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Cablegate: Fsc-Pc June 4: Cyber Security and Preparation For

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UNCLAS USOSCE 000150

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STATE FOR VCI/CCA, VCI/NRRC, EUR/RPM, EUR/PRA, EUR/CARC,
SCA/CEN, SCA/RA, PM/WRA
JCS FOR J5
OSD FOR ISA (PERENYI)
NSC FOR DOWLEY
USUN FOR LEGAL, POL
CENTCOM FOR CCJ5-C, POLAD
UNVIE FOR AC
GENEVA FOR CD

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PARM PREL OSCE KCFE KCIP EN FI XG
SUBJECT: FSC-PC JUNE 4: CYBER SECURITY AND PREPARATION FOR
BMS

1. (SBU) Summary: The Estonian defense minister and other
speakers discussed cyber security and the need for the OSCE
to remain involved in coordinating the efforts of
participating States (pS) in responding to emerging threats
to information and communication systems. Speakers extolled
the Council of Europe's Convention on Cybercrime as an
example of the international cooperation needed.

2. (SBU) The special working group to prepare the OSCE
contribution to the Biennial Meeting of States (BMS) on the
UN Program of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW)
discussed the products needed for the July 14-16 meeting in
New York. These will include an oral presentation and a
written report. Delegations generally agreed to focus on
existing programs and documents, including brokering and
end-user certificates. Germany lamented the absence of any
normative work on SALW over the last four years and
recommended considering the merger of the OSCE Documents on
SALW and Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition. End summary.

Cyber Security
--------------

3. (SBU) Jaak Aaviksoo, the Estonian Minister of Defense,
told the June 4 joint PC-FSC meeting there was a continued
need for international and domestic legal frameworks regimes
to address threats to cyber security, including use of the
Internet by terrorists and attacks on the Internet and other
information systems. Aaviksoo urged all countries to join
the European Council's Convention on Cybercrime. Inter-state
cooperation was essential, and the OSCE could have a role in
fostering cooperation among policymakers, experts, and other
stakeholders. (FSC-PC.DEL/18/08)
4. (SBU) The UK, Canada (FSC-PC.DEL/23/08), Germany, France,
and Russia (Voronkov), agreed that the OSCE could respond to
the emerging threats by further discussion and exploring ways
to develop concrete actions, although Russia's definition of
cybercrime seemed to include websites that propagated
extremist views without necessarily directly connecting them
to terrorist activities.

5. (SBU) Voronkov welcomed further OSCE efforts on cyber
security, mentioning favorably "recent documents and
conferences" on the subject, particularly the "Public-Private
Partnership." Voronkov noted a connection between terrorist
use of the Internet and unrest in the Caucasus. He reported
that terrorists use sites controlled from computers in the
Baltics, Finland, and Sweden. Voronkov called for
international legal frameworks to identify terrorist websites
and monitor their activities. Such legal regimes need not
conflict with human rights principles, he added, but would
actually buttress a fundamental human right to life itself.
(FSC-PC.DEL/22/08)

6. (SBU) Belarus (Pavlov) noted the use of the Internet to
incite ethnic and religious hatred. He said transnational
crimes committed through the Internet require international
cooperation to prevent or prosecute them. The OSCE could
work with specialist organizations like Interpol to
coordinate national efforts while avoiding politicization of
cyber security. (FSC-PC.DEL/24/08)

7. (SBU) The U.S. (Finley) mentioned the recent cyber attacks
on Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Internet sites in Belarus
and supported further OSCE work on cyber security,

particularly in cooperation with other international
organizations like NATO. Ambassador Finley also announced
the distribution of remarks on cyber security by Homeland
Security Secretary Chertoff at the 2008 RSA conference.
(FSC-PC.DEL/20/08)

8. (SBU) Armenia (Tabibian) observed it was perhaps less
vulnerable than some pS because its information
infrastructure was less developed. He described information
technology as a "Faustian deal" that brings added
vulnerabilities as well as advantages. A fundamental concern
in cyber security should be the privacy of the individual, he
concluded, as the cyber realm creates a "culture of
licentiousness and gossip."

European Council's Convention on Cybercrime
-------------------------------------------

9. (SBU) Alexander Seger, head of the economic crime division
at the legal directorate in the Council of Europe, explained
the organization and provisions of the Council's Convention
on Cybercrime, which the U.S. and 22 other states have
ratified. He noted that cybercrime is transnational, yet
there is no consolidated international response to it. He
said there remained a need to balance states' interest in
preventing and prosecuting cybercrime and protecting privacy.
The Convention on Cybercrime contains both procedural and
substantive provisions, including measures for preserving
electronic evidence that are relevant to general criminal
investigations. Seger touched on the Council's Convention
for the Prevention of Terrorism, which the U.S. has not
joined, and concluded there was at present no need for
additional international legal instruments beyond these two
conventions. (FSC-PC.DEL/19/08)

Finnish Approaches to Cyber Security
------------------------------------

10. (SBU) Colonel Aapo Cederberg of the Finnish Ministry of
Defense explained his country's "total defense" approach to
securing vital national functions. This draws on the legacy
of Finland's "nation in arms" experiences in World War II and
involves coordinated action between different sectors of
Finnish society. Total defense is designed to preserve a
well-functioning economy and infrastructure, including
information and communications technology. (FSC-PC.DEL/15/08)

11. (SBU) Erka Koivunen, head of the emergency response team
from the Finnish Communication Regulatory Authority, briefed
the organization and functions of his team, which provides a
coordinated response to information security incidents.
KoivUnen said that Finland had a robust domestic IT
infrastructure but was still dependent on outside resources
for its functioning, e.g., the "main route" to the Internet
passes physically through Sweden. Thanks in part to the
efforts of his agency, Finland has among the "cleanest"
networks in the world, as measured by the presence of
"malware" in host servers. (FSC-PC.DEL/16/08)

Azerbaijan Attacks France (and Armenia)
---------------------------------------

12. (SBU) Azerbaijan (Ismayilov) launched a long tirade
against France for mentioning, in its report of a Vienna
Document inspection in Armenia, the Armenian charge that

Azerbaijan is in excess of its CFE equipment quotas.
Ismayilov said the place to raise this issue was the Joint
Consultative Group. He criticized France's apparent
partiality to Armenia, particularly offensive because France
was a member of the OSCE-sponsored Minsk Group charged with
resolving the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over
Nagorno-Karabakh. He also referred to his country's May 14
intervention in the FSC challenging Armenia's nil response in
its 2008 Code of Conduct submission to the question of how
many of its forces were serving outside its national
territory.

13. (SBU) Armenia (Hovhannisyan) complained it had not been
given warning of the Azerbaijani intervention. France
(Simonet), also noting the absence of warning, reserved the
right to reply.

Georgia Reports More Russian Troops Deployed
--------------------------------------------

14. (SBU) Georgia reported that Russia had deployed
additional forces into the disputed separatist region of
Abkhazia without Georgian consent. Despite Russian
assurances of benign intentions, Georgia saw these recent
deployments as part of Russia's large-scale preparation for
aggression against it and called on all states to prevent
this aggression. (Note: The Georgian and Russian
delegations were at this time meeting separately as part of
the consultative mechanism of Chapter III of the Vienna
Document 1999 to discuss the situation in Abkhazia including
the April 20 UAV incident. End note.)

Ireland Pitches Cluster Munitions Ban
-------------------------------------

15. (SBU) Ireland (O'Leary) announced an agreement to ban
cluster munitions had been completed by a diplomatic
conference in Dublin recently. O'Leary called on all states
to join the agreement while noting the absence from the
conference of "some of the major producers of cluster
munitions." The agreement will, he said, stigmatize any use
of these munitions.

SALW/SCA Donations
------------------

16. (SBU) Finland announced it was contributing 345,000 euros
to Tajikistan for stockpile security, phase II, task 3 of the
OSCE SALW project there. Finland also will contribute 15,000
euros to Albania for melange disposition.

17. (SBU) Denmark announced it too was contributing 15,000
euros for melange disposition in Albania.

Code of Conduct Outreach
------------------------

18. (SBU) Austria (Eischer), the Code of Conduct coordinator,
announced a September 22-24 conference in Almaty, Kazakhstan
for central Asian pS on the Code of Conduct. Details and
invitations will follow.

19. (SBU) Estonia (Parts), the FSC chair, announced it
planned a June Code of Conduct outreach meeting with the OSCE
Partners for Cooperation. She solicited views and

suggestions for content of the meeting from all pS.

Special Working Group Meeting on BMS and Future SALW Actions
--------------------------------------------- ---------------

20. (SBU) Discussion of the OSCE contribution of the Third
Biennial Meeting of States on the UN Program of Action on
SALW (BMS), to be held in New York July 14-18, at the special
working group meeting did not result in agreement on the
specifics of the contribution, although there was general
support for including information about ongoing OSCE programs
in SALW including normative documents. The chair announced
that Vasily Pavlov (Belarus), the current chair of the
Informal Group of Friends of SALW, and Colonel Steven
Hartnell (UK), who will follow Pavlov in the chair this
summer, will represent the OSCE at the BMS. The chair also
reported that the OSCE planned a side event and exhibition of
its SALW work at the BMS.

21. (SBU) There was prolonged discussion over the content of
the oral and written reports the OSCE will present at the
BMS. Belarus (Pavlov) suggested including information about
both the normative and practical sides of OSCE work on SALW,
including currently pending draft decisions for an
information exchange of end-user certificates and a Best
Practices Guide on regulation of air transport of SALW, as
well as the recent decision on updating the OSCE MANPADS
export controls principles.

22. (SBU) Germany (Schweizer) said that the limited time for
an oral presentation meant it should concentrate solely on
implementation of existing documents and project work. This
would include implementation of extant documents on brokering
and end-user certificates. Schweizer lamented the lack of
OSCE normative work on SALW over the last four years. The
OSCE seemed to be better at generating ideas that others
realized than doing the work itself, he said.

23. (SBU) Russia (Petr Litavrin, Russian MFA security affairs
and disarmament deputy director) countered that the OSCE had
an enviable record of accomplishments in SALW, unlike the UN
Program of Action (UNPOA) that had limited impact because of
funding constraints. Litavrin also noted that UNPOA reports
had diminishing substance and influence. Litavrin suggested
a focus on international brokering of SALW, as well as export
controls and MANPADS.

24. (SBU) Finland (Kangste) reminded that the OSCE could
participate in the thematic sessions at the BMS besides the
meeting for regional organizations. Sweden (Nilsson)
suggested it was good news that, as Schweizer had noted,
other organizations were now sharing the burden of work on
SALW.

25. (SBU) Slovenia, as EU president, supported concentration
on physical security and stockpile management, surplus
destruction, marking and tracing, export and border controls,
and the control of brokering. The EU continues to support
work on an international treaty to regulate trade in arms.
(FSC.DEL/110/08)

26. (SBU) The Conflict Prevention Center (Kytomaki) reported
on its participation in the OSCE and European-Atlantic
Partnership Council "synergy" conference May 28-30 in
Brussels at NATO. Kytomaki reported the conference concluded
there was insufficient implementation of existing SALW
obligations and scarce cooperation among international and
regional organizations. The conference report is available
through the CPC.

27. (SBU) The chair will prepare the reports for the BMS with
the assistance of the CPC and the chair of the IGOF of SALW.
Germany made a point of wanting to see the draft reports
before the BMS, as did Turkey. Sweden and Canada, while
happy to review the drafts, expressed full confidence in the
FSC chair and do not believe additional discussion of the
drafts would be necessary.

Future Actions on SALW
----------------------

28. (SBU) During the last part of the special working group,
delegations were asked to consider future actions on SALW.
Germany (Schweizer) suggested it was time to undertake a
review of the OSCE Document on SALW. In the context of the
BMS, he suggested, perhaps OSCE SALW reporting requirements
could be "standardized" in light of the UNPOA. Schweizer
also suggested considering the merger of the OSCE Documents
of SALW and Conventional Ammunition.

29. (SBU) Russia (Litavrin) rejoined that SALW and SCA were
two different threats: SALW work meant efforts to prevent
inappropriate transfer, while ammunition and other munitions
represented a safety and environmental threat wherever they
were. Schweizer responded that, when considering a merger of
the documents, he had in mind "SALW and its ammunition," not
the entire realm of explosive devices and munitions.
Litavrin separately remarked to USDel that he anticipated
some personnel changes at MFA, particularly in his department
(DVBR). These could result in "fresh approaches" to security
issues.

30. (SBU) Sweden (Nilsson) agreed it might be time to
undertake a thorough review of the OSCE Document on SALW.
Should the OSCE task itself to do this at the 2008
Ministerial in Helsinki? Perhaps the OSCE should also review
the need for separate documents on SALW and ammunition.
Belarus said any review would involve experts from capitals
meeting under OSCE auspices. Finland said the OSCE should
seek a "global" endorsement of its SALW norms and programs.
Switzerland is prepared to explore further work in SALW.

Future Meetings
---------------

31. (SBU) The FSC will return to its standard agenda in the
Plenary and working groups at its next meeting on June 11.
Austria (Eischer) told USDel that it will make a presentation
on "private military companies" at the June 25 FSC.
FINLEY

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