MOD has thus far
not allowed German OMLTs to accompany their ANA units on deployments
outside the north. Meanwhile, the ISAF mandate allows the
reconnaissance aircraft to operate throughout Afghanistan, but
restricts the distribution of the resulting information outside of
ISAF channels. The information can only be passed to OEF in
instances where doing so directly supports ISAF operations.

---------------------------------
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)
---------------------------------

BERLIN 00000105 002 OF 003

7. (SBU) The parliamentary mandate for OEF was extended for one year
on November 15. It allows for the deployment of up to 1,400
personnel. Currently, there are 246 German sailors (no change since
December) and one frigate under OEF, operating around the Horn of
Africa. The mandate authorizes the deployment of up to 100 German
Special Forces (KSK) in Afghanistan. Reportedly, no KSK have been
deployed to Afghanistan under OEF in more than two years, which led
some politicians to question the utility of maintaining this part of
the mandate during the recent debate over its renewal.

8. (SBU) Despite parliamentary approval, OEF remains unpopular in
Germany due to misperceptions of the mission as a strictly combat
operation and its association with civilian casualties. OEF is an
especially divisive issue within the Social Democratic Party (SDP),
the junior party in the Grand Coalition government. Some 42 SPD
parliamentarians -- about 20% of the caucus -- voted against
extending the OEF mandate this past year. While significantly
higher than in 2006, when only 13 opposed OEF, the number of
defections is significantly below what the SPD suffered in March
2007, when 69 voted against the original deployment of Tornado
reconnaissance aircraft to Afghanistan.

9. (SBU) During the parliamentary debate on OEF, FM Steinmeier
called for evaluating whether OEF could be mandated in the future
through a UNSCR, rather than continuing to rely on the self-defense
provisions of Article 51 of the UN Charter. He also called for
examining the possibility of transferring the ANA training mission
from OEF to ISAF, thereby continuing the trend toward an ever larger
ISAF and smaller OEF. Finally, he proposed holding an international
conference in the coming months to take stock of progress in
achieving the goals of the Afghanistan Compact. Thus far, there has
been no concrete follow-up by the German government on Steinmeier's
proposals.

10. (SBU) Renewal of the OEF mandate could be even more challenging
next year, in the run-up to the 2009 national parliamentary
election, given that popular support for the mission remains low.

-------------------
Kosovo Force (KFOR)
-------------------

11. (SBU) Germany currently has 2,226 military personnel (compared
to 2,792 in December) in KFOR, far below that allowed under the
parliamentary mandate (8,500). The Operational Reserve Force (ORF)
battalion, temporary deployed to Kosovo from mid-November to
mid-December, returned as scheduled. The mandate is extended
automatically each year unless there is a change to the UNSC
Resolution framework for the Kosovo Force. While it remains unclear
whether a new parliamentary mandate will be required in the event of
a unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo, all political
parties agree that the international military presence, including
German forces, must remain in place.

-----------------------------------
European Union Force (EUFOR) Bosnia
-----------------------------------

12. (SBU) Germany currently has 130 soldiers (compared to 269 in
December) in Bosnia as part of the EU's Operation ALTHEA. Most of
the German soldiers are deployed as liaison and observer teams. The
mandate, amended December 1, allows the deployment of up to 2,400
military personnel. This operation extends automatically unless
there is a change to its underlying UNSC resolution. In 2007,
Germany reduced its military presence in Bosnia by more than 700
military personnel in coordination with other allies. Germany is
relying more on home-based reserve forces and less on deployed
troops to provide the necessary security support for the
implementation of reform measures mandated by the Dayton Peace
agreement.

--------------------------------------------- ---
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
--------------------------------------------- ---

13. (SBU) Germany leads UNIFIL's naval component and has 614
military personnel deployed (compared to 631 in December). The
current mandate, authorizing up to 1,400 military personnel, expires
on September 12, 2008. The German MOD has announced its intention
to hand over leadership of UNIFIL's naval component in February
2008.

------------------------
Sudan (UNAMID and UNMIS)
------------------------

14. (SBU) Germany currently has 42 military observers (no change

BERLIN 00000105 003 OF 003


since December) in the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), monitoring the
implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The parliament
imposed a caveat barring military observers from going to Darfur
without prior consultation with the Bundestag Foreign Relations
Committee's chairman and ranking members. The mandate, which was
extended for an additional year on November 15, allows for the
participation of up to 75 German military observers.

15. (SBU) The Bundestag approved a new mandate in support of the
UN/AU hybrid mission in Darfur (UN Assistance Mission in Darfur,
UNAMID) on November 15. The new UNAMID mandate replaces the
previous AMIS mandate. It authorizes the Bundeswehr to deploy
transport aircraft and up to 200 troops in support of the UN/AU
hybrid mission.

----------------
Georgia (UNOMIG)
----------------

16. (SBU) Germany has been part of the UN Observer Mission in the
Abkhazian region of Georgia (UNOMIG) since 1998 and currently has 12
personnel (no change since October) stationed there, most of whom
are medical personnel and military observers. To meet a UN request
for additional medical personnel, the German cabinet decided last
August to raise the personnel ceiling for this mission from 13 to
20.

-----------------------
Other minor deployments
-----------------------

17. (SBU) Two military observers serve in the United Nations Mission
in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE). One German military observer is
seconded to the United Nation Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
(UNAMA). The Bundeswehr has seconded 41 military personnel to
Strategic Medical Evacuation (STRATAIRMEDEVAC), for which no
parliamentary mandate is required, since it is not an armed
deployment and the stand-by aircraft are stationed in Germany.

-----------------------
Other force commitments
-----------------------

18. (SBU) The Bundeswehr currently has 5,700 soldiers committed for
the tenth rotation of the NATO Response Force (NRF). There will be
no Bundeswehr soldiers assigned to EU Battle Groups in the first
half of 2008.

-------------------------
Bundeswehr transformation
-------------------------

19. (SBU) The Bundeswehr is currently undergoing a transformation
process, the goal of which is to be able to send up to 14,000
soldiers to as many as five different theaters for stabilization
missions by 2010. The Bundeswehr will be reduced from its
pre-transformation level of 270,000 to a final strength of 250,000
(162,300 Army, 62,700 Air Force and 25,000 Navy). The new
Bundeswehr will be composed of three different groups: 35,000 for
intervention forces, 70,000 for stabilization forces and 147,000 for
support forces. Part of the Bundeswehr's transformation is a
comprehensive rebasing program, which is also intended to be
completed by 2010. Moreover, transformation includes the
procurement of new equipment to fill capability gaps, mainly in the
fields of strategic air lift, network centric warfare and armored
vehicles. Due to limited funding (Germany spends just 1.3 percent
of its GDP on defense, with few prospects of significant increases
in the future), the equipping side of transformation is behind
schedule.

TIMKEN

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