Cablegate: Morocco: 2008 Annual Trafficking in Persons Report

DE RUEHCL #0039/01 0581242
P 271242Z FEB 08







E.O. 12958: N/A

REFS: 08 STATE 002731

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1. (U) This cable responds to action request (reftel) for updated
information on the Moroccan government's efforts to combat
trafficking in persons from April 2007 to March 2008.

Morocco Headed in the Right Direction

2. (SBU) Over the past year, the GOM continued to prioritize its
law enforcement activities intended to investigate, prosecute, and
deter what the GOM describes as "human-trafficking rings." In 2007,
Morocco continued its strategy to fight trafficking based on five
major pillars: security measures, legislation, the creation of
institutions specializing in fighting illegal migration,
international cooperation, and public awareness campaigns. It
should be underlined, however, that the GOM makes no distinction
between migrant smuggling and human trafficking. The GOM understood
both activities as illegal and exploitative, which often result in
the abuse and even the demise of Moroccans and third country
nationals who seek to emigrate clandestinely. With GOM
encouragement, Moroccan civil society was increasingly and visibly
active on TIP issues.

3. (SBU) Morocco's geographic position as a natural conduit for
sub-Saharan trafficking continued to be addressed by Morocco and the
European Union (EU). Despite efforts made by both Spain and Morocco
to stem trafficking and illegal migration in the past few years, the
problem persisted. Throughout the year, the two countries
reaffirmed their commitment to stemming the flow of illegal migrants
across the border in the north, as well as in the waterways between
Morocco and the Canary Islands. In addition, in August 2007, Spain
and Morocco signed an accord to prevent illegal migration of minors,
guarantee them protection and facilitate their repatriation.
Morocco also signed a 1.3 million euro agreement with Catalonia to
prevent illegal migration of minors. The GOM signed a similar, 2.0
million euro agreement with Italy. Morocco continued to work
closely with the Spanish Government on resolving the issue of the
approximately 6,000 Moroccan minors living illegally in Spain. The
Spanish Government will not repatriate minors until it is certain
the young Moroccans have a safe and healthy environment available to
them in Morocco. Moreover, agreement is needed from the parents or
guardians for the return, which is often difficult to acquire.

4. (SBU) Moroccan officials continued to assert that the POLISARIO
orchestrated the illicit transfer of migrants through the Western
Sahara and northern Mauritania to the Canary Islands. UN officials
in the Western Sahara, however, claimed they saw no evidence of
POLISARIO involvement in migrant smuggling in any organized or
sanctioned way.

5. (U) PARA 27: Overview of Morocco's activities to combat

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trafficking in persons.

-- 27/A. Morocco is a country of origin and destination for
domestic trafficking, generally involving young rural children
recruited to work as child maids or laborers in urban areas. It is
also a popular country of transit for internationally trafficked
men, women, and children. It is a country of origin for men, women,
and minors trafficked to European countries and the Middle East.
According to the GOM, international organizations, and numerous
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the number of Moroccan minors
being trafficked and smuggled into Spain, Italy, and other European
countries increased in 2007. The International Organization for
Migration (IOM) worked with the Governments of Morocco and Italy,
and Moroccan NGOs to stop the trafficking of minors. The first
phase of this cooperative plan, completed in 2007, was a survey to
measure the magnitude of the problem. The survey identified the
most vulnerable persons, pinpointed the regions from which persons
are trafficked, and proposed the most effective methods of
prevention. As a result of the study, the GOM and GOI, along with
the IOM, began work in on the SALAM (Solidarity with children of
Morocco) project in March 2008. The project will continue until
September 2009. IOM chose the town of Khouribga to begin the
project after it found it to be the second largest city of origin
for unaccompanied Moroccan minors in Italy, following only

-- In addition, the IOM, UNHCR, UNDP, UNICEF, and UNIFEM began a
four-month study in February 2008, to evaluate the extent of
trafficking versus smuggling in Morocco. An assessment committee,
to include one GOM official, will be formed at the end of the study
to evaluate the results and make recommendations to address the
issue. This will be the first comprehensive study on trafficking in
Morocco, as well as the first time the GOM will have acknowledged
the difference between smuggling and trafficking in persons. UNICEF
expects to release the results of the study in the summer of 2008.

-- According to a spokesman from the Ministry of the Interior (MOI),
the number of illegal migration attempts from Morocco to Europe fell
in 2007. The officials claimed that Morocco successfully and
humanely repatriated over 1,200 illegal sub-Saharan migrants in
2007. The MOI representatives also stated that more then 260
trafficking networks were dismantled in 2007.

-- Both Moroccan boys and girls were at risk of being trafficked for
labor. Young girls were trafficked from the countryside to work as
domestic laborers in larger cities. Boys were farmed out as
"apprentices" in the artisanal sector, construction field or in
mechanic shops where they worked carrying supplies and performed
menial tasks.

-- Sub-Saharan women, who often originated as voluntary migrants,
were forced into prostitution to pay off debts to smugglers. Some

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were held captive and forced into prostitution. Moroccan women were
lured to Saudi Arabia, Syria, Cyprus, and the Gulf as domestic
workers and forced, upon arrival, to work in bars and brothels. The
Mission has first hand as well as media and anecdotal information
regarding trafficking of Moroccan women to Syria.

-- 27/B. Domestic trafficking in Morocco has historically involved
three vulnerable groups as victims: (a) girls sent involuntarily to
serve as child maids, (b) young boys sent to work as apprentices,
and (c) women forced to perform sexual services. There have been
several instances where Moroccan women were unknowingly trafficked
abroad to become sex workers after being promised jobs as domestics.
It appears that the majority of the girls and young women pressed
into domestic servitude and sexual tourism are from rural villages
in the Middle and High Atlas Mountains. However, according to some
NGOs this phenomenon may have begun to change as more girls may
recently have been trafficked from poor urban areas. Human rights
advocates charged that "intermediaries" approach poor parents
promising that their children will have a chance at a better life as
child maids or as apprentices where they will learn a trade and earn
money for the family.

-- Sub-Saharan Africans transiting Morocco, destined for Europe,
also fell victim to traffickers. According to Pastor David Brown of
the French Anglican Church, who provided humanitarian assistance to
sub-Saharan clandestine migrants, "handlers" pressured the majority
of female migrants into prostitution and involuntary servitude to
pay for food and shelter. These claims were reinforced by officials
at UNHCR in Rabat, as well as officials at IOM, who worked directly
with sub-Saharan migrants.

-- As a country of origin, Morocco's rural and urban poor were a
ready pool for traffickers and migrant smugglers, who promised a
better life to their recruits. According to UNICEF and local NGO
social welfare advocates, traffickers or "intermediaries" worked
mainly in isolated rural villages in the Atlas Mountains where they
persuaded desperate parents that their children would be better off
as apprentices or child maids. In some instances, these youngsters
and teenagers ended up as sex workers in popular Moroccan tourist
destinations, namely Marrakech, Agadir, and Tangier.

-- Political will existed at the highest levels to combat
trafficking in persons. Morocco recognized its problem with
trafficking as a transit country and country of origin. The GOM has
asked both the U.S. and the EU for assistance with border challenges
and repatriation issues. Morocco continued to participate in
regional and international conferences focusing on how to counter
trafficking and smuggling. Morocco fully supported civil society's
efforts to fight human trafficking and smuggling.

-- 27/C. The Prime Minister's Secretariat for Migration Affairs
served as the coordinating office for agencies concerned with

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migration and illegal immigration. Anti-trafficking activities were
primarily carried out by the Ministry of the Interior (MOI),
although it involved different entities falling under it:
clandestine immigration is the purview of immigration officials;
prostitution falls under the police; while child brides are under
the purview of local authorities who ultimately report to the MOI.
Three departments were chiefly responsible for child labor issues:
the Ministry of Employment and Professional Training, the
Secretariat for Families, Children, and the Handicapped, and the

Ministry of National Education, specifically its Department of
Non-Formal Education, which tried to provide remedial education and
job training to child maids and "apprentices." Prosecution of
individuals charged with trafficking or violation of labor laws fell
to the Ministry of Justice (MOJ).

-- The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) was also an integral part
of the system and had a two pronged system to deal with migration
and trafficking. One department worked on Moroccan policy issues
dealing with international migration while the other coordinated
closely with international organizations represented domestically,
such as UNHCR, IOM, UNICEF and others who dealt directly with

-- 27/D. While the GOM continued its efforts to fight trafficking,
the cost was a hardship. The GOM continuously requested help from
the EU and individual countries. While funding to assist with
border security was promised to Morocco by the EU, according to
officials at the MFA, only a small portion was delivered.
Corruption in general was a problem; however, it did not appear to
have a serious impact on trafficking.

-- 27/E. The GOM did not differentiate between trafficking and
illegal migration; therefore, it did not monitor for evidence of
trafficking specifically. According to MFA officials, Morocco
continues to heavily guard its northeast border with Algeria and its
far southwest Atlantic border, including the disputed Western Sahara
territory, facing the Canary Islands to interdict trafficking and
migrant smuggling. It also stepped up enforcement at airports,
train stations, and shipping ports. The GOM had a substantial and
well-organized immigration, customs, and security apparatus that
closely monitored the country's borders. Border patrol officers
routinely found clandestine migrants hidden in trucks and freighters
destined for Spain.

-- Some statistics were made public through the MOI. These
frequently included the number of people arrested, trafficking gangs
dismantled, and the number of prevented incidents of illegal

6. (U) PARA 28: Investigation and Prosecution of Traffickers

-- No new legislation regarding trafficking has been enacted since
the last TIP report. The GOM officially did not differentiate

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between smuggling and trafficking.

-- 28/A. On November 20, 2003, Morocco's new Immigration and
Emigration Act 02-03, entitled "Entry and Stay of Foreigners in the
Kingdom of Morocco, Illegal Emigration and Immigration," was
published in the Official Bulletin. Under Title II, Articles
50-56, the law prohibits trafficking in persons and sets specific
punishments. It severely punishes people involved in migrant
smuggling and human trafficking, including public officials who take
a hear-no-evil and see-no-evil approach to violations of Moroccan
immigration law. Title II makes it abundantly clear that all
individuals and their accomplices involved in human trafficking face
high fines and prison sentences. Asset forfeiture is also
established, and the courts are given extra-territorial judicial
powers to rule on violations of Moroccan law, which take place
outside Morocco. Moroccan immigration law holds public officials
accountable. The act criminalizes acts not only carried out by the
operatives, but also by those who provide safe haven to smuggled
persons and punishes security officers who fail to carry out their
duties. The law is especially harsh on public officials who are
caught promoting illegal emigration and/or migration.

-- Article 50 stipulates a fine of 3,000 to 10,000 dirhams (USD
390-1,297) and/or one to six months imprisonment, aside from any
punishments under the Penal Code, be assessed against any person
attempting to enter and/or exit Moroccan territory by land, sea, or
air by presenting a fraudulent travel document(s) or by traveling
under an assumed name or by using falsified documents. It also
prohibits attempted entry/departure from points other than
recognized border crossings and designated points of departure.

-- Article 51 provides that a prison sentence of two to five years
and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 dirhams (USD 6,486-64,864) be levied
against any public official (whether in charge of or a member of the
"public forces"), travel agent, or transportation personnel
operating carriers by land, water, and/or air who attempts to
facilitate the illegal entry or exit of a person.

-- Article 52 dictates a prison sentence of six months to three
years and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 dirhams (USD 6,486-64,864)
shall be assessed against anyone found to have facilitated,
organized, or participated in the illegal entry or exit of Moroccans
and/or foreign nationals in a manner detailed in Articles 50-51 and
whether or not payment was made for his/her services.

-- Article 52 also specifies increased penalties of 10 to 15 years
in prison and a fine of 500,000 to 1,000,000 dirhams (USD
64,864-129,727) be levied against individuals who are repeat
offenders and are discovered to have been habitually involved in
human smuggling.

-- Penalties of 10 to 15 years imprisonment and fines of 500,000 to
1,000,000 dirhams (USD 64,864-129,727) are to be assessed against

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individual members of any association or cartel created for the
express purpose of migrant smuggling. Leaders of these associations
are also subject to the penalties prescribed in Article 294,
Paragraph 2, of the Penal Code.

-- Moreover, Article 52 inflicts even greater punishments of 15 to
20 years in prison should the would-be emigrant or immigrant suffer
serious injury and "permanent incapacity" is the result. If the
migrant is killed while being transported, the trafficker is subject
to life imprisonment.

-- Should convictions be handed down, Article 53 grants the courts
the right to confiscate the means of transport, whether public,
private, or rental, used to commit violations of the law.
Transportation assets of trafficking ring members and their
accomplices may also be seized, whether or not they participated in
the operation.

-- Article 54 orders that a fine of 10,000 to 1,000,000 dirhams (USD
1,297-129,727) be assessed against any corporate entity found guilty
of immigration infractions as specified above. Corporate entities
are also subject to confiscation orders.

-- Article 55 requires that judgments be made public in three daily
newspapers, which cover the jurisdiction where the case was heard.

-- Finally, Article 56 establishes that the Moroccan courts may hear
cases brought against foreigners accused of violating Moroccan
immigration law. The courts are given extra-territorial
jurisdiction in Article 56, which says they may rule on infractions
of Moroccan law, which occur outside Morocco's borders and are
committed by non-Moroccans.

-- 28/B. Penalties under articles 497-504 and 540-549 for
traffickers deceiving, defrauding, or coercing individuals are from
six months to five years' imprisonment and fines of 200 dirhams to
5,000 dirhams (USD 26-648), depending upon whether minors have been

-- 28/C. Morocco does not have a law specifically forbidding labor
trafficking. Moroccan law, however, does forbid clandestine labor.
The violation carries a fine of between 2,000-5,000 dirhams (USD
259-648). In the case of employing children less than 15 years of
age, the fine is increased to 25,000-30,000 dirhams (USD
2,343-3,892). The Moroccan penal code imposes a fine of
5,000-20,000 dirhams (USD 648-2,594), and between one and three
years in prison for anyone convicted of facilitating or encouraging
forced child labor. Forced labor is defined by the penal code as
any illegal work or any work harmful to a child's health, security
or morals.

-- 28/D. The penalty for rape or forcible sexual assault is
dependent upon the involvement of minors and whether the act was

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deemed violent. Rapists can be imprisoned for 5-10 years (article
486). Sexual offenses against minors, not involving violence (i.e.,
intercourse not deemed rape), are punishable by five to ten years
imprisonment (article 484). Perpetrators of similar acts with
violence (rape) face 10-20 years in prison (article 485); if this
results in victim's loss of virginity, the offender faces 20-30
years in jail (article 488). Actual sentences handed down may be
less or more severe depending on whether it is a first offense or
attenuating circumstances existed.

-- 28/E. While prostitution and solicitation of prostitutes was
illegal, local law enforcement often closed its eyes to the problem.
Activities of brothel owners/operators, criminals, pimps and
enforcers were criminalized; enforcement, however, was sporadic at
best. Prostitution was commonplace in large cites like Casablanca,
Marrakech, Fez, Tangier and Agadir, but also posed a problem in
smaller cities and in rural areas as well. The Government
prosecuted cases against individuals who coerced or forced women
into performing sexual services.

-- 28/F. According to MOI reports, the Government claimed to have
broken up more than 260 trafficking/smuggling rings in 2007.

-- 28/G. Law enforcement officers often participated in training
and seminars that covered trafficking when these programs were
offered by other countries. In July 2007, 25-30 officials from a
variety of ministries attended Counter-trafficking training provided
by the IOM through the MFA's Center for Migrants Rights. In
addition to the officials, 25-30 NGO leaders dealing with migrants
participated in the training. In winter 2007, the GOM approached
the IOM with a request to provide the MFA with assistance on
developing a set of "best practices" for fighting sex tourism. The
request was made to assist an inter-ministry working group with the
development of an Action Plan to Fight Sex Tourism.

-- 28/H. Morocco was party to several bilateral and multilateral
conventions on judicial cooperation and extradition of criminals
with European, Arab, Asian, and African countries, as well as the
United States.

-- 28/I. The GOM did not extradite individuals charged with
trafficking, although government officials note that Morocco does
have bilateral extradition treaties with relevant countries.
Morocco did not extradite its nationals in accordance with Article
721 of the Penal Code. The GOM has no plans to modify the law.

-- 28/J. There was no evidence of national government involvement
or tolerance for trafficking. On a local level, however, there were
rumors that public servants acting on their own sought pay-offs or
bribes to look the other way in some cases of migrant smuggling and
trafficking. The Government attempted to crack down on corruption
within the public sector.

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-- 28/K. The GOM prosecuted to the full extent of the law its own
officials, as it does other individuals, involved in trafficking.

-- 28/L. In July 2007, Moroccan troops, posted in the Cote d'Ivoire
on a UN Peacekeeping mission, were accused of the sexual abuse of
Ivoirian women and girls. The GOM fully supported the investigation
of the troops. A joint UN - Moroccan investigative committee was
established in August 2007 to investigate the incident. The
allegations were dropped when none of the alleged victims would
appear before the committee. The African Press Agency reported in
August 2007, that a UN document claimed that 13 of the Ivoirian
girls confessed to having been manipulated by an NGO into accusing
the Moroccan soldiers of sexual abuse in exchange for food and

-- 28/M. Morocco had a problem with sex tourism. The phenomenon
was identified by the GOM as a growing problem. An Irish national
was sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of USD 1,300, in
August 2007, for sexually abusing two minor children less than 16
years of age. The verdict was overturned in November 2007 by the
Court of Appeal of Agadir, and the Irish national was released. In
February 2008, a Spanish national was convicted of pedophilia and
sentenced to a four-year prison term. His Moroccan accomplice was
sentenced to 10 months. The Spaniard was also ordered to return the
monies he collected from the victims in exchange for promises to
help them immigrate to Spain. Also in February, four Arab tourists
from the Gulf were arrested along with four prostitutes, one of whom
was a minor, and their pimp. The group was being held pending

7. (U) PARA 29: Protection and Assistance to Victims

-- 29/A. The GOM did not provide assistance to foreign victims of
trafficking by way of providing temporary or permanent residency
status or other relief from deportation.

-- 29/B. Morocco's Center for Migrant Rights provided counseling
services, including an explanation of one's legal and civil rights,
to Moroccan migrants; however, legal representation was not offered,
nor was shelter, medical or psychological services. The GOM relies
on the NGO community to provide most services to victims of

-- Child maids who have fled abusive employers or women forced into
prostitution that have fled the abusive situation, relied solely on
the Moroccan and international NGO community. In some cases foreign
victims of trafficking were able to seek assistance from the NGO
community. At least one Christian NGO catered solely to the migrant
community and offered medical and financial support to victims of

--29/C. The GOM provided modest funds to national NGOs offering
shelter and services to victims of domestic trafficking. In

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addition, it offered teachers and social workers to support national
NGOs working with child maids. At the Ministry of Labor, it
provided offices to the International Labor Organization (ILO)'s
International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC),
which worked on the child maid problem. The GOM allowed authorized
NGOs to solicit tax-free donations from citizens, residents, and
companies, indirectly assisting these non-profit elements of civil
society to provide services to trafficking victims.

-- 29/D. The GOM did not differentiate between victims of
trafficking and voluntarily smuggled migrants; therefore, there was
no data on the number of trafficking victims.

-- 29/E. Prostitution was not legal in Morocco.

-- 29/F. Morocco did not differentiate between victims of
trafficking and smuggled migrants. Foreign trafficking victims were
treated as illegal migrants. They were often arrested and deported
along with other migrants. Morocco routinely rounded up illegal
sub-Saharan migrants and victims of trafficking and left them at the
Algerian border, often without food or water. There were first hand
reports from Refugees Without Borders (MSF) of abuse of both
migrants and trafficked persons at the hands of Moroccan police and
gangs of sub-Saharans in the frontier area between Morocco and

-- For domestic victims of trafficking, in 2003 Parliament changed
the Penal Code so that runaway child maids may be administratively
returned to their families instead of being arrested for vagrancy.
If returning them to their parents was not possible or feasible,
they would be placed in separate youth centers, not mixed in with
juvenile delinquents.

-- Morocco's November 2003 Immigration and Emigration Act carefully
defined the rights of illegal immigrants, economic migrants, and
asylum seekers in Title II, Article 38. This article also
pinpointed the prerogatives immigration officials have in protecting
Morocco's borders. The statute (and the way the law was
implemented) blurred the distinction between trafficked persons and
economic migrants. It set forth limits to how long a non-Moroccan
may be detained and under what conditions. The law furthermore
listed the rights to which an intending immigrant, non-resident
alien, casual visitor, or trafficked person was entitled.

-- 29/G. While victims were not encouraged to file civil suits
against traffickers, they often testified on behalf of the GOM when
it sought to prosecute trafficking cases. Specific numbers of
victims who testified were not available.

-- 29/H. We are unaware of any specific protections, other than
laws forbidding the various forms of trafficking, that the
Government provided to victims of trafficking or witnesses in cases
against traffickers.

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-- 29/I. Morocco offers some specialized training for government
officials in dealing with victims of trafficking. With the
assistance of IOM, the Government trained diplomats in countries
that are prime destinations or transit countries, i.e., Spain, Italy
and the Gulf region, for Moroccan victims of trafficking.
Statistics on the number of those assisted and exact type of
assistance were not available.

-- GOM officials from a variety of ministries including Foreign
Affairs and Cooperation; Health; National Education; and Social
Development, Families and Solidarity attended workshops on
trafficking provided by the IOM in 2007.

-- 29/J. Morocco worked with NGOs and the international community,
specifically Spain, Italy and the IOM, to establish shelters and a
system to assist Moroccan minors who have been the victims of
trafficking abroad. In 2007, very few minors were repatriated
according to Ambassador Jaouad El Himdi, MFA Director of Consular
and Social Affairs. El Himdi claimed that for repatriation,
Moroccan family approval was needed and very rarely granted.

-- 29/K. Victims of trafficking in Morocco were assisted by local
NGOs. In addition, some international organizations assisting
victims of trafficking were; the IOM, Medecins sans Frontieres(MSF),
and several Christian charitable organizations in Rabat and
Casablanca. IOM repatriated 577 irregular migrants in the first six
months of 2007, with financial assistance from the Government of
Switzerland. MSF assisted irregular migrants with medical problems
in northern Morocco. We are not aware of any GOM funding for these
two organizations. Several Christian organizations assisted
irregular migrants and victims of trafficking with medical,
financial, and psychological help. Some assisted the migrants by
finding lodging and setting up micro-enterprises. Private
charitable donations funded these programs.

-- The GOM had a large budget to fight illegal migration. However,
since it did not differentiate between trafficking and smuggling,
there were no funds earmarked to assist trafficking victims. In
addition, the GOM claimed it had inadequate funds to deal with the
problem of clandestine migrants or victims of trafficking.

-- The GOM worked very closely with international organizations and
NGOs on internal trafficking, especially in the child labor sector.
In January 2007, the GOM launched a National Plan of Action for
Child to End Child Labor developed in cooperation with UNICEF, IPEC,
and ADROS, the USDOL funded child rescue project. The first phase
of the project, the awareness campaign, lasted from January 22 to
February 23, 2007 and used print media, radio and television to
disseminate information about the dangers of child labor. Phase
two, completed in March 2007, encompassed the signing of five
conventions or compacts between the Ministry of Social Development,
Families and Solidarity and various partners in preparation of the

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implementation of phase three of the plan.

-- The first compact, with the King's National Initiative for Human
Development (INDH), will integrate the INDH goal of attacking
poverty in Morocco with the elimination of child domestics by
providing assistance and education to families who find it necessary
to allow daughters to work as domestics in order to supplement the
family income.

-- The Secretariat of State for Literacy and Non-Formal Education
agreed, in compact two, to continue the awareness campaign begun in
early 2007, educating Moroccans on the dangers of employing or
working as a child domestic. In addition, the Secretariat pledged
to increase non-formal education programs targeted at former child
maids with the goal of reintegrating them into the formal education

-- The third compact, concluded with the National Observatory for
the Rights of Children (ONDE), will mobilize different partners,
governmental and non-governmental, to conduct programs warning
against the employment of child maids. The ONDE will also continue
to work on programs to assist child victims of abuse through legal
and financial support, call centers, and programs for the protection
of child maids.

-- Twenty million dirham (USD 2.6 million) was committed for further
implementation of the Plan of Action by the Moroccan Agency for
Social Development in the fourth compact. This money will be used
to develop the capacities of families to help them create income
generating projects to supplement a meager income instead of placing
their children in the labor market.

-- The final compact was signed with Zakoura Foundation, Morocco's
largest micro-credit NGO. The Foundation agreed to prioritize loans
for families who allow their children to be withdrawn from the labor
market and reintegrated into the educational system on a permanent

-- The third and final phase of the Plan, which will continue until
2015, initiated the process of implementing the agreements noted
above. The project is underway in Greater Casablanca, concentrating
in the regions of Doukkala-Abda and Chaouia-Ouerdigha, Marrakech
focusing on the regions of Tansift-El Haouz, Rabat targeting the
regions of Rabat-Sale and Zemmour-Zaer, Fez and Fez-Boulemane, Taza,
Taounate and Errachidia, all areas known to be struggling with high
percentages of the worst forms of child labor.

-- Domestic NGOs also received some support from the GOM, most often
as in kind donations. The work of these NGOs includes: publicizing
and monitoring the child maid problem; providing remedial education,
vocational training, health care, and recreational opportunities to
child maids; rehabilitating and educating street children,
delinquents and runaways; assisting single mothers to become

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financially independent; educating youth and prostitutes (male and
female) about the dangers of unprotected sex; and advocating for
women's and children's rights.

8. (U) PARA 30: Prevention

-- 30/A. The GOM did not differentiate between trafficking and
irregular migration. However, the GOM did acknowledge that child
labor and irregular migration were problems.

-- 30/B. From January 22 to February 23 2007, the GOM ran an
anti-child labor awareness campaign to inform and educate the
citizens of Morocco. The campaign included brochures, billboards,
advertisements on buses, and radio spots. The objective was to
inform the people of Morocco about the dangers and legal
ramifications of employing child maids. The campaign was very
effective and reached millions of Moroccan citizens. This campaign
targeted both the potential victims of domestic trafficking and the
demand by denouncing the practice of hiring child maids.

-- 30/C. The GOM worked very closely with NGOs dealing with
domestic trafficking. The GOM continued to work with the IOM and
UNHCR on migration issues. In July 2007, the GOM signed an
agreement with UNHCR allowing the UN organization to have full
diplomatic representation in Morocco.

-- 30/D. The GOM monitored immigration and emigration patterns
concerning illegal migration. Law enforcement agencies did not
screen for potential trafficking victims along Morocco's borders.

-- 30/E. In November 2003, in response to a royal edict issued by
King Mohammed VI, the GOM established an overarching agency for
migration matters, the National Agency for Migration and Border
Surveillance. This agency reports to both the Palace and the MOI.
Within the MOI, the Director General of Internal Affairs, Director
of International Cooperation, and Chief of Immigration are
responsible for directing policy. Within the Office of the Prime
Minister, there is a secretariat for migration matters. Other
responsible parties include the police; gendarmes; and MOI border
patrol; the army and navy; the Ministry of Social Development,
Family, and Solidarity; the Ministry of Justice; the Ministry of
National Education; the Minister Delegate in Charge of Moroccans
Living Abroad; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Consular and Social
Affairs Office; and the Customs Service.

-- On a routine basis, officials of the Labor Ministry, which has an
Office of Children's Affairs dedicated to reducing child labor, met
with ILO-IPEC and UNICEF representatives to harmonize policy and
establish programs designed to combat child labor and the
exploitation of children, notably those working as child maids,
junior artisans or apprentices.

-- 30/F. In 2003, the GOM completed its national action plan to

CASABLANCA 00000039 013.2 OF 014

combat trafficking in persons. The following were and continue to
be involved in developing anti-trafficking (smuggling) policies and
programs: The Minister Delegate in Charge of Moroccans Living
Abroad, Office of the Chief of Migration and Immigration Affairs,
Office of the Prime Minister, Office of the Director of
International Cooperation, Ministry of Interior, and Chief of
Immigration, Ministry of Interior.

-- In spring 2007, the same ministries involved in the
anti-trafficking (smuggling) working group, with the addition of the
Ministries of Tourism and Justice began to discuss an Anti-Sex
Tourism Plan of Action. According to MFA, and MOJ officials the
Plan of Action was still being developed. The working group
requested assistance in the form of "best practices" from the IOM.

-- 30/G. In August 2007, the GOM voluntarily assisted in the
investigation of Moroccan peacekeeping troops, accused of sexual
abuse, in the Cote d'Ivoire. Several high ranking Moroccan military
officials served with members of the UN on an investigative panel in
Cote d'Ivoire in July and August 2007, after the allegations
surfaced. Following the investigation, charges were dropped when no
witnesses stepped forward.

-- 30/H. Not Applicable.

-- 30/I. Morocco very closely followed the activities of its
peacekeeping troops. The recent case, noted above, demonstrates
Morocco's dedication to safe peacekeeping efforts. In 2005,
Moroccan troops were accused of sexual assault of women and children
in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Following an investigation by
the UN and Moroccan official, the GOM arrested, prosecuted and
sentenced those involved. Morocco uses this example as part of its
pre-deployment message to those troops on peacekeeping missions to
demonstrate its "zero tolerance" standard.

10. (U) TIP Heroes: Mission Morocco would like to nominate
American citizens Pastor David Brown and Julie Brown of the French
Anglican Church. For the past two and a half years, Pastor and Mrs.
Brown have been working tirelessly to assist sub-Saharan trafficking
victims and clandestine migrants in Morocco, often at great personal
risk. The Browns' church is one of the few places where trafficking
victims can turn for help in Morocco as the GOM does not offer
assistance to these individuals. The Browns welcome 150-200 new
cases each month in Casablanca and Rabat, 25 percent of whom are
women. Upon initial contact, Pastor Brown listens to the victims'
stories, assesses their cases and develops a plan of action for
assistance. The Browns help may come in the form of money,
emergency shelter, food, clothing, counseling, start-up assistance
for micro-enterprises and/or medical help. Mrs. Brown, a certified
nurse, examines each and every new arrival and offers free medical
assistance to anyone who arrives at the church. While all the
Browns' cases are not trafficking victims, Pastor Brown believes

CASABLANCA 00000039 014.2 OF 014

that 90 percent of the women that visit his office are victims, most
of whom have been forced into prostitution and many of whom have
been gang raped either on the journey to Morocco or in the country.
The assistance offered by the Browns has helped many women escape
those dangerous situations and start a safer, more independent life.
The Browns are truly the unsung heroes of trafficking victims in

10. (U) Mission POC on TIP issues is Amy M. Wilson, Labor/Political
Officer, ConGen Casablanca, tel. 212-22-26-45-50, ext. 4151; fax
212-22-20-80-96; mail: PSC 74, Box 24, APO, AE 09718; pouch: 6280
Casablanca Place, Washington, DC 20521-6280; e-mail:

11. Embassy Rabat cleared this message.


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