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Cablegate: Tip - Switzerland: Annual Anti-Trafficking In

VZCZCXRO8528
PP RUEHAG RUEHAST RUEHDA RUEHDF RUEHFL RUEHIK RUEHKW RUEHLA RUEHLN
RUEHLZ RUEHPOD RUEHROV RUEHSR RUEHVK RUEHYG
DE RUEHSW #0122/01 0671355
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 071355Z MAR 08
FM AMEMBASSY BERN
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 4907
INFO RUEHZL/EUROPEAN POLITICAL COLLECTIVE
RHMFIUU/DEPT OF JUSTICE WASHINGTON DC
RUEHC/DEPT OF LABOR WASHINGTON DC
RUEATRS/DEPT OF TREASURY WASHINGTON DC

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 24 BERN 000122

SIPDIS

SIPDIS

DEPT FOR G/TIP, INL, DRL, PRM, IWI, EUR/PGI, EUR/AGS
DEPT PLEASE PASS USAID

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PHUM KCRM KWMN SMIG KFRD PREF ELAB SZ
SUBJECT: TIP - SWITZERLAND: ANNUAL ANTI-TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS REPORT

------------------
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
------------------

I. SUMMARY OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS
II. OVERVIEW
III. PREVENTION
IV. INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS
V. PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS


------------------------------
I. SUMMARY OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS
------------------------------

Switzerland continued to make appreciable progress in its
anti-trafficking-in-persons practices, investigating and
prosecuting TIP cases vigorously. In 2007, federal and
cantonal (state) police led at least 28 investigations on
trafficking or trafficking-related offenses. With regard
to prosecutions, provisional data for 2007 show that Swiss
courts made at least 12 convictions for trafficking or
trafficking-related offenses. To improve the statistics
on investigations and prosecutions and to gather national
data, the National Conference of the Cantonal Justice
Ministers decided in 2006 to harmonize cantonal recording
practices and gather national policing statistics by 2010.
In the meantime, the Human Trafficking/Migrant Smuggling
Investigative Unit of the Federal Criminal Police has
begun to keep records of ongoing investigations and
prosecutions, which the cantons (states) report
voluntarily. The government cooperated with other
governments in the investigation and prosecution of
trafficking and trafficking-related offenses.

On the legal front, a new article in the Penal Code that
defines human trafficking more comprehensively entered
into force on December 1, 2006. Under the new article,
anyone acting as the supplier, broker, or buyer in the
trafficking of human beings for the purposes of sexual
exploitation, labor exploitation, or to remove a body
organ is liable to imprisonment. The act of recruiting an
individual for the purposes aforementioned also qualifies
as trafficking and is liable to the same punishment. On
January 1, 2007, an amendment of the Penal Code entered
into force that makes certain criminal infractions subject
to universal prosecution. Human trafficking, forced
prostitution of minors, and child sexual abuse can thus be
prosecuted in Switzerland regardless of where the crime
was committed.

In April 2007, the Swiss Police Academy held the first
five-day training class in combating human trafficking for
cantonal police and immigration officials and border
guards, which was repeated in October to accommodate high
demand. (Police officers are trained at the cantonal
level and the Swiss police academy serves as a national
institute for cantonal police officers to undergo periodic
specialized training). The same class will be offered to
French-speaking law enforcement and immigration officials
during 2008. At the operational level, the National
Conference of the Cantonal Chiefs of Police has
established a working group on trafficking in persons and
migrant smuggling that began operations in the summer of
2007. The working group, which convenes 1-2 times per
year, is tasked with establishing standardized
investigation procedures and fostering cooperation and
exchange of specialized know-how.

Protection: The government enacted new protective measures
for TIP victims. The number of TIP victims receiving
counseling services from professional assistance centers
for victims of crime rose from 63 in 2005 to 80 in 2006.
In 2007, cantonal immigration authorities offered 33
trafficking victims 30-day stays of deportation
proceedings designed to offer them a period of
contemplation and recovery. Six trafficking victims were
offered short-term residency permits for the duration of
legal/court proceedings against their traffickers, and
four victims were granted long-term residency permits on
grounds of personal hardship after the end of court
proceedings. The Zurich-based anti-TIP NGO FIZ also
counseled more TIP victims in 2007 than the year before
and continued to receive public money for its TIP-victim
assistance services.

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Efforts to improve the legal protections of TIP victims
continued. On January 1, 2008, the new Federal Law on
Foreigners entered into force. The new law formalizes the
process of granting TIP victims a stay of deportation
proceedings to recover from their trauma and weigh
participation in judicial proceedings. The new law
strengthens the legal status of TIP victims and witnesses,
explicitly authorizing the government to waive normal
immigration requirements and grant temporary or permanent
residency permits for victims and witnesses of human
trafficking. The law further allows the federal
government to logistically and financially assist
trafficking victims and witnesses, for whom a return is
acceptable, in the re-integration in their countries of
origin. In March 2007, Parliament adopted the revision of
the Federal Victims Assistance Law that enhances crime
victims' right to emergency protections and allows cantons
to pool resources to establish regional victim assistance
centers specializing in certain types of crime (e.g. TIP).
In October 2007, Parliament adopted a new federal code of
criminal trial proceedings that is to replace the 26
existing cantonal codes and strengthen witness protection
measures in court trial proceedings.

Existing cantonal cooperation projects ("roundtables") to
formalize referral procedures in TIP cases between
immigration, police, and justice authorities and victim
assistance bodies continued: following the example of
Zurich, the canton which pioneered these efforts, four
more cantons had formalized such a referral process in
written memoranda of understanding by the end of 2006.
Two more cantons adopted written referral agreements
during the reporting period and efforts to establish a
formal referral process continued or were newly begun in
another three. The total number of cantonal roundtables
that have either adopted a referral agreement or are in
the process of doing so has risen to ten. As a direct
result of the regulation to stay deportation proceedings
and the better cooperation between NGOs and law
enforcement officials, the number of TIP victims willing
to testify against their traffickers has risen
considerably; FIZ reports that during 2006 almost 50
percent of victims being counseled testified against their
traffickers, compared to fewer than ten percent a few
years ago.

Prevention: The government also expanded its prevention
efforts. Swiss embassies and consulates have increased
their scrutiny of visa applications for nightclub
performers, with a view toward ensuring that applicants
receive valid contracts, are completely aware of their
future conditions, and are informed how to seek help once
in Switzerland. The Federal Office for Migration also
issued new regulations on official monitoring of the
working conditions of cabaret dancers and the contractual
obligations of the nightclub owners. Swiss government
agencies continued to fund several prevention and
protection programs abroad, valued annually at over US$
1.5 million.

In view of the upcoming European Soccer Cup, the
government has appropriated $96,000 to kick-start public
awareness campaigns. The goal of the campaign is to raise
awareness among the visitors of the EURO 08 and the
general public of the extent and the consequences of women
trafficking. The campaign will also target the customers
of commercial sexual services, calling on them to help
potential victims of trafficking get access to aid
organizations. In February 2008, a Moldovan theatre
group, hosted by IOM Switzerland and the Swiss Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, toured Switzerland with its play "A
saptea Kafana - the seventh Coffeehouse", which is meant
to increase public awareness of human trafficking. Three
state-subsidized churches of the Canton of Basel-
Landschaft, in cooperation with FIZ, developed an
exhibition to raise awareness among the general public of
the problem of trafficking in women. The exhibit opened
in Basel-Landschaft in September 2006 and was shown in a
total of ten cantons in 2006/07.

The Swiss tourism industry under the leadership of the NGO
ECPAT has established a code of conduct to combat child
sex tourism. The Federal Criminal Police is cooperating
with the framers of the code to establish a mechanism to
allow travel agencies to tip off law enforcement bodies

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about child sex tourists. Switzerland pursued a zero-
tolerance policy regarding sexual exploitation by
personnel serving in international peace-keeping missions.
All civil and military persons serving in peace-keeping
missions are subject to the Code of Conduct of the UN
(and/or NATO-PfP respectively) and undergo specific
awareness raising training before deployment.


------------
II. OVERVIEW
------------

A. Switzerland is primarily a country of destination for
persons being trafficked, almost exclusively women, but
transit also occurs. Trafficking occurs both across
borders and within the country. Swiss officials estimate
the number of trafficking victims at a few hundred per
year. Several cantons (states), including Zurich, Geneva,
Basel, Bern, Vaud, and Ticino, recorded an increase in the
number of registered prostitutes and commercial sex
establishments in 2006. Federal Police assess that the
total number of potential trafficking victims currently
living in Switzerland is between 1,500 and 3,000. How
many trafficking victims were lured into Switzerland under
false pretenses and how many were brought in fully aware
that they were going to engage in prostitution in
Switzerland is unclear, but the distinction is of
secondary importance because under Swiss law both are
punishable as human trafficking.

B. Both Federal Police and NGO sources noted an increase
in 2006/2007 in the number of young women being trafficked
into Switzerland for sexual exploitation from Eastern
Europe, particularly Romania. The second apparent trend is
that police or NGOs more frequently identify TIP victims
working in contact bars in more rural areas. TIP victims
typically come from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet
Union (Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Czech
Republic, Slovenia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova), Latin
America (Brazil, Dominican Republic), Asia (Thailand,
Cambodia), and to a lesser extent from Africa (Nigeria,
Cameroon). The Zurich-based Information Center for Women
from Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe (FIZ)
previously reported that roughly 35 percent of the 133 TIP
victims counseled in 2006 came from Latin America, another
35 percent from Eastern Europe, about 20 percent from
Asia, and the remaining 10 percent from Africa [Embassy
comment: FIZ has not yet compiled its 2007 statistics but
will have them soon]. Trafficking into the country is
primarily performed by individuals and small groups
related through ethnic, clan, or family ties, as well as,
occasionally, organized criminals. Federal Police have
reported that traffickers are increasingly well organized
with far-reaching international networks.

The great majority of trafficking victims are forced into
nude dancing and prostitution. Trafficking for the
purpose of labor exploitation as domestic servants also
occurred but was very limited. Federal Police note that
there are also isolated cases of labor exploitation in
agriculture, the construction business, and the tourism
industry. A study by the University of Neuchatel found
that night club cabaret dancers who come for the first
time to Switzerland are more at risk of falling pray to
traffickers than dancers who have previously visited
Switzerland. Faced with excessive and illegal brokerage
fees and due to the local high cost of living, such women
find themselves in a state of dependency. In some cases,
victims are subjected to physical and sexual violence,
threats to themselves or their families or both, drugs,
withholding of documents, and incarceration. Police
estimates suggest that up to 50 percent of illegal
prostitutes' gross income is paid to brothel owners and
traffickers who organize the passage and entry to
Switzerland.

As best as police can determine, trafficking into
Switzerland is primarily performed by individuals, or
small groups related through ethnic, clan, or family ties,
as well as organized criminals. Often, the perpetrators
and victims are from the same cities and regions. In
addition to men, women also play a role in the
recruitment, intermediary, or exploitation process. In
2005, half of the convicted traffickers were women.


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C. The Federal Office of Police (BAP) is the federal
government's primary actor in anti-trafficking efforts.
The BAP's Federal Criminal Police handles international
cooperation and investigations of organized crime; the
Service for Analysis and Prevention, i.e. the domestic
intelligence service, does strategic analysis of
information. The Federal Office of Police also hosts the
Coordination Unit against the Trafficking of Persons and
Smuggling of Migrants (KSMM), which is the federal
government's interdepartmental body to coordinate and
monitor anti-trafficking efforts. The KSMM develops anti-
TIP strategies and policies in consultation with its
constituting ministries that retain final responsibility
for their implementation.

The prosecution of illegal prostitution (i.e. prostitution
without a valid work permit) and trafficking of persons
normally falls under the jurisdiction of cantonal police
and judicial authorities. However, cases linked to
organized crime fall under the authority of the federal
authorities to investigate and prosecute. The Federal
Office of Migration has the lead in easing the return of
trafficking victims and assisting in their re-integration
in their home societies (cf. section 4.F.).

The following government agencies are represented on the
Steering Committee of the KSMM, taking active part in the
fight against human trafficking:

Federal Level:

-- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Political Division IV (Human Security)
- Directorate for International Law
- International Development Cooperation

-- Finance Ministry
- Swiss Border Guards

-- Ministry for Justice and Police
- Office of the Prosecutor General
- Federal Office for Migration
- Federal Office of Justice
- Federal Office of Police

-- Economics Ministry
- Directorate of Labor

Cantonal (i.e. state) Level:

-- National Conference of Cantonal Chiefs of Police
-- National Conference of Prosecuting Offices
-- National Conference of Equal Opportunity Offices
-- National Conference of Victims Assistance Centers
-- National Conference of Cantonal Migration Offices

NGOs/IOs:
-- Information Center for Women from Africa, Latin
America, and Eastern Europe (FIZ), Zurich
-- International Organization for Migration, Bern
-- Foundation Terre des Hommes, Lausanne

D. In general, criminal cases against traffickers are not
pursued (for lack of evidence) unless their victims are
willing to testify. Federal and cantonal police and
immigration authorities follow a policy of granting
potential TIP victims a stay of deportation proceedings to
give them time to recover from their trauma and to let
them freely decide whether to participate in judicial
proceedings against their tormentors. On January 1, 2008,
the New Federal Law on Foreigners became effective, which
gives special protection to TIP victims or witnesses who
testify against their traffickers and regulates their stay
during and after judicial proceedings (cf. section 4.A).

A growing number (ten at the latest count)of major urban
centers and suburban cantons have established written
agreements on a referral process for TIP victims in the
context of regular roundtable meetings between NGOs and
cantonal justice, police, and immigration authorities. As
a direct result of the federal regulations to stay
deportation proceedings and the better local cooperation
between NGOs and law enforcement officials, the number of
TIP victims willing to testify against their traffickers
has risen considerably.


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E. The Federal Office of Police's Coordination Unit
against the Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of
Migrants (KSMM) is the federal government's main
coordinating and monitoring body of its anti-trafficking
efforts. Through its coordinating role, the KSMM keeps
abreast of anti-trafficking efforts on all fronts
(prevention, victim protection, and prosecution) both at
the federal and cantonal level. In addition, its remit
includes monitoring of parliamentary ratification of
international conventions and offering expert advice on
trafficking-relevant legislative reform.

In December 2007, the KSMM published an extensive
accountability report on the federal and cantonal
governments' anti-TIP efforts. The report lists the
progress made over the last few years in the areas of
trafficking prevention, victim protection, and prosecution
and has been put on the Federal Office of Police's
website. The KSMM previously made available its
assessment of Swiss anti-trafficking efforts to the
Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the UN. The Federal
Police's Service for Analysis and Prevention, i.e. the
government's domestic intelligence service, does strategic
analysis of human trafficking in and throughout
Switzerland and publishes its findings in the Federal
Office of Police's annual report on homeland security.


--------------------------------------------- ----
III. INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS
--------------------------------------------- ----

A. The Swiss Penal Code has two articles specifically
prohibiting trafficking in persons: Article 182, effective
since December 1, 2006, stipulates that anyone acting as
the supplier, broker, or buyer in the trafficking of a
human being for the purposes of sexual exploitation, labor
exploitation, or to remove a body organ shall be liable to
imprisonment or a fine, or both. The act of recruiting an
individual for the purposes aforementioned also qualifies
as trafficking and is liable to the same punishment.

If the trafficking victim is a minor under 18 years of age
or if the perpetrator repeatedly engages in human
trafficking, the minimum penalty is a prison sentence of
one year.

Article 182 applies universally; traffickers are subject
to prosecution in Switzerland even if the act of
trafficking was committed abroad, and regardless of
whether trafficking is a crime in the foreign country
where the act took place.

Article 195 prohibits the promotion of prostitution and
states that anyone inducing a person into prostitution by
abusing a situation of dependency or promising pecuniary
advantage, anyone impairing a prostitute's freedom of
movement by checking on the activities in question or
fixing the place, time or extent or any other
circumstances of the prostitution, or anyone secluding a
person for prostitution shall be liable to imprisonment.

Other forms of trafficking or exploitation of human beings
are implicitly covered by the Penal Code's provisions
against threat, coercion, deprivation of personal liberty,
and kidnapping (Articles 180, 181, 183). The Immigration
and Naturalization Law penalizes facilitating the illegal
immigration of foreigners into Switzerland as well as the
employment of foreigners without proper work permission.
The Constitution implicitly bans forced or compulsory
labor. Article 27 provides for economic freedom and
explicitly guarantees the right to choose freely one's
profession as well as unrestrained access to and
unencumbered exercise of a gainful occupation. Forced or
bonded labor by children is explicitly forbidden under
Article 30 of the 1964 Labor Act.

New Developments:
-----------------

The Penal Code Article 182, which supplanted Article 196,
entered into force on December 1, 2006. Article 182
penalizes trafficking for the purposes of sexual
exploitation, labor exploitation, or to remove a body
organ. The older Penal Code article 196 solely penalized
trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation.

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On January 1, 2007, an amendment of the Penal Code entered
into force. Under the new Article 5 of the revised Penal
Code certain criminal infractions, notably human
trafficking (Article 182) and forced prostitution of
minors under 18 years of age (Article 195), are subject to
universal prosecution. Traffickers are thus liable to
prosecution in Switzerland, even if the act of trafficking
was committed abroad, and regardless of whether the
trafficking act is a crime in the foreign country where it
took place.

The amendment of the Penal Code also introduces a new
system of fines based on a convict's relative income
level. Under the new system, fines can be levied instead
of jail sentences of less than 6 months. Suspended
sentences remain possible. The maximum financial penalty
is 10,800 Swiss Francs, but the court sets the amount due
according to the gravity of the criminal act and sets the
value of the daily rate in accord with the convict's
economic situation at the time of the verdict. The
maximum daily rate is 3,000 Swiss francs, up to 360 days.

B. The maximum sentence for trafficking in persons for
sexual exploitation is a prison term of twenty years
(Penal Code Article 182). Coercing someone into
prostitution or restricting a prostitute's personal
freedom (Penal Code Article 195) can carry a prison
sentence of up to ten years.

C. Under Penal Code Article 182 the penalties prescribed
for trafficking for labor exploitation are the same as for
trafficking for sexual exploitation. The minimum penalty
is a fine; if the victim was a minor under 18 years of
age, the minimum penalty is a one-year prison sentence.
Maximum penalty is 20 years in prison. Article 182
explicitly prohibits all acts related to labor trafficking
- recruitment, supply, transfer, or the receipt of persons
being trafficked. Thus, both the labor recruiters in
labor source countries and the employers or labor agents
in labor destination countries are subject to prosecution
in Switzerland. Article 182 applies universally; labor
recruiters are subject to prosecution in Switzerland, even
if the act was committed in a foreign country where labor
trafficking may not constitute a criminal offense.

D. The Penal Code also punishes rape, forcible sexual
assault, and other sex crimes. Sexual activity with
minors (Article 187) and sexual acts with dependent
persons (Article 188) are punishable with up to five years
imprisonment; sexual coercion (Article 189), rape (Article
190), and sexual violations of mentally or physically
incapacitated persons (Article 191) are liable to a
maximum ten year prison sentence; sexual acts with
detainees (Article 192) and taking advantage of a person's
distress or dependency due to employment or any other
condition to induce a sexual act or acceptance thereof
(Article 193) carry a maximum penalty of imprisonment for
up to three years.

E. Prostitution is legal for Swiss citizens and foreign
residents with valid work permits if the practitioners are
registered with police and comply with taxation and other
cantonal requirements. Pimping has been decriminalized
since 1992, and brothel owners may legally sublet room and
negotiate the terms with the prostitutes. However,
Article 195 of the Penal Code penalizes abusing a state of
dependency to induce someone into prostitution or
restricting a prostitute's freedom with a prison term of
up to ten years. Clients are not liable before the law,
unless they knowingly engage in sexual relations with a
prostitute younger than the required minimum age of 18
years.

Some cantons (states) have adopted more stringent laws
regulating the sex trade. Effective September 1, 2004,
the Canton of Vaud implemented a restrictive law on
prostitution allowing police to close on-the-spot for a
period of three months brothels that fail to register with
police, make false declarations on the identity of those
working on the premises, or do not meet minimum criteria
regarding hygiene, security, or the respect of public
order. Police may permanently shut down a brothel in case
of repeat violations of the types listed above, in case of
gross violations against public order or hygiene, or in
case of a felony. Threats, coercion, or violence against

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prostitutes, employment of minors, or the abuse of any
situation of distress will be punished in the same
fashion. The law provides for police inspection of the
brothel premises, the persons staying there as well as
their private accommodations. Other cantons, such as
Geneva and Ticino, have adopted new legislation regulating
the sex trade and Neuchatel is in the process of doing so.

F. The investigation and prosecution of forced
prostitution and human trafficking as well as the
protection of victims in Switzerland normally fall under
the jurisdiction of the cantons, and national statistics
lag by 6-18 months.

Investigations & Prosecutions:
------------------------------

Under Switzerland's federal structure, the cantons hold
jurisdiction over most criminal infractions, and
statistical records of reported crime and police
investigations vary greatly from canton to canton. At its
spring meeting in April 2006, the National Conference of
the Cantonal Justice Ministers decided to implement the
project to harmonize cantonal recording practices and
gather national policing statistics in coordination with
the Federal Government. The project (which aims to
produce detailed figures for the first time in 2009) aims
to provide much more detailed and reliable data than are
available today. It has been ascertained that both human
trafficking and the smuggling in human beings will be
recorded in the nascent data base. A project management
body was formed during 2006.

In 2007, the inter-cantonal Working Group on Human
Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling established a database
on the ongoing investigations and prosecutions on
suspicion of human trafficking or forced prostitution in
the cantons. Cantonal authorities report ongoing
investigations/prosecutions on a voluntary basis. The
data base is maintained by the Human Trafficking/Migrant
Smuggling Investigative Unit of the Federal Criminal
Police, which also coordinates inter-cantonal and
international trafficking investigations. The data base
is still in the process of being established and hence
does not yet include all ongoing
investigations/prosecutions on trafficking and forced
prostitution. However, more information is available
sooner than in previous years, representing an appreciable
and continuing improvement in Swiss data management with
regard to TIP.

According to this developing database, there were at least
20 police investigations or prosecutions during 2007 for
human trafficking for the purposes of sexual or labor
exploitation. These investigations and prosecutions were
led by cantonal law enforcement agencies in all but one
case, which was handled by federal authorities.

Adding up these numbers, police investigated at least 28
trafficking cases in 2007 (i.e. 19 cantonal police + 1
Federal Criminal Police + 8 investigations spanning
several countries, in which the Federal Criminal Police
adopted a coordinating role).

CONVICTIONS:

------------------------------------
Year Art. 196/182 Art. 195 Total
------------------------------------
1999 7 14 21
2000 5 17 22
2001 2 17 19
2002 2 11 13
2003 7 6 13
2004 2 12 14
2005 12 15 27
2006* 5 14 19
2007* 8 4 12

* Provisional statistics as of end of February 2008; final
numbers most likely to be higher after defendants exhaust
possibilities of appeal (e.g. final numbers for 2005 and
2006 are significantly higher than Embassy had reported
previously).

One criminal investigation in 2007 was opened under the

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new article 182 on suspicion of trafficking for labor
exploitation. Swiss law enforcement agents received tips
from colleagues abroad relating to migrant smuggling.
Meanwhile, the case has been transferred to a court. At
present, the priority lies on combating human trafficking
for the purpose of sexual exploitation and police
departments dedicate most of their resources to combating
this form of exploitation. As Article 182 of the Penal
Code was enacted only in ecember 2006, legal issues
regarding its application in cases of labor exploitation
are still being worked out and cooperation mechanisms
between law enforcement and victim protection bodies are
being defined.

More up-to-date statistics on the number of prosecutions,
convictions and related sentences will be provided as
these figures will become available later in the year.

In 2002 the Federal Tribunal ruled that hiring women, even
consenting women, from abroad to engage in prostitution
qualified as human trafficking if her abusers exploited a
situation of distress.

SENTENCES:

Comment: The conviction statistics for the years 2006 and
2007 are provisional. The Federal Office of Police
gathers these preliminary statistics on the basis of the
court records the office receives from cantonal courts.
The final total number of convictions is most likely to be
higher. Final conviction statistics are compiled and
released by another office, the Swiss Federal Statistical
Office, but only after a delay of 18 months.

2007

Of the eight first-instance convictions for human
trafficking recorded in 2007 four were for violation of
the old Penal Code Article 196 and four for violation of
the new Article 182 (effective since December 1, 2006).
Penalties range between 6 months suspended prison
sentences to 30 months unsuspended prison sentences; in
addition the traffickers received fines ranging from $870
(900 Swiss francs) to $2,310 (2,400 Swiss francs). The
courts also convicted traffickers to pay a maximum of
$2,020 (2,100 Swiss francs) indemnities and a maximum $
14,420 (15,000 Swiss francs) in moral damages. As of end
of February 2008, Federal Police had recorded four first-
instance convictions for forced prostitution during 2007.

In 2007, appeals courts upheld the convictions from lower
courts in the two biggest trafficking cases from the
previous TIP reporting period.

In Zurich, the cantonal appeals court in 2007 upheld the
first-instance ruling in a trafficking case from 2006, in
which the main culprit was sentenced to 27 months in
prison.

In 2007 the Federal Tribunal (Supreme Court) upheld the
four year prison sentence against the main culprit in a
trafficking case in the Canton of Bern from spring 2007.
In April 2007, a Bern cantonal appeals court had lowered
the first-instance court verdict of six years to four
years behind bars. The Federal Tribunal ruling is final.

2003

Art. 196

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 4
Suspended prison sentences 3

Length of sentence Min Max Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended 360 1650 990 days
Suspended 294 days

Art. 195

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 4
Suspended prison sentences 2

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Length of sentence Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended 913 days
Suspended 335 days

2004

Art. 196

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 0
Suspended prison sentences 2

Length of sentence Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended n/a days
Suspended 314 days

Art. 195

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 5
Suspended prison sentences 7

Length of sentence Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended 1388 days
Suspended 134 days

2005

Art. 196

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 3
Suspended prison sentences 8

Length of sentence Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended 360 days
Suspended 254 days

Art. 195

Number of Sentences
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended prison sentence 1
Suspended prison sentences 11

Length of sentence Average
--------------------------------------------- ------
Unsuspended 487 days
Suspended 146 days


[Embassy comment: 2006 sentencing data is forthcoming]

G. Investigators of the Federal Criminal Police receive
specialized training in investigating incidences of
organized crime, including human trafficking. Under the
2001 Efficiency Bill, the Federal Criminal Police obtained
from the cantons the jurisdiction to investigate and
prosecute more complex cases of human trafficking that
span several cantons or are linked to organized crime.
The Federal Criminal Police also handles international
cooperation in the investigation of incidences of human
trafficking.

During 2007, the KSMM continued its specialized training
programs for federal and cantonal officials.

Training of migration and law enforcement officials:
--------------------------------------------- -------

April 16-20, 2007, the Swiss Police Academy in Neuchatel
held its first training class in combating human
trafficking for 25 cantonal police officers and
immigration officials. (As police officers are trained at
the cantonal level, the Swiss police academy serves as a
national institute for cantonal police officers to undergo
periodic specialized training). Due to the high demand,
the class was repeated October 22-26, 2007, for 27 police

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officers, immigration officials and border guards. The
first two training classes were held in German; the same
class will be offered to French-speaking law enforcement
and immigration officials during 2008.

The main teacher of the training course was the head of
the investigative unit of the Zurich City Police, who was
chosen to achieve maximum impact and acceptance among the
Swiss Policing Community. The head of the KSMM served as
main assistant of the course. The KSMM had finalized the
course program and evaluated all instructors of the
training module. Some classes were taught by experts from
the Zurich-based anti-TIP NGO FIZ.

The training program covered the following topics:

- National and international analysis regarding TIP,
including prostitution, modes of operation, countries of
origin and transit, financing, criminal organizations, and
networks;
- Identification of TIP victims;
- Questioning of TIP victims;
- Legal basis of prosecution;
- Victims assistance, protection, and aid in returning;
- Legal aspects of stays of TIP victims in Switzerland;
- Multi-stakeholder approach and cooperation among
justice, police, migration offices and victims assistance
centers/NGOs;
- Best police investigation practices;
- Best law enforcement practices.

Awareness raising seminar
-------------------------

In order to promote the upcoming training module among the
Chiefs of the Criminal Division of the Cantonal Police
Forces and Heads of Immigration Offices, the KSMM together
with the Zurich City Police and the Bern Cantonal Police
on December 7, 2006, hosted an awareness raising seminar
on combating trafficking in persons. The purpose was to
show participants the various aspects of trafficking in
persons and to illustrate best policing practices.

National Working Group on Trafficking in Persons and
Smuggling of Migrants
--------------------------------------------- -------

The National Conference of the Cantonal Chiefs of Police
in 2006 decided to install an inter-cantonal police
working group "Trafficking in Persons/Smuggling of
Migrants". The Working Group was established at the
initiative of the KSMM and began operations in the summer
of 2007. It comprises representatives from the regional
police concordats, the airport police, the Zurich and
Ticino police forces, and the Federal Office of Police.
The working group, which convenes 1-2 times per year, is
tasked with establishing standardized investigation
procedures for all of Switzerland and to foster
cooperation and exchange of specialized know-how at the
operational level. The Working Group is chaired by the
Head of the Investigative Unit of the Zurich City Police,
who taught the first training class in combating human
trafficking at the Swiss Police Academy in Neuchatel.

H. The Swiss government readily cooperates with other
governments in the investigation and prosecution of
trafficking cases. Police contacts disclosed to Embassy
that the Federal Criminal Police in 2007 provided
assistance in 602 instances in response to international
inquiries relating to human trafficking, compared to 647
during 2006 and 550 during 2005. The Federal Criminal
Police takes part in the expert working groups of both
Europol and Interpol. During 2007, there were eight
investigations spanning several countries, in which the
Federal Criminal Police adopted a coordinating role.
(Comment: The Federal Criminal Police asks for the latter
figure not to be published because its lead role
automatically implies the investigation of organized
crime.) One of the biggest police operations targeting the
trafficking of mostly Romanian women for sexual
exploitation was conducted in the cantons of Bern and
Schwyz in February 2007, together with officials from
Romania.

Since 2004 Switzerland has had a bilateral cooperation
accord between Europol and the Swiss Police, allowing the

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latter to tap into Europol's intelligence files on
organized crime, drug trafficking and terrorism. Under
the terms of the agreement, Swiss Federal Police have
assigned to The Hague a liaison officer whose role is to
support and coordinate the cooperation between Switzerland
and other EU countries. There is also a Swiss Police
liaison at the headquarters of Interpol.

Since 1995 the Federal Office of Police has deployed
police attachs abroad to support the Swiss police and
judicial authorities in the fight against transnational
crime. At present Switzerland has a network of seven
police attachs in six countries (two in the U.S. and one
each in the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Thailand and
in France at the General Secretariat of Interpol in Lyon).
The police attach in the Czech Republic and Italy are
also accredited in Slovakia and Slovenia, respectively.
Switzerland has bilateral police cooperation agreements
with Austria, France, Hungary, Latvia, and Albania.
Switzerland has also signed but not yet ratified
cooperation agreements with Romania, Macedonia, and
Bosnia-Herzegovina.

I. Extradition is permitted if the act in question is
punishable under Swiss law and the law of the requesting
state, liable to a term of imprisonment of at least one
year, and no Swiss court is competent in the matter. No
Swiss national shall be extradited to a foreign country
for penal prosecution or execution of a verdict without
his or her written consent. The person in question may
revoke consent until the order for the extradition is
issued. A request for extradition is complied with only
if the requesting country accords reciprocity. Foreigners
may be extradited to another state for offenses punishable
under its laws or for serving a term of imprisonment if
this state applies for extradition or accepts, upon
request of the Swiss authorities, to prosecute the person
in question or to execute a verdict cast by Swiss
authorities. Swiss Police statistics record extraditions
only by country so no extraditions statistics are
available for specific criminal offenses. There have been
no changes to extradition law.

J. Trafficking is not tolerated in Switzerland, and there
are no indications or reports that government officials
are involved.

K. N/A

L. There have been no indications or reports that Swiss
military or civilian personnel deployed on international
peace-keeping missions have engaged in or facilitated
severe forms of trafficking or exploited victims of such
trafficking. Switzerland pursues a zero-tolerance policy
regarding sexual exploitation by personnel participating
in international peace-keeping missions (cf. section
5.I.).

M. The 2002 partial revision of the Penal Code providing
for the extraterritorial coverage of Switzerland's child
sexual abuse laws entered into force on January 1, 2007.
Anybody violating Swiss child sexual abuse laws is subject
to prosecution in Switzerland under the extraterritorial
provisions of the Penal Code regardless of the legislation
of the foreign country where the abuse took place.

During 2007, Swiss law enforcement authorities handled the
following child sex tourism cases:
- A Swiss national was sentenced in Cambodia to eleven
years in prison for child sexual abuse. Swiss law
enforcement authorities cooperated in the investigation
with local authorities.
- A criminal investigation against a Swiss national has
been opened in Switzerland on suspicion of child sexual
abuse abroad.
- A Swiss national who had been sentenced in Switzerland
for child sexual abuse and who had taken up residence in
Haiti to escape punishment was extradited to Switzerland.


----------------------------------------
IV. PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS
----------------------------------------

A. The government does assist foreign victims of
trafficking by granting relief from deportation and

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providing temporary to permanent residency status in cases
of serious hardship. Under the Federal Law on Foreigners,
effective January 1, 2008, cantonal immigration
authorities must grant TIP victims a minimum 30-day stay
of deportation proceedings to let them recover from their
trauma and weigh participation in judicial proceedings
against their traffickers (cantonal immigration
authorities have been granting temporary stays of
deportation to TIP victims since 2004, in accord with
federal guidelines). Cantonal immigration authorities may
admit TIP victims willing to cooperate with judicial
authorities for up to three months or may issue short-term
residency permits (with the consent of the federal
authorities) if the criminal investigation takes longer.
In 2007, cantonal immigration offices granted the 30-day
stays of deportation proceedings to 33 trafficking victims
(39 in 2006) and issued 6 short-term residency permits for
the duration of legal/court proceedings against their
traffickers (three in 2006).

The new Federal Law on Foreigners further strengthens the
legal status of TIP victims and witnesses, explicitly
authorizing the government to waive normal immigration
requirements and grant residency permits for victims of
human trafficking as well as witnesses in human
trafficking cases. The Federal Office for Migration
grants trafficking victims temporary admission in
Switzerland if they are at risk of personal harm as
witnesses in criminal proceedings or if a return to the
country of origin is deemed unreasonable. In 2007, four
victims were granted such long-term residency permits on
grounds of personal hardship after the end of court
proceedings (three in 2006). The law also allows the
federal government to logistically and financially assist
trafficking victims and witnesses for whom a return is
acceptable in their re-integration in their countries of
origin. In April 2008, the Federal Office for Migration
launches a two-year pilot project to assist trafficking
victims and witnesses in their return to and re-
integration in their home societies.

B. Under the Swiss Victims Assistance Law (OHG), which
came into force in 1993, TIP victims, regardless of their
immigration status, are entitled to free and immediate
material and medical aid as well as psychological, social,
and legal assistance. Local victims assistance centers
have to provide TIP victims with a minimum of 14 days of
emergency lodging, 14 days of living allowance, 4 hours of
consultation with a lawyer and 5 sessions of
psychotherapy, with all other expenses for medical
treatment, transportation, personal safety, or translation
services being covered by the government. If recovery
requires more time, the government is obligated to assume
the additional cost of longer-term care. The victims'
assistance center may lodge a TIP victim in a shelter for
battered women.

Federal government statistics show that in 2006 (most
recent figures available) a total of 80 victims of human
trafficking or forced prostitution received help from
government victims assistance centers, compared to 63 in
2005 and 84 in 2004 (aggregate statistical records that
are not broken down for the two separate infractions).
The NGO FIZ Makasi, a victim assistance center counseling
only TIP victims, assisted 133 trafficking victims in
2006, compared to 116 in 2005 and 85 in 2004. FIZ Makasi,
which was launched in 2004 by the Zurich-based NGO FIZ,
receives financial contributions from the federal
government and several cantons for counseling services
offered to TIP victims under their jurisdiction. The
Canton of Zurich in 2007 contracted out the counseling of
TIP victims to FIZ Makasi and continues to supports the
umbrella agency FIZ.

On March 23, 2007, Parliament adopted a complete revision
of the Victims Assistance Law (OHG), which obligates the
cantonal victim assistance centers to take into account
the special needs of different groups of victims of crime.
Under the revised OHG, cantons can pay financial
compensation to one another for counseling services
provided to a victim of crime under their jurisdiction,
which is meant to give urban centers an incentive to
establish specialized victim counseling centers, e.g. a
victims' assistance center supporting only TIP victims.
The revised OHG will become effective at the beginning of
2009.

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C. Federal and cantonal governments provide funding to
NGOs and women shelters that provide services to TIP
victims. Under the 1993 OHG, all cantons are obligated to
offer TIP victims the services listed above (cf. section
4.B.). Funding of the victims assistance centers is a
matter of the cantons and no federal statistics are being
reported. In addition to the official victims assistance
centers, other domestic NGOs receive public money. For
example, the Zurich-based Women's Information Center for
Women from Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe (FIZ)
receives roughly 30 percent of its $676,000 budget
(710,000 Swiss francs) from federal, cantonal, and city
government (These public contributions are independent of
the compensation to FIZ by cantons for counseling services
offered to individual victims of TIP). Internationally,
the Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2007 channeled
more than $1.44 (1.5 million Swiss francs) to
International Organizations and NGOs providing services to
TIP victims, two-thirds through its development aid arm
SDC and the rest through its human rights and human
security division.

D. At the end of February 2008, ten cantons had
established a formal referral process for TIP victims to
improve their protection and security by regulating the
procedures for identifying and referring TIP victims for
assistance. In Zurich, roundtable meetings between city
and cantonal representatives of the police, the
immigration office, the prosecutor's office, the equal
opportunity office, and the NGO FIZ began in 2001 and led
in 2004 to a "letter of intent" delineating areas of
concerted action. In 2006, the round tables in the three
cantons of Luzern, St. Gallen, and Solothurn have each
adopted a formal code of cooperation and referral process
in TIP cases in written memoranda of understanding.
During the reporting period, the cantons of Basel-Stadt
and Fribourg have adopted written codes of cooperation,
and efforts to establish a formal referral process for TIP
victims continued in Basel-Landschaft, Bern, and newly
Aargau. The southern Canton of Ticino bordering on Italy
has a working group which comprises representatives of the
police, the social security and immigration departments,
and NGOs. The working group was established to oversee
the implementation of the cantonal law on prostitution and
has been operating since 2002.

E. The co-operation mechanisms several cantons have
established between law enforcement and migration
authorities and NGOs have pushed combating trafficking in
persons up on policing agendas. Whereas in earlier days
police raids of red light districts and commercial sex
establishments led to the apprehension and expulsion of
illegal immigrants, these checks are now carried out for
the purpose of apprehending and prosecuting those who
organize the trafficking in women and profit from illegal
prostitution. In some areas, notably the City of Bern,
the police as a result of the exchange of information in
the context of roundtable meetings has raised the number
of police officers carrying out on-site checks of night
clubs and sex establishments.

F. Under the new Federal Law on Foreigners, effective
January 1, 2008, cantonal migration authorities are to
grant TIP victims a stay of deportation proceedings to
recover from their trauma and weigh participation in
judicial proceedings (cantonal immigration authorities
have been granting temporary stays of deportation to TIP
victims since 2004, in accord with guidelines sent out by
the FOM). The new law further strengthens the legal
status of TIP victims and witnesses, explicitly
authorizing the government to waive normal immigration
requirements and, in cases of serious hardship, grant
residency permits for victims of human trafficking as well
as witnesses in human trafficking cases.

The new Federal Law on Foreigners also allows the federal
government logistically and financially to assist in the
voluntary return to and re-integration of trafficking
victims and witnesses in their countries of origin. The
Federal Office for Migration in April 2008 launches a two-
year pilot project to assist primarily victims and
witnesses of human trafficking and secondarily cabaret
dancers in Switzerland who are in an exploitative
situation. The pilot project is being implemented in co-
operation with cantonal bodies assisting returning

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migrants and the International Organization for Migration.
Under the new Federal Law on Foreigners, the beneficiaries
of the pilot program receive the same assistance and have
access to the same counseling services as are offered to
asylum seekers returning voluntarily. This includes
financial, material, and medical assistance in the return
to the country of origin. The pilot project takes into
account the special needs of TIP victims (i.e. risk
assessment, rehabilitation programs, etc.). After the
pilot phase, the project will be evaluated and potentially
slightly modified. It will then be turned into an
indefinite TIP victim return assistance program.

Already since 2005, IOM Switzerland has provided the
cantons and other NGOs with specialized support for TIP
victims returning voluntarily to their country of origin
and their placement in a rehabilitation center or
reintegration program. However, until the enactment of
the new Federal Law on Foreigners, the government could
not provide financial assistance to individual TIP victims
for their return because of a lack of appropriate
legislation to assist non-asylum seekers. Since the
project began in 2005, IOM has made assessments of the
situation in the country of origin for 55 individual TIP
victims, 27 of whom have actually returned home.

G. The Swiss Government encourages TIP victims to assist
judicial authorities in trafficking investigations and
prosecutions by granting them temporary residency and
financial support, and admitting them to stay if a return
to their country of origin posed a serious risk of
personal harm. The Swiss Victims Assistance Law (OHG)
safeguards TIP victims' rights in criminal prosecutions
with special rules for trial procedures and for
compensation and redress. The OHG covers all victims of
crimes, including foreigners staying illegally in
Switzerland. The OHG provides for the special protection
of witnesses' identity in criminal court proceedings:
victims/witnesses may request the trial to take place
behind closed doors and avoid confrontation with the
defendant. The OHG is a federal law and thus binding on
all cantonal codes of criminal trial proceedings. TIP
victims may also file civil suits against their
traffickers and seek financial compensation. Under the
new Federal Law on Foreigners, effective January 1, 2008,
TIP victims temporarily admitted for the duration of court
proceedings against their traffickers may be issued a work
permit during their stay.

Several major urban centers have established a referral
process for TIP victims in the context of regular
roundtable meetings between NGOs and cantonal justice,
police and immigration authorities. As a direct result of
the regulation to stay deportation proceedings and the
better cooperation between NGOs and law enforcement
officials, the number of TIP victims willing to testify
against their traffickers has risen considerably. FIZ
reports that of the 133 TIP victims being counseled during
2006, 65 were testifying to law enforcement officials
against their trafficker. In 2005, 37 out of a total of
116 TIP victims had cooperated with judicial authorities.
In other words, the percentage of TIP victims willing to
testify against their traffickers rose from less than 10
percent to almost 50 percent in a matter of a few years
[Embassy comment: FIZ has not yet released its figures for
2007.].

H. Under the OHG, all TIP victims are entitled to help
from government-funded victims assistance centers for
abuse victims or women shelters and enjoy special
safeguards during criminal proceedings, and cantonal
authorities do provide these protections in practice (cf.
section 4.B). Switzerland does not have a comprehensive
witness protection program providing victims of crime with
new identities.

Foreign juvenile victims of crime under 18 years of age
have to be placed under the protection of the Cantonal
Guardianship Office (Vormundschaftsbehoerde) during their
stay in Switzerland. In criminal court proceedings, the
OHG provides special protective measures for juvenile
victims of crime: Questioning by police or the
investigative magistrate must occur soon and the testimony
is being recorded on videotape. Cross-examinations are
not allowed. The questioning has to be done by a
recognized expert and no more than two sessions are

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allowed. The law recognizes the special needs of juvenile
victims of crime and they may only serve as witnesses of
the prosecution if their testimony is indispensable for
the conviction of a suspect.

In case of the repatriation of a juvenile victim of crime
(after the end of the stay-of-deportation proceedings or a
criminal court procedure), the Federal Office for
Migration and cantonal migration offices have to take into
special account that the person in question is a minor
under 18 years of age. Under the law, a return to the
country of origin is only permissible if the authorities
have ascertained that the juvenile can be placed again in
the care of the parents or a close relative, or if there
is a satisfactory care structure in place in the country
of origin.

On October 5, 2007, Parliament adopted a new federal code
of criminal trial proceedings that will supplant the
existing 26 cantonal codes. The new federal code
strengthens the existing witness protection measures under
the OHG in order to avoid a perpetrator in a TIP case
learning the identity of a prosecution witness and it
gives witnesses the right to call on an attorney and/or a
confidante during court proceedings. The government plans
to put the new federal code into effect at the beginning
of 2010. Implementation requires several years because,
even under the new federal code of criminal trial
proceedings, law enforcement remains the dominion of the
cantons. Cantons need time to amend their legislation and
adjust cantonal operating modes to the new federal
regulations on court proceedings.

The government has further strengthened protective
measures of cabaret/night club dancers on temporary
artistic visas, so called L-permits, often thought of as
being at special risk of being exploited by their
employers. In 2003, the Economics Ministry, the Federal
Office for Migration, the Association of Concert Halls,
Cabarets, Nightclubs, and Discotheques (ASCO), and FIZ
Zurich adopted a standard labor contract for the
employment of cabaret dancers, effective beginning of
2004. The standard labor contract regulates the rights
and responsibilities of both contracting parties,
stipulates salary and the details of traveling costs, and
contains labor law provisions on night shifts and rest
periods. According to the terms of the standard labor
contract, cabaret dancers earn a gross income of 4,800
Swiss francs for 23 working days per month. After
deduction of a source tax, rent, social security, and
unemployment insurance contributions, the cabaret dancers
earn a net income of 2,200 Swiss francs per month. The
Economics Ministry and the Cantonal Labor Inspectorates
monitor implementation. L-permit applicants have to sign
a copy of their labor contract with the Swiss cabaret or
nightclub in the presence of a Swiss consular official in
their country of origin (cf. section 4.I).

In February 2006, the Federal Office for Migration issued
a new set of regulations regarding L-visa holders. The
regulations explicitly stipulate that the contractual
salary of the cabaret dancer be transferred to a bank
account in that person's name and that the nightclub
employer bears responsibility for signing a health
insurance contract on the cabaret dancer's behalf, which
must be mentioned in the labor contract. Both
requirements are designed to facilitate the monitoring of
working conditions by cantonal labor Inspectorates.

FIZ in 2006 contracted an academic study on the living and
working conditions of cabaret dancers in Switzerland. The
study, which was based on a rather small and heterogeneous
sample of cabaret dancers and experts, concluded that the
legal norms protecting L-permit holders are at times not
upheld completely, and that L-permit holders are not
always fully aware of their rights under the law. The
Federal Office for Migration has welcomed the study as
helpful and evaluated its recommendations for possible
improvements of the living situation of cabaret dancers.
On briefing cabaret dancers on their rights and
responsibilities, some cantons have introduced mandatory
briefing session for all first-time visitors on L-permits.
The FOM recognizes the vulnerable situation of cabaret
dancers and urges cantonal authorities both with circular
letters and through the regional working groups to conduct
regular controls. The FOM has received feedback from

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several cantons that night clubs and cabarets are
inspected more frequently.

Embassy contacts stress that statistics available indicate
that persons on L-permits do not figure prominently among
TIP victims. Of the 133 TIP victims counseled by the
anti-TIP NGO FIZ in 2006, only 15 had entered the country
on a L-permit (Embassy Bern is awaiting the detailed
analysis of the FIZ statistics for 2007). Roughly half of
the TIP victims crossed the border into Switzerland either
without proper documentation or as tourists. This
observation that the great majority of TIP victims enter
the country without any proper documentation is also
confirmed by police and judicial authorities.

I. The GOS provides extensive training for government
officials in identifying trafficking victims and providing
assistance. The Swiss Police Institute in 2007 held
specialized five-day anti-TIP workshops for migration and
law enforcement officials and border guards (cf. section
3.G.). On November 23/24, 2007, the NGO ECPAT Switzerland
organized an interdisciplinary workshop combating on child
trafficking for members of cantonal and urban police
departments, the Swiss border guards,
prosecutors/investigative magistrates, and social security
agencies. The workshop provided background information
and briefed participants on identifying and questioning
child trafficking victims, legal aspects, investigative
techniques, the needs for special assistance and existing
protective institutions, and cooperation between the
police and social institutions. ECPAT also presented a
new handbook "Child Trafficking: National Response to an
International Problem", which the organization had adapted
to Swiss circumstances in the context of ECPAT's European
program to raise awareness of child trafficking.

The Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs briefs experts and
diplomatic personnel about the problem of trafficking in
human beings prior to their postings abroad, and draws
their attention to a code of conduct drafted by a joint
working group on human trafficking. According to these
rules, diplomatic staff shall stay clear of any person who
can reasonably be suspected of engaging in trafficking in
human beings or those who are involved in other criminal
activities under the laws of either the host country or of
Swiss or international law. The Department of Foreign
Affairs also urges its embassies and consulates to develop
ongoing relationships with NGOs assisting trafficking
victims.

The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs anti-TIP
information and prevention program for visa applicants has
been extended to all Swiss consulates worldwide by a
circular letter of March 2005. The program (that started
as a pilot project at Embassies Moscow and Kiev) consists
of the following elements: a personal interview with every
first-time L-visa applicant; the signing of a standardized
labor contract with a Swiss night club in the presence of
a Swiss consular official; a briefing of the L-visa
applicant on her or his legal and contractual rights; and
an information brochure with the phone numbers and
addresses of victim assistance hotlines or drop-in centers
in Switzerland for persons in need.

J. N/A

K. The following is a list of IOs and NGOs operating in
Switzerland that provide services to trafficking victims.
The organizations provide information and counseling, and
in some cases emergency assistance.

Terre des Hommes, Switzerland;
Ecpat Switzerland (end child prostitution, child
pornography and trafficking of children for sexual
purposes);
International Organization for Migration;
International Labor Organization;
Women's Information Center for Women from Africa, Asia,
Latin America and Eastern Europe (FIZ): counseling,
publications/articles, symposiums/workshops, participation
in round tables with aids-prevention and anti-violence
groups, multi-lingual educational radio programs, and
international contact building.

In addition, a number of smaller NGOs counseling women in
the sex trade as well as women shelters that exist in most

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urban centers, deal with the problem of human trafficking.
A great number of these organizations are linked in the
national network "Prostitution Collective Reflection"
(ProKoRe). The major counseling centers and primary
points of contact of ProKoRe are FIZ in Zurich, Xenia in
Bern, and ASPASIE in Geneva.

The national organizations and domestic NGOs typically
deal with TIP victims, prostitutes, and victims of
domestic violence and offer victim counseling, crisis
intervention and emergency lodging, legal and medical
assistance, and assisted returns to the country of origin.
Cooperation with local authorities is varied but typically
includes regular meetings and institutionalized
information exchange, cooperation in the context of
working groups or roundtables, financial support by local
communities and cantons, as well as public funding for
specific projects.


-------------
V. PREVENTION
-------------

A. Government officials at the highest level acknowledge
that trafficking is a problem. On the occasion of the
International Women's Day, March 8, 2006, Foreign Minister
Micheline Calmy-Rey, together with several women Members
of Parliament from the major parties, appealed to
international organizations to combat trafficking in
persons vigorously. The appeal was open for the public to
sign and over 2,000 signatures from all corners of
Switzerland were spontaneously sent in. The text of the
declaration plus the signatures were sent with a letter of
the Foreign Minister to the Secretary General of the UN,
the Director General of the ILO, the Director General of
the IOM, the President of the OSCE, and the Secretary
General of the Council of Europe.

B. Domestic campaigns

With a view toward the upcoming European Soccer Cup (Euro
08), which Switzerland is hosting together with Austria in
June 2008, the federal government in January 2007
appropriated $96,000 (100,000 Swiss francs) to NGOs to
kick-start suitable public awareness campaigns against
trafficking and forced prostitution. The anti-TIP NGO FIZ
has already begun preparations for the awareness-raising
campaign during the Euro 08 in cooperation with partner
organizations.

The campaign will be kicked off on March 8, 2008,
International Women's Day, with rallies in Basel, Bern,
Geneva, and Zurich, i.e. the Swiss host cities of the Euro
08, which marks the launch of a petition for the better
protection of victims. In the run up to and during the
Euro 08, the campaign organizers plan to show TV spots in
soccer stadiums and large-scale screens in public sites
such as train stations.

The goal of the FIZ campaign is to raise awareness among
the visitors of the EURO 08 and the general public of the
extent and the consequences of trafficking in women. The
FIZ campaign will also target the customers of commercial
sexual services, calling on them to help potential victims
of trafficking get access to aid organizations.

On February 25-29, 2008, the Moldovan theatre group
Centrul de Arte Coliseum from Chisinau toured Switzerland
with its play "A saptea Kafana - the seventh Coffeehouse".
The play, which is meant to increase public awareness of
human trafficking, is based on true accounts of Moldovan
TIP victims, who after returning to their home country
describe and try to overcome their traumatic experiences.
On its tour through Switzerland the group stopped in
Zurich, Bern, Geneva, and Chiasso (in Ticino). After each
performance, a round-table panel discussion with Swiss and
international trafficking experts and officials was held.
The Centrul de Arte Coliseum was hosted by IOM Switzerland
and the Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which organized
the tour through Switzerland as well as the follow-up
panel discussions. [Embassy Bern observed that the
performance in Bern was attended by 150-200 people.]

During 2007, the Swiss Foreign Ministry organized two
working luncheons on the issue of human trafficking, open

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to members of the federal administration and interested
parties from external organizations. The two guest
speakers were Mrs. Bridget Lew, founder-president of the
Humanitarian Organization for Migration Economics
(H.O.M.E.), a Singaporean NGO, and a representative of the
international secretariat of the Global Alliance against
Traffic in Women (GAATW) based in Bangkok. Both events
were attended by 50-75 people.

The three official churches of the Canton of Basel-
Landschaft - Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Protestant
- in cooperation with FIZ, developed an exhibition
"Without Glitz and Glamour - Trafficking in Women and
Forced Prostitution," designed to raise awareness among
the general public of the problem of trafficking in women
and to stir public discussion. The exhibit opened in
Liestal in Basel-Landschaft in 2006 and was shown
throughout 2007 in a total of ten cantons. The exhibit
highlights the background and motives of all stakeholders
- women, traffickers, clients - and shows the ways and
means of modern-day slavery with a special focus on
Switzerland. The KSMM took an active part in the opening
ceremony of the exhibit.

The Swiss Crime Prevention unit, a staff unit of the
National Conference of the Cantonal Justice Ministers, in
September 2005 launched a three-year information campaign
against child pornography on the Internet. During the
first year, the "Stop Child Pornography on the Internet"
campaign is meant to raise the public's awareness of the
criminal nature of child pornography. The campaign has an
annual budget of 300,000 Swiss francs and conveys its
message with brochures, flyers, stickers, and a website:
http://www.stopp-kinderpornografie.ch/3/de/

The "stop child pornography on the internet" campaign is
targeting the police, children and youth, their
environment (parents, schools) as well as (potential)
consumers and perpetrators.

International campaigns:

During 2007/08, the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)
and the DFA's Development and Cooperation Agency (SDC)
sponsored the following anti-TIP campaigns. (The list is
not exhaustive but contains the major projects, many of
which Switzerland co-sponsored in partnership with other
countries or international organizations.) In total DFA
spends approximately 1 million Swiss francs on various
projects/expert secondments (Comment: the exchange rate
for 2007 averaged about 1.19 Swiss Francs to the U.S.
dollar. End comment):

- Mongolia, Combating Human Trafficking, Phase 1,
February 2008 - January 2010, CHF 2,200,000

- Mongolia, Promote and Strengthen Human Rights
Protection of Trafficked Persons, Small Action, September
- December 2007, CHF 50,000

- East Asia, Consultancy on the situation of anti-
trafficking initiatives in East Asia and proposal for
Swiss participation, January-April 2008, CHF 40,000

- Myanmar, Contribution to IOM for reintegration of
trafficking victims, CHF 180,000 in 2008 (managed by the
humanitarian aid)

- Myanmar, Contribution to the Association Frangois-
Xavier Bagnoud for HIV/AIDS and human trafficking
prevention, CHF 100,000 CHF in 2008 (managed by the
humanitarian aid)

- Global, Support to the Global Alliance Against
Trafficking in Women (based in Bangkok), CHF 200,000 in
2008 (planned not yet signed)

- Cambodia, Contribution to the Hagar women shelter,
November 2007 to December 2008, CHF 200,000 (additional
support was also given previously)

- Serbia: NGO ASTRA Information office for women and
girls, Prevention and Assistance, November 2005 - March
2008 CHF 320,000

- Moldova, Terre des hommes / Salvat Copii (NGO):

BERN 00000122 019 OF 024


Contribution to the Fight Against Child Trafficking
(FACT), CHF 200,000 (through program contribution to Tdh)

- Russian Federation, Prevention, information (Hotline)
and reintegration for victims of human trafficking,
September 2007 - December 2008, CHF 350,000 (new phase)

- Lebanon: Measures to prevent and combat trafficking
in Human Beings, Contribution to UNODC (October 2005 -
September 2007) CHF 407,000

- Lebanon: Safe House Shelter Project: Urgent Funding
to Caritas Lebanon Migration Center (CLMC): 200,000 CHF
(PA IV und DEZA-HH)

- Syria: Legislation to Combat Human trafficking,
Contribution to IOM (August 2006 to January 2008), CHF
195,000

A regional Concept for the CIS region has been elaborated
(including Ukraine, Moldova, Russian Federation, South
Caucasus and Belarus), aiming at better coordinating SDC
interventions in the region and to allow the replication
of best practice. On the basis of this concept, a
regional program is being elaborated; it is planned to
start in summer 2008 with a yearly budget of 1.5 million
CHF.

Additionally, anti-trafficking messages are included in
other information and awareness raising activities
supported by Switzerland, e.g. in the HIV-AIDS prevention
program of the Red Cross Youth in Nepal (through street
theatre); and Violence against Women (Tajikistan).

The Foreign Ministry's Division on Human Security and
Human Rights supports a majority of projects that seek to
promote equal opportunity goals and to strengthen women's
rights (de jure and de facto). As part of the foreign
policy promoting peace and human rights -- in accord with
UNSCR 1325 on women, peace, and security -- these programs
seek to reduce the vulnerability of women (in societies
afflicted by armed conflicts).

In 2006 the Swiss Development Agency reviewed its priority
areas. The upshot of this review has been to define
migration, including the aspect of human trafficking, as
one of the SDC's 10 priorities. In Eastern Europe and the
CIS, the importance of migration and human trafficking
projects is set to increase. The SDC is elaborating a
policy paper setting the framework to expand its
activities in the fight against human trafficking.

In 2007the Swiss government also supported the following
projects:

- Mongolia, Combating Violence against Women, phase 1,
December 2007 - December 2008, CHF 200,000

- Vietnam, Contribution to UNFPA for the mainstreaming
prevention of domestic violence, phase 2 October 2006-
December 2010, 1,100,000 CHF

- Vietnam, Support to the prevention of domestic
violence in Ninh Binh and central level, phase 2, July
2007 to May 2011, 960,000 CHF

- Vietnam, Support to national legal aid system, phase
1, July 2003 to June 2007, 3,450,000 CHF

- Cambodia, Support to Hagar Soya: providing work to
victims of trafficking (2002-2008, 1,277,5000 CHF)

- Belarus, La Strada/Young Women Christian association:
Countering Trafficking in Women, Prevention and
Reintegration - (2004 - 2007), CHF 300,000

- Belarus, IOM: Combating Trafficking in Human Beings:
Protection and Reintegration assistance, Contribution to
the establishment of a rehabilitation center in Minsk, CHF
183,000

- Ukraine, IOM: Migration management including
combating human trafficking, assistance counseling,
prevention, CHF 500,000

- Georgia, "Protection and Assistance of trafficking

BERN 00000122 020 OF 024


victims in Georgia" (training of social workers), CHF
400,000

- South East Europe (Regional project), Strengthening
governments' capacities for fighting human trafficking
(national plans, coordination at regional level,
harmonization of database etc), CHF 310,000

- Southeast Europe (Regional project), Contributions to
the Organized Crime Training Network - OCTN for
operational managers (police officers and organized crime
investigation units) in SEE, CHF 400,000

- Brazil: UNODC Project, Contribution to the
implementation of the National Policy to Combat
Trafficking in Persons and the design of a National Plan
to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Structuring Services
for victims' assistance and working in the states of Sao
Paulo, Goias, Rio de Janeiro and Ceara, CHF 50,000

- Black Sea Region: UNODC Project. The objective of
this project is to take a significant step forward in
strengthening the criminal justice response to trafficking
in persons in the member states of the Organization for
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). The key strategy
is to promote and guide bilateral and multilateral
cooperation between the relevant governmental and non-
governmental actors among the BSEC member states in the
areas of investigating cases of trafficking, prosecuting
and convicting traffickers as well as referring,
supporting and protecting victims and witnesses of
trafficking: 177,000 CHF.

- Financial support of the Council of Europe's campaign
"Tu n'es pas a vendre" [You are not for sale] to pay for
the translation of the eponymous comic book into German
and Italian (for its distribution in Switzerland) and into
Ukrainian and Albanian: 12,000 CHF

- Financial support to launch a roundtable on human
trafficking in Spain: exchange of experiences/knowledge
transfer on the issue of human trafficking hosted by the
Swiss Embassy in Madrid with the participation of the
Swiss Federal Government's anti-TIP coordination UNIT
KSMM, the Swiss anti-TIP NGO FIZ, and concerned Spanish
organizations and institutions.

Additionally, SDC spreads anti-trafficking messages in the
context of other projects not explicitly focused on human
trafficking (e.g. Burma/Myanmar).

C. According to Embassy contacts, the relationship between
government authorities and NGOs is generally a cooperative
and symbiotic one. An increasing number of cantons and
cities have institutionalized regular roundtable meetings
on human trafficking to improve cooperation between NGOs
and cantonal justice and police authorities. At the
latest count, ten cantons have adopted formalized codes of
referral and cooperation in TIP cases or were in the
process of doing so (cf. section 4.D.). The head of the
federal government's KSMM participates in most of these
cantonal roundtable efforts, but - in accord with
Switzerland's federal structure - only in the capacity of
an observer and consultant.

Cooperation among federal authorities and international
and local NGOs has intensified. The KSMM conducts
consultations and invites NGOs and international
organizations to its roundtables, including Terre des
Hommes Switzerland, Ecpat Switzerland, the International
Organization for Migration (IOM), Women's Information
Center for Women from Africa, Asia, Latin America and
Eastern Europe (FIZ), the "Prostitution Collective
Reflection" (ProKoRe), and ASPASIE in Geneva. KSMM has
regularized these roundtables.

FIZ experts also taught an integral part of the first two
training classes in combating human trafficking for police
officers and law enforcement officials, which were held at
the Swiss Police Academy in Neuchatel in April and October
2007, respectively (cf. section 3.G.).

D. Switzerland's borders are adequately monitored and
immigration regulations are stringent. Switzerland's visa
sections in countries of origin inform applicants of
"artistic visa" or L-permits about their rights when

BERN 00000122 021 OF 024


working in Switzerland (cf section 4.I.). Information
brochures are available in 16 languages. Some embassies
have also displayed respective information on their
homepage. Furthermore, Swiss Foreign Affairs Department
officials have sensitized visa adjudicators to the problem
and have invited NGOs to give training to embassy staff.
Furthermore, the leadership of the Swiss Border Guards,
the Federal Office for Refugees, and the Federal Office
for Migration are all represented on the KSMM to assure
the flow of information and the analysis of immigration
patterns for evidence of trafficking.

The Swiss Border Guards, an administrative unit of the
Federal Department of Finance, cooperate closely with the
Federal Office for Migration on issues of asylum and
migration. Combating irregular migration and the
smuggling of migrants is a priority for the Swiss Border
Guards. Border Guard officials receive special training
to heighten awareness of human trafficking as part of the
normal training program. Members of the Swiss Border
Guards took part in the training classes in combating
human trafficking held at the Swiss Police Academy in
Neuchatel in April and October 2007. Border guards report
all suspicious activities to the cantonal police force of
the area, which holds sole authority for further criminal
investigations. However, in practice it has proven
difficult for border guard officials to spot victims of
human trafficking because the latter often give only
limited information about themselves and commonly do not
denounce their traffickers out of fear of reprisals.

The Foreign Ministry (DFA) constantly adjusts measures to
combat visa abuse, ensuring that procedures are tailored
to local conditions. Since spring 2005 the DFA has taken
the following measures: The DFA introduced systematic risk
assessments and subjects Swiss missions to comprehensive
inspections every four years. Negative assessments or
reports of suspicious activities trigger special
inspections, as happened during 2006 at the Swiss mission
in Islamabad. On allegations of wrongdoing, DFA closely
cooperates with the Office of the Attorney General. The
DFA has also taken specific organizational measures to
reduce the risk of corruption by working through call-
centers (e.g. Skopje, Moscow, and Bangkok) or by
collecting visa fees through bank transfers to avoid the
use of cash in visa sections (Moscow). In some mission,
the facilities have been redesigned to support visa
processing and control systems (Tel Aviv, St. Petersburg,
Pristina, Prague, and Kiev) or separate visa pavilions
built (New Delhi and Colombo). The DFA also puts special
importance on raising awareness among visa clerks and
their line managers and on their careful screening and
preparation for the task in high-risk missions.

E. The key office coordinating the anti-trafficking
efforts of the various government agencies is the
Coordination Unit against the Trafficking of Persons and
Smuggling of Migrants (KSMM), which started operations at
the beginning of 2003. Formally a part of the Federal
Office of Police, the KSMM processes and passes
information and coordinates policy within the federal
administration as well as between the federal agencies and
the cantons (states). It is also the primary point of
contact for international inquiries on all issues linked
to illegal migration and human trafficking.

Internationally, Switzerland was one of the initiators of
the OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings
and has been supporting the OSCE Special Rapporteur since
2000, both financially and with expert secondments.
Switzerland has actively participated in the negotiations
for the Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking
in Human Beings, which requests enhanced cooperation among
stakeholders. The federal government has launched a
consultation process with the cantonal governments with a
view to preparing the way for Switzerland to ratify the
ratification the CoE convention. (Under Switzerland's
federalist structure the cantons hold authority over the
far-reaching victim protection measures and thus have to
give their consent).

Switzerland also substantially contributed to the NATO
Policy on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, which was
adopted at the Istanbul summit. Switzerland initiated the
first seminar to develop a training curriculum for NATO-
led forces in September 2004 at the Geneva Center for

BERN 00000122 022 OF 024


Security Policy in the framework of PfP. On a bilateral
basis, an information exchange was initiated in 2004 with
Ukraine. The Swiss government organized and financed the
visit of an anti-trafficking delegation to Bern. The
delegation met with all main governmental and cantonal
actors, including NGOs. This visit provided an ideal
opportunity to share information on victim protection and
prosecution and identify possible areas of closer co-
operation.

At the operational level, Switzerland runs bilateral
cooperation programs with various countries, and is member
of Interpol. Switzerland is active in Interpol's working
group against human trafficking and cooperates with the
European Police Office (EUROPOL) since September 2004.
Parliament approved the ratification of the Swiss-EUROPOL
bilateral agreement in 2005. The scope of bilateral
cooperation with EUROPOL will cover eight criminal areas,
including human trafficking.

F. The KSMM seeks to implement the national action plan
that its interdepartmental steering committee first
adopted in 2003. In keeping with its decentralized
structure, the steering committee is the KSMM's highest
organ. The steering committee consists of directorate-
level representatives of the federal departments involved
in combating human trafficking, delegates from cantonal
conferences and associations, as well as representatives
from three NGOs and international organizations with a
consultative status. The Steering Committee sets targets
and the guidelines for the KSMM's activities and controls
the drafting and implementation of measures. The Steering
Committee is chaired by the Federal Office of Police and
has convened biannually from 2003 to 2006 and once in
2007.

Specific measures are developed and implemented either by
working groups set up for that purpose or by individuals
with special support from the KSMM Secretariat. In 2004-
2007, the Steering Committee has appointed the following
working groups:
- Guidelines "Co-operation Mechanisms against Human
Trafficking"
- Report on Measures against the Smuggling of Migrants
(deferred in 2006)
- Recommendations on the protection of night club/cabaret
dancers
- Assessing possible options to extend/finance specialized
counseling of TIP victims
- Development of specialized anti-TIP training and
education measures
- Development of measures to prevent and combat the
trafficking in minors

The KSMM working group on child trafficking under the
leadership of the Foreign Ministry is drafting a policy
paper on the prevention of trafficking in children. The
working group has so far evaluated measures to prevent
child trafficking in the visa-issuance process and
continues to evaluate measures for the protection of
victims. On the domestic front, the working group
consulted with NGO/IOs specializing in the area of
children's rights. UNICEF Switzerland in October 2007
published a report which concluded that child trafficking
in Switzerland was limited to a few isolated cases, a fact
corroborated by victims' assistance statistics of the
Zurich NGO FIZ. For the year 2006, FIZ documented
approximately 10 cases of trafficking of minors under 18
years of age.

G. The government has taken multiple steps during the
reporting period to inform and educate the public about
the causes and consequences of severe forms of trafficking
in persons. In view of the upcoming European Soccer Cup,
the government has appropriated $96,000 (100,000 Swiss
francs) to kick-start public awareness campaigns against
trafficking and forced prostitution. The anti-TIP NGO FIZ
is running the campaign in cooperation with partner
organizations. The goal of the FIZ campaign is to raise
awareness among the visitors of the EURO 08 and the
general public of the extent and the consequences of
trafficking in women. The FIZ campaign will also target
the customers of commercial sexual services, calling on
them to help potential victims of trafficking get access
to aid organizations. In February 2008, a Moldovan
theatre group toured Switzerland with its play "A saptea

BERN 00000122 023 OF 024


Kafana - the seventh Coffeehouse", which is meant to
increase public awareness of human trafficking. The
theatre group was hosted by IOM Switzerland and the Swiss
Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

As a country with legalized prostitution, authorities have
intensified efforts to proactively identify TIP victims
among workers in the legalized sex trade. The roundtable
co-operation mechanisms in cantons between law enforcement
and migration authorities and NGOs have raised TIP
awareness. Police have intensified regular checks of
commercial sex establishments for the purpose of
identifying potential TIP victims and of apprehending and
prosecuting those who organize trafficking in women and
profit from illegal prostitution. Some police departments
have engaged additional police officers to perform more
on-site inspections (cf. section 4.E.).

The Swiss tourism industry under the leadership of the NGO
ECPAT has established a code of conduct to combat child
sex tourism. The Federal Criminal Police is cooperating
with the framers of the code to establish a mechanism to
allow travel agents to tip off law enforcement bodies in
order to apprehend and prosecute tourists who have sexual
contacts with minors (cf. Section 5.H.) Swiss domestic
laws on sexual contact with minors apply universally and
there have been prosecutions of individuals in Switzerland
for child sexual abuse committed abroad (cf. Section
3.M.).

Switzerland pursues a zero-tolerance policy regarding
sexual exploitation by personnel serving in international
peace-keeping missions. All civil and military persons
serving in peace-keeping missions are subject to the Code
of Conduct of the UN (and/or NATO-PfP respectively) and
undergo specific awareness raising training before
deployment. Compliance is closely monitored and abuses
punished (cf. section 5.I.).

H. ECPAT Switzerland has elaborated a code of conduct to
combat the sexual exploitation of children in tourism.
The code of conduct commits travel agencies and other
businesses in the tourism industry to corporate social
responsibility and holds them publicly accountable. The
code of conduct stipulates the following commitments:

- Adopt an ethical business policy to combat the
commercial exploitation of children
- Training of staff both in the country of origin as well
as at the travel destinations
- Introduce clauses in contracts with suppliers and
partners that generally condemn the sexual exploitation of
children
- Raise awareness and provide information to travelers
- Provide information to local "key personalities" at the
travel destinations
- Annual accountability reports and continuous monitoring
by the local representative (ECPAT Switzerland)

A number of Swiss travel agencies, including the two major
players Globetrotter and Hotelplan, have signed on to the
ECPAT code of conduct. The plan is to set up mechanism to
allow travel agents to tip off law enforcement bodies
about suspicious activities. The Federal Criminal Police
is involved in the consultation process to establish such
a mechanism.

I. Switzerland pursues a zero-tolerance policy regarding
sexual exploitation by personnel serving in international
peace-keeping missions. It lobbied multilateral bodies to
adopt a zero-tolerance policy and has itself adopted this
policy in its National Action Plan to implement UN
Security Council Resolution 1325 (which the GOS adopted on
January 31, 2007) All civil and military persons serving
in peace-keeping missions are subject to the Code of
Conduct of the UN (and/or NATO-PfP respectively).
Specific Swiss government training modules discuss the
problem of human trafficking and the vulnerability of
women to sexual abuse in armed conflicts - including also
by international peacekeepers. At the duty station,
establishments associated with commercial sex are
designated off-limits to staff deployed on peace-keeping
missions. Compliance with this regulation is monitored by
Swiss military policing units on the ground and violations
are punished. There have been no reports of serious
misconduct of Swiss civilian or military staff deployed on

BERN 00000122 024 OF 024


international peace-keeping missions.

----------------------------------------
End of draft TIP report for Switzerland.
----------------------------------------
Coneway

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