Cablegate: Daily Summary of Japanese Press 02/04/08

DE RUEHKO #0287/01 0352250
P 042250Z FEB 08





E.O. 12958: N/A



(1) Growing opposition among government officials to restriction on
foreign investment in airports: Idea goes against government policy
of expanding inward foreign direct investment in Japan (Nikkei)

(2) Government underscoring stance of giving priority to Africa with
financial aid plans (Tokyo Shimbun)

(3) Views on strategy for Diet dissolution split in DPJ (Nikkei)

(4) Fierce battle over provisional tax rates: Sudden agreement
between ruling and opposition camps creating commotion in LDP and
DPJ (Mainichi)

(5) Rivalry between "guardians" and "advisers" to Prime Minister
Fukuda (Sankei)

(6) Maher's remarks will wreck Okinawa-U.S. ties: Nakaima (Ryukyu

(7) Poll on the public view of Japan (Yomiuri)


(1) Growing opposition among government officials to restriction on
foreign investment in airports: Idea goes against government policy
of expanding inward foreign direct investment in Japan

NIKKEI (Page 5) (Full)
February 2, 2008

Gaps in opinions on placing restrictions on foreign investment in
airport corporations - a notion the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure
and Transport (MLIT) is now mulling -- have surfaced among
government officials, reflecting a growing concern that the move
could work at cross purposes to the government's policy of boosting
inward foreign direct investment in Japan which is a major pillar of
its growth strategy. MLIT is now undergoing coordination with the
possibility of adopting at a cabinet meeting next week a bill
amending the Airport Consolidation Law that would include the new
restriction. However, an increasing number of officials have begun
to call for putting the idea on the back burner.

The government's Regulatory Reform Council, chaired by Takao
Kusakari, chairman of NKK Line, on Feb. 1 hastily released a stance
of opposing MLIT's plan, noting, "Restricting foreign investment
will dampen foreign companies' desire to invest in Japan, working
negatively for the development of the Japanese economy and the
boosting of the efficiency of airports."

State Minister for Financial Policy Yoshimi Watanabe also told a
news conference the same day, "The idea is diametrically opposed to
the government strategy of boosting inward foreign direct investment
in Japan." MLIT Minister Tetsuzo Fuyushiba is insisting, "A specific
foreign company controlling airport corporations is against the
national interest," revealing that cabinet ministers are not in
agreement on the issue.

MLIT is trying to introduce the regulation in response to Narita
International Airport Corporation preparing to list its stocks on
the stock exchange as early as fiscal 2009. It is considering

TOKYO 00000287 002 OF 011

amending the relevant law with the possibility of constraining
foreign companies' ratio of capital contribution to Narita
International Airport Corporation and an already-listed Japan
Airport Terminal Company, which operates Haneda Airport, to
one-third in terms of the right to vote.

As a reason for restricting foreign investment, MLIT explained that
since international hub airports are irreplaceable key facilities
from the perspective of maintaining security and securing national
interests, such as keeping international competitiveness, it is
necessary to avoid such facilities from coming under the control of
a foreign company in the same way investment in NTT and broadcasters
are regulated.

In foreign countries, public corporations usually operate main
airports or governments hold a majority of stocks of such airports.
In Britain, which has no foreign investment restriction, a Spanish
company purchased a British company operating Heathrow Airport. MLIT
underscored that chances are if the company operating Narita Airport
is privatized without a foreign investment restriction, a foreign
company would buy it.

An argument opposing the introduction of such a restriction is based
on the government's strategy of boosting inward foreign direct
investment in Japan. There has appeared concern that if MLIT's plan
to regulate foreign companies' investment in Japanese airports goes
the rounds abroad, a trend of investment money bypassing Japan could

Former Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuhisa Shiozaki and Upper House
member Hiroshige Seko during a meeting of the Liberal Democratic
Party's Land and Transportation Division criticized the move,
noting, "Such a proposal would send a wrong message about the
Japanese market." The bill failed to secure approval at the panel
meeting twice.

Commenting on these arguments, Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda told
reporters on the evening of Feb.1, "I think that it would not be a
good idea for Japan to close itself to the outside." He called for
consideration be given so that investment in Japan will not be

MLIT aims at having its bill approved at a cabinet meeting next
week, with one official saying, "Many ruling party members are in
favor of our proposal, noting that a regulation restricting foreign
investment is necessary." However, some among government officials
took a view that the introduction of such a regulation would be put
on the back burner for the time being.

(2) Government underscoring stance of giving priority to Africa with
financial aid plans

TOKYO SHIMBUN (Page 3) (Full)
February 3, 2008

The government has begun to underscore the stance of attaching
importance to Africa, stemming from a desire to demonstrate its
leadership at the 4th Tokyo International Conference for African
Development (TICAD) in Yokohama in May and the G-8 Summit (Lake Toya
Summit) in Hokkaido in July. The government has proposed setting up
a fund mechanism intended to help developing countries take measures
to contain global warming. It has chosen four African countries as

TOKYO 00000287 003 OF 011

the first countries to receive aid based on this mechanism. The
government is eagerly working out support measures for African

In his speech in the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum
(Davos Conference) in Switzerland, Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda
ranked aid for Africa and the challenge of fighting global warming
as its top priority tasks. In offering aid for Africa, the prime
minister presented such conditions as (1) setting self-help efforts
as the basis; and (2) having African countries accelerate their
economic growth to bring about sustainable development. In a small
meeting, Fukuda exchanged views on Africa problems with U.S.
Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates and other prominent figures.

Besides such appeals to the international community, Foreign
Minister Masahiko Koumura visited Tanzania last month. It was the
first Tanzania visit by a Japanese incumbent foreign minister in 29
years. He promised there that the Japanese government will disburse
260 million dollars, or approximately 28 billion yen, in aid for
reconstruction from natural disasters and refugees in African
countries, as well as for construction of training facilities for
peacekeeping operations (PKO).

Former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori also announced at a general
meeting of the Africa Association in Ethiopia late last month
Japan's plan to offer 4.1 million dollars, or approximately 440
million yen, through the United Nations World Food Program as
measures for about 250,000 refugees in the fallout of the Kenya
presidential election.

The government is beefing up efforts to demonstrate its priority to
Africa by coming up with support measures to fight global warming
and development assistance measures.

The government aims to attract attention to Japan from many African
countries so that Japan will be able to display leadership at the
TICAD and the G-8 Summit.

Recently, China is stepping up "resource diplomacy" to African
countries. Japan cannot see itself lag behind China in maneuvering
to win over a majority of votes, particularly, focusing on its bid
for UN Security Council permanent status.

Even so, the government financial situation remains very difficult.
The nation's official development assistance (ODA) budget has
decreased to about 60 PERCENT of its highest record in fiscal 1997.
Financial sources for the aid announced by Foreign Minister Koumura
will be squeezed out in the supplementary budget. The government
finds it difficult to increase aid funds, so it is racking its
brains over how to hammer out effective, strategic, and high-quality
aid measures.

(3) Views on strategy for Diet dissolution split in DPJ

NIKKEI (Page 2) (Full)
February 2, 2008

The strategy of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) on forcing a
dissolution of the House of Representatives is now wavering. The
main opposition party initially had "a decisive battle in March" in
mind, but this possibility has disappeared with a compromise
agreement reached between the ruling and opposition camps on how to

TOKYO 00000287 004 OF 011

treat the gasoline and other road-related tax rates. Some DPJ
lawmakers, concerned about a reignition of the concept of forming a
"grand coalition" with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), have
begun to call for a more combative approach to selecting a successor
to the incumbent Bank of Japan (BOJ) governor, whose term of office
expires in March. Growing dissatisfaction in the party is also
leading to questions about President Ichiro Ozawa's grip on the
reins of the DPJ.

Deep-seated war advocate

"House of Representatives Speaker Yohei Kono said he did not mean to
imply that a vote would be taken by the end of March," noted
Secretary General Yukio Hatoyama in a press conference yesterday in

referring to the mediation offer presented by the heads of both Diet
chambers. The offer called for a certain conclusion to be reached by
the end of this fiscal year. Hatoyama's aggressive remark reflects a
growing mood for doing battle in the party.

Deputy President Naoto Kan, who has been firmly behind Ozawa,
emphasized in a meeting of his own group on the night of Jan. 31:
"We will see real battle over the next two months." In another
meeting the same day, Ozawa said: "The Japanese and U.S. election
campaigns may coincide with a period when China is expected to face
serious economic difficulties." Ozawa thus hinted that he is aiming
to put off the dissolution of the Lower House until this fall.

The conflict between those calling for political battle and others
who want talks is affecting the process of selecting a successor to
BOJ Governor Toshihiko Fukui. The government plans to promote Vice
Governor Toshiro Muto to the BOJ governorship. Within the DPJ, too,
some members are now in favor of making a compromise.

Call for combative approach on appointment of new BOJ governor

Hatoyama, however, told the press corps he plans to hold a meeting
of the subcommittee on personnel appointments, chaired by Yoshito
Sengoku, on Feb. 5, stressing: "At the committee, a view for
separating fiscal policy from monetary policy was proposed." House
of Councillors Diet Affairs Committee Chairman Susumu Yanase also
stated in a press conference: "Separating fiscal policy from
monetary policy is our party's policy. We are in the process of
selecting proper personnel."

Hatoyama and Yanase both used to belong to the now defunct New Party
Sakigake. Diet Affairs Committee Deputy Chairman Jun Azumi, with
whom Hatoyama made arrangements prior to his press conference, was
also a member of the New Party Sakigake.

Internal moves with an eye to the presidential election in September
are expected to gather momentum from now.

The idea of separating fiscal and monetary policies, in connection
with the selection of a next BOJ governor, is the stock argument of
Vice President Katsuya Okada, who has been regarded as one of the
likely candidates for the next DPJ presidency. Okada assumed the
chairmanship in January both of the global warming countermeasures
headquarters and the parliamentary league to promote a campaign to
provide foreign residents with local suffrage. One member speculated
that Ozawa might have succeeded in winning over Okada to contain
moves by resistance forces.

TOKYO 00000287 005 OF 011

(4) Fierce battle over provisional tax rates: Sudden agreement
between ruling and opposition camps creating commotion in LDP and

MAINICHI (Page 4) (Full)
February 2, 2008

The unexpected agreement between the ruling and opposition parties
on the provisional tax for gasoline and other road-related taxes is
now rattling the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ or
Minshuto), which had pledged to reduce gasoline prices by 25 yen a
liter. The reason is that the largest opposition party may be unable
to keep its pledge to cut the gasoline prices in April after the
terms of the provisional tax rates expires on March 31 since the
agreement incorporates the phrase that they will reach a certain
conclusion by the end of this fiscal year.

Some DPJ lawmakers have received questions by phone from the party's
regional chapters and municipal assembly members about how they
should explain the gasoline issue to the electorate. The DPJ planned
to hold a moral-boosting rally for cutting the gasoline prices in a
national meeting Feb. 2 of officials in charge of policy, but there
is growing concern in the party that the move may come under a
barrage of questions. The Shizuoka prefectural chapter has suddenly
decided to hold an explanatory meeting on Feb. 9 regarding the
gasoline issue, inviting DPJ Policy Research Committee Chairman
Masayuki Naoshima to the session.

The DPJ's regional organizations and assembly members at first were
confused about party headquarters' policy of abolishing the
provisional tax rates.

According to the result of a Yomiuri Shimbun poll, of the 47
prefectural assemblies, a total of 39 have adopted since last
September a resolution calling for securing resources for road
construction in rural areas. Of the 39 assemblies, 30 clearly
demanded that the current provisional tax rates be retained. A total
of 18 assemblies expressed their opposition to the DPJ's policy of
completely integrating the special account of road-related taxes
into the general account. Many DPJ-affiliated assembly members
supported the adoption of a written statement opposing the plan to
allocate the revenues for road projects to the general revenues.

Such moves in the prefectural assemblies have now spread to DPJ Diet
members. A total of nine Upper House members, including Yoshiro
Kawakami, who belong to a DPJ-led group, met on Feb. 1 in the Diet
with Policy Research Committee Chairman Masayuki Naoshima and handed
a statement which says: "Should the provisional tax rates be
abolished, persuasive replacement resources should be shown. A
revenue shortfall of as much as 2.6 trillion yen will undermine
services for local residents."

A total of 39 legislators from the two Diet chambers supported a
signature-collecting drive conducted by Upper House member Yasuhiro
Oe. The number of potential advocates may increase even more.

Meanwhile, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has called for
the need for retain the current special revenue for road
construction and other road-related taxes in solidarity with local
governments and assemblies, which have sought for securing resources
for road construction.

TOKYO 00000287 006 OF 011

The aim of the LDP was to shake up the largest opposition party's
rural area support. In a meeting of the national secretaries general
in January, Deputy Secretary General Hiroyuki Sonoda asked the
participants to make friends in the Diet.

However, the LDP is not necessarily unified. With the agreement by
the ruling and opposition camps including the phrase that revisions
will be made only on items agreed by each party, different views are
now coming to the fore.

Recently one junior lawmaker was strongly urged by several
supporters to support the idea of abolishing the provisional tax
rates. The junior LDP member quipped:

"In rural areas where many people drive a car, they are suffering
from the hike in gasoline prices. I wonder if retaining the revenues
for road construction and other road-related taxes is a true view of
the desire of rural areas."

LDP Secretary General Bunmei Ibuki threw a wet blanket on the issue
in a board meeting on Feb. 1 when he said: "I want you to follow the
party's policy." However, there is a mood in the party that a
conflict will flare up again over the plan to shift the tax revenue
for road construction to the general budget.

In a study session on Feb. 1 of the LDP caucus in the Upper House,
Kazuya Maruyama requested a study of promoting the plan to integrate
the road-related tax special account with the general account.

The sudden agreement between the ruling and opposition blocs is now
gradually widening the divisions within the LDP and within the DPJ.

(5) Rivalry between "guardians" and "advisers" to Prime Minister

SANKEI (Page 2) (Abridged slightly)
February 3, 2008

A new trend is emerging in the political dynamics surrounding Prime
Minister Yasuo Fukuda. For instance, there is a growing presence of
former Chief Cabinet Secretary Kaoru Yosano, who played an active
role late last year in drafting lawmaker-sponsored legislation with
the aim of settling the issue of people who had contracted hepatitis
C after being administered contaminated blood products. Former Prime
Minister Yoshiro Mori and former Secretary General Hidenao Nakagawa
of the Machimura faction have also enhanced their influence as main
players in buttressing the administration of Prime Minister Fukuda,
who used to belong to the Machimura faction. The mutual relations of
Yosano and Mori and Nakagawa are delicate. Escalation of their
rivalries might further rock the already shaky foundation of the
Fukuda administration.

Yosano visited the Prime Minister's Office (Kantei) around noon Jan.
29, the day before a House of Representatives plenary session was
expected to adopt a stopgap bill designed to extend the expiration
of the provisional gasoline tax rate from March 31 to the end of
May. "I'm here to discuss follow-up measures for the hepatitis
issue," Yosano told the reporters. But once in the prime minister's
office, Yosano advised Fukuda that the Lower House should not take a
vote on the legislation. He warned:

"Although Lower House Speaker Yohei Kono will probably allow the

TOKYO 00000287 007 OF 011

chamber to take a vote, the step would undermine the authority of
the House of Councillors, and in the long run, it would create
confusion in the administration."

Patiently listening to Yosano's advice, Fukuda in the end said, "I
see your point."

According to a person close to the prime minister, Fukuda, too,
wanted to avoid steamrolling the stopgap legislation, giving
priority to talks with the major opposition Democratic Party of
Japan. Fukuda reportedly called Secretary General Bunmei Ibuki to
his official residence on the following day, Jan. 30, and told him
to handle the matter, while keeping in mind Yosano's advice.

Following the government's response to the hepatitis C issue, which
had lowered the cabinet's support rating, aides close to the prime
minister have begun calling for Yosano's return to the Kantei. "The
prime minister and Mr. Yosano seem to be on the same wavelength," a
Kantei source said.

Yosano has taken some other steps as well. For instance, he has
become the vice-president of the board of directors of the Center
for International Exchange which is chaired by DPJ President Ichiro
Ozawa. They are scheduled to attend a board of directors meeting on
Feb. 4. It will bring Yosano and Ozawa together for the first time
since their go game on Oct. 28, two days before Fukuda-Ozawa talks,
in which the idea of a grand coalition cropped up. Ozawa has asked
Yosano to sit through the board of directors meeting, although he
had to leave it early.

What makes the prime minister so eager to pursue a policy line of
dialogue with the DPJ? A senior DPJ member explained it this way:
"In order to maintain the political calm, the prime minister wants
to delay Lower House dissolution and a general election as long as
possible and to keep the grand-coalition option alive."

The term of office of the Bank of Japan governor is scheduled to
expire on March 19. Given the divided Diet in which the opposition
bloc controls the Upper House, the prime minister, who desperately
wants to avoid a showdown with the DPJ and confusion, cannot afford
to forsake his ties to Ozawa, which have resulted from two rounds of
party-head talks last year. Yosano is obviously trying to serve as a
bridge between Fukuda and Ozawa.

Mori, on the other hand, takes pride in regarding himself as
Fukuda's "guardian." Mori served as an arbitrator between Fukuda and
Ozawa for the grand-coalition concept. Mori has also recently called
Fukuda to let him know his willingness to negotiate with Ozawa on
the appointment of the new BOJ governor.

Nevertheless, the stage is not set for Yosano and Mori to join hands
for Fukuda and Ozawa. Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe appointed
Yosano his chief cabinet secretary when he shuffled his cabinet last
August. Mori reportedly opposed Yosano's appointment because he was
not a member of the Machimura faction.

Nakagawa, who is close to Mori, has also visited the Kantei often to
offer advice to the prime minister on the question of a special
secret slush fund known as the "buried treasure" and other matters.

Nakagawa, too, has bad chemistry with Yosano. When it comes to
economic and fiscal management, Nakagawa and Yosano are like oil and
water, with the former attaching importance to economic growth and

TOKYO 00000287 008 OF 011

the latter focused on fiscal soundness. The prime minister, who has
only a few dependable aides and policy advisers, is expected to run
his administration while struggling to keep a balance between
Yosano, the resourceful adviser, and Mori and Nakagawa, the

(6) Maher's remarks will wreck Okinawa-U.S. ties: Nakaima

RYUKYU SHIMPO (Page 1) (Abridged)
Eve., February 1, 2008

Okinawa Prefecture's Governor Hirokazu Nakaima, meeting the press
this morning, voiced dissatisfaction with Kevin Maher, U.S. consul
general in Okinawa, for his recent remarks over the issue of
building an alternative facility for the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma
Air Station. Maher has indicated a negative view of Okinawa
Prefecture's request to move the construction site out to the sea.
"I wonder if the consul general is authorized to say such a thing
when we are asking the government to respect local views," Nakaima
said. "I fear that the remarks could mess up the relationship
between Okinawa and the United States," he added. He also voiced a
critical comment, saying: "He sounded as if to totally ignore the
environment law and environmental ordinances. It's really

(7) Poll on the public view of Japan

YOMIURI (Page 13) (Full)
January 25, 2008

Questions & Answers
(Figures shown in percentage)

Q: Are you proud of being Japanese?

Very proud 54.8
Somewhat proud 37.9
Not proud 5.6
No answer (N/A) 1.7

Q: What is it that you are proud about in Japan and its people? Pick
as many as you like from those listed below.

History, tradition, culture 71.6
Country, nature 43.4
Constitution 16.8
Emperor system 12.0
Economic prosperity 18.9
Education, science and technology 19.3
Nationality 28.0
Social stability, public security 28.4
Other answers (O/A) 0.7
Nothing in particular (NIP) + N/A 4.2

Q: Do you think the Japanese people are superior to the peoples of
other countries?

Yes 69.6
No 24.6
N/A 5.8

TOKYO 00000287 009 OF 011

Q: If you were to be born again, would you like to be born Japanese

Yes 84.7
No 10.3
N/A 5.0

Q: What do you think Japan is like now? Pick as many as you like
from among those listed below.

Military power 2.0
Economic power 35.9
Pacifist nation 59.7
Cultured nation 27.2
Welfare state 9.6
Closed country 10.1
Trustworthy country 8.4
Democratic country 25.2
Self-driven country 4.2
N/A 4.8

Q: What is the matter of primary concern to you in your daily life?
Pick as many as you like from among those listed below.

World 24.9
Japan 39.5
Local community 44.5
Job 38.3
Family 47.4
Myself 28.9
N/A 1.3

Q: Do you want to serve the nation?

Yes 73.3
No 20.3
N/A 6.5

Q: What is your image of serving the nation? Pick as many as you
like from among those listed below.

Work to defend Japan's peace and security 44.3
Work for Japan's economic growth 22.4
Work for the international community to help heighten Japan's
reputation 10.3
Perform in art, culture, sports, etc. 12.0
Work as an assembly member or as local government head 1.5
Work for the national government or a local government 4.0
Work and pay taxes 34.2
Bring up children for the future 48.2
Volunteer for disaster relief activities 25.6
O/A+NIP+N/A 7.9

Q: Do you think you have a strong feeling of love for the nation?

Yes 29.2
Yes to a certain degree 41.5
No to a certain degree 18.7
No 6.5
N/A 4.2

TOKYO 00000287 010 OF 011

Q: What is your image of loving the nation? Pick as many as you like
from among those listed below.

Love my local community, hometown 61.5
Respect tradition, culture 49.0
Work to defend Japan's peace and security 31.0
Work for Japan's development, prosperity 20.6
Proud of being Japanese 46.7
Love and respect the Emperor and the Imperial Household 11.9
Support Japan in Olympic and other international games 18.8
O/A 0.3
NIP 3.7
N/A 1.0

Q: If Japan comes under attack from foreign troops, what would you
do? Pick only one from among those listed below.

Resist with arms 16.0
Resist in other ways 38.9
Get away to a safe place 33.1
Give in 6.6
N/A 5.4

Q: What do you want the government to do in particular? Pick up to
three from among those listed below.

Defend Japan's peace and security 76.6
Fulfill welfare 51.7
Develop Japan's economy 35.3
Create rules for economic activities 6.7
Protect human rights 22.6
Maintain public security 34.6
Fulfill education 25.4
Work for the international community 8.2
O/A 0.2
NIP+N/A 1.3

Q: There are two opinions about the Japanese government's role. Pick
only one.

(A) It is desirable for Japan to have a "small government" that
reduces its regulations, scales down its functions, and lessens
public burdens but instead minimizes its public services.
(B) It is desirable for Japan to have a "big government" that
imposes more regulations, scales up its functions, and increases
public burdens but instead improve public services.

(A) 37.8
(B) 33.3
Can't say which 26.3
N/A 2.6

Q: Do you think the government should lessen its regulations for
free market mechanisms?

Yes 59.4
No 30.9
N/A 9.7

Q: Do you think the government should make positive efforts to
dissolve economic disparities in the nation?

TOKYO 00000287 011 OF 011

Yes 84.1
No 11.9
N/A 4.0

Q: Do you think the government should ensure the nation's social
security, including pensions and welfare, and for that do you think
it is all right to increase public burdens, including taxes,?

Yes 44.8
No 47.1
N/A 8.1

Q: How would you like Japan to turn out? Pick up to three from among
those listed below.

A country that pursues economic affluence 38.9
A country that weighs science and technology 14.3
A country that fulfills welfare 57.3
A country that displays political clout in the international
community 13.3
A country that appeals to the world on the importance of peace 41.5
A country that weighs security 20.0
A county that becomes a model of democratic government 11.5
A country that weighs cultural promotion 10.4
A country that makes much of nature and the earth's environment
O/A+NIP+N/A 1.5

Polling methodology
Date of survey: Jan. 12-13.
Subjects of survey: 3,000 persons chosen from among all eligible
voters throughout the country (at 250 locations on a stratified
two-stage random-sampling basis).
Method of implementation: Door-to-door visits for face-to-face
Number of valid respondents: 1,780 persons (59.3 PERCENT )
Breakdown of respondents: Male-49 PERCENT , female-51 PERCENT ;
persons in their 20s-10 PERCENT , 30s-15 PERCENT , 40s-16 PERCENT ,
50s-20 PERCENT , 60s-24 PERCENT , 70 and over-15 PERCENT ; big
cities (Tokyo's 23 wards and government-designated cities)-23
PERCENT , major cities (with a population of more than 300,000)-17
PERCENT , medium-size cities (with a population of more than
100,000)-26 PERCENT , small cities (with a population of less than
100,000)-23 PERCENT , towns and villages-11 PERCENT .


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