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Cablegate: Kenya Information On Forced Labor and Child Labor in The

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DE RUEHNR #1456/01 1680426
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 160426Z JUN 08
FM AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 6076
RUEHC/DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WASHDC PRIORITY

UNCLAS NAIROBI 001456

DEPT FOR AF/E, AF/EPS, AND DRL/ILCSR MARK MITTELHAUSER
DEPT FOR G/TIP FOR STEVE STEINER
DEPT ALSO PASS TO DOL/ILAB FOR RACHEL RIGBY AND MICHAL MURPHY

SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: ELAB EIND ETRD PHUM SOCI KE
SUBJECT: KENYA INFORMATION ON FORCED LABOR AND CHILD LABOR IN THE
PRODUCTION OF GOODS FOR MANDATORY CONGRESSIONAL REPORTING
REQUIREMENTS

REF: STATE 43120

1. Summary: Forced labor is insignificant in Kenya in the production
of manufactured goods. There is virtually no child labor in the
formal manufacturing sector. The number of child workers in Kenya
dropped by over 47% in five years, from 1.9 million in 1999 to 1
million in December 2005. Over 80% of child labor is in the
agriculture and fishing sectors. Less than 3% of working children
were in industrial sectors, and less than 15% were in wage
employment. Worst forms of child labor in Kenya include coffee,
tea, sugar, horticulture, fishing, herding, mining and rock
breaking, construction, and craftsman production of household items.
End summary.

Background
----------
2. Rumors persist of Asian men being exploited as supervisors or
junior management by company owners who hire them from South Asia,
hold their passports, and pay less than originally promised, but
there has been no substantiation, and such trafficking victims would
appear able to free themselves after saving sufficient funds.
Forced labor is insignificant in Kenya in the production of goods,
but child labor and trafficking in persons remain problems.
However, most trafficking for forced labor of children and adults in
Kenya is for domestic services and commercial sex work, leaving
agriculture as the only productive sector with a significant
problem. Although there have been recent allegations that debt
bondage is used to exploit Africans from neighboring countries
working in Kenya, the magnitude is not yet determined, nor the
sectors involved.

3. The main causes of child labor and exploitation in Kenya are
poverty, HIV/AIDS orphans, unemployment, broken families, drug and
alcohol abuse, and the spending power of Kenya's many tourists. The
2006 National Household Survey by the Kenya National Bureau of
Statistics Child Labour Analytical Report of June 2006 found the
number of children engaged in child labor has declined since January
1999 from 1.9 million to about 1 million in December 2005. Of the 1
million child workers, 49% said they were attending school. Of
Kenya's estimated population of 35.5 million people in December
2005, 12.85 million (about 35%) were children aged 5-17 years, with
10.3 million living in the rural areas. About 11.07 million
children were attending school, while 1.78 million (13.9%) were not
attending school, a large drop from the 3.5 million (32.1%) found
out of school in the 1999 survey. The introduction of tuition-free
primary education in 2003 is the main cause of the improvement, but
extensive programs by the GOK, ILO/IPEC (partly funded by USDOL),
the private sector, and NGOs also persuaded parents and employers
that children should attend school, not work. On June 2, 2008,
President Kibaki claimed the tuition-free secondary education policy
raised secondary school enrollment from 1 million students last year
to 1.3 million this year, a 30% increase. President Kibaki also
announced the government was offering free tuition at all registered
youth polytechnics countrywide to provide vocational training.
These initiatives should further reduce the pool of youth vulnerable
to child labor, trafficking and exploitation.

4. About 90% of working children were found in the rural areas.
Rift Valley province had the largest population of working children
at about 336,000, followed by Eastern province with about 193,000.
Both Rift Valley and Central Province had 10.2% of surveyed children
working. Children age 15-17 represented 47.8% of working child,
followed by the age 10-14 group at 36.4%, and age 5-9 at 15.8%. A
total of 816,521 children (81.3%) were found working in commercial
and subsistence agriculture as skilled and unskilled farm, fishery,
wildlife and related occupations. In his paper "Agricultural
Policies and the Elimination of Child Labour in Kenya" for the June
7, 2007 ILO/IPEC policy forum, University of Nairobi fellow John M.
Njoka stated "Child labour in subsistence agriculture is both
pervasive and hard to see and tackle." The survey found 29,166
children (2.8% of total) working in industrial sectors including
quarrying, construction, garment production, and machinery
operators.

5. Like in the previous survey, the 2005-06 survey's figure of 1
million working children may be an understatement of the real
situation. Of the 1.78 million children not attending school, 1.26
million said they not working, or did not state their working
status. It is likely a significant share of the 218,000 (17.3%) age
10-14 children and the 307,346 (24.4%) aged 15-17 were actually
engaged in child work or child labor, including herding in the arid
and semi-arid areas where schools are often too distant for children
of migratory pastoralists.

Worst Forms of Child Labor in Kenya
-----------------------------------
6. The Ministry of Labor has proposed the following activities as
worst forms of child labor and notes where they may be occurring:

- MINING AND STONE CRUSHING: Western, Nyanza, Central, Rift Valley,
and Coast provinces.

- SAND HARVESTING FROM RIVERS AND SHALLOW PITS: Whole country

- MIRAA (KHAT) PICKING: Eastern province

- THE HERDING OF ANIMALS: Rift valley: Eastern and North Eastern
provinces

- BRICK MAKING: Eastern, Nyanza, Central, Western provinces

- WORK IN INDUSTRIAL UNDERTAKINGS, INCLUDING WAREHOUSES: Whole
country

- CARPET/ BASKET WEAVING: Sisal growing areas (mainly Coast
province)

- BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION, INCLUDING ROADS AND BRIDGES AND OTHER
CIVIL WORKS, DOCKS AND QUAYSIDE: Whole country

- TANNERY: No location specified

- DEEP LAKE AND SEA FISHING: No location specified, but presumably
Lake Victoria and the Indian Ocean

- GLASS FACTORY: No location specified

- MATCHES AND FIREWORKS: No location specified

- AGRICULTURE: Whole country. Hazards include:
Working with machinery and sharp tools, chemicals, animal kicks and
bites, picking crops and loading or ferrying heavy awkward loads of
coffee and other farm produce to processing factories or weighing
centers, respiratory exposure to coffee dust, snake and insect
bites, diseases such as anthrax, musculo-skeletal injuries from
repetitive and forceful movements, and lifting and carrying heavy or
awkward loads, and hearing loss or impairment due to noisy
machinery.

7. The analysis by the Statistics Bureau calculates that 14,330
children were engaged in worst forms of child labor in the following
risky production sectors: mining, quarrying, stone cutting and
related workers, construction, machinery mechanics, and brewers,
distillers, and related workers. However, while the Ministry of
Labour listed agriculture and fishing as worst forms of child labor,
the survey did not include the over 800,000 children working in
those sectors because it could not determine which children were
working in hazardous conditions. Including risky service sectors,
the study found a total of only 19,542 children engaged in worst
forms of child labor in Kenya, a gross understatement of the
problem.

Efforts to Eradicate Child Labor in Kenya 1992-2008
--------------------------------------------- ------
8. The GOK began working with the ILO/IPEC in 1992 on programs to
reduce child labor based on the realisation that child labor is a
development challenge. The existence of large numbers of child
workers threatened achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), especially on education, poverty reduction and youth
employment, and hampered economic growth by perpetuating the
existence of unskilled labour force. Many government officials,
scholars and development partners devoted significant efforts
towards addressing the child labour problem. Over 100 NGOs are
currently implementing projects rescuing thousands of children. The
establishment of tuition-free primary education in 2003 brought many
children under age 14 back into the school system. The ILO and IOM
are training and working with the Children's Department, and
Ministries of Labor, Youth, Education, and Agriculture on child
labor and trafficking policies. In the last 15 years, the age group
most affected by child labor has changed from 5-13 year olds to
14-17 year olds.

9. The Government of Kenya's National Development Plan for 2002-2008
recognizes child labor as a problem and calls for an evaluation of
the impact of child labor on the individual and the country, as well
as its implications on the quality of the future labor force. In
February 2006, the government renewed the 3-year mandate for the
National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor. An
Inter-Ministerial Coordination Committee on Child Labor chaired by
the Vice President is responsible for setting general policy. The
Steering Committee worked with stakeholders to draft a national
child labor policy in 2006. Although the draft policy was never
forwarded to the Cabinet for confirmation, it guided the policies of
GOK agencies, donors and NGOs. The 2001 Children's Act, the 2006
Sexual Offences Act, and the 2007 Employment Act provide a basic
policy framework.

10. Restrictions by importing countries on the use of child labor
and Fair Trade programs offering certification of ethical production
led growers of coffee, tea, and other sectors to end child labor
from their plantations and then their satellite growers to protect
their export markets. At the conclusion of its first plantation
project with ILO/IPEC in April 2006, the Federation of Kenyan
Employers (FKE) auditors saw significant improvements in sugar,
coffee, sisal and tea plantations' implementation of the FKE Code of
Practice to prevent child labor. FKE suggested to sugar plantations
they extend their child labor prevention program to their contract
cane cutters. FKE suggested plantations and contractors provide or
support primary schools and day-care facilities to provide
alternatives, and pay employees to provide peer education for
orphans and vocational training for post-primary children, including
domestics. FKE also encouraged education and empowerment for adult
women to help them keep their children in school. In early 2006,
FKE published a best practices guide for employer interventions to
combat child labor in all sectors of the economy. FKE started the
second phase of its child labor project with ILO/IPEC in May 2006,
focusing on the tourism, sugar, sisal, and coffee sectors. In
November 2006, FKE sponsored an ILO/IPEC regional workshop for
employers from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Uganda, and Zambia to share experiences, lessons learned and best
practices in combating child labor in the agricultural sector. The
Rural Employers Association (REA) links all agricultural employers
and uses its quarterly meetings to seek out and review information
on child labor in all sectors. Since the introduction of tuition
free primary education in 2003, the REA has noted a continuous
reduction in child labor, even among herders.

11. Under the ILO/IPEC program, the Central Organization of Trade
Unions of Kenya (COTU) fought child labor in partnership with the
government and FKE by educating workers how child labor undermines
their employment, wages, and bargaining power and encourages
rural-to-urban trafficking of children. Unions trained their shop
stewards to detect children working in hazardous work, established
child labor committees to keep children out of the workplace, and
incorporated child labor prevention guidelines in collective
bargaining agreements. COTU's member unions play an active role in
ILO/IPEC District and Local Child Labor Committees. They organized
parents into groups for income generating activities to replace
childrens' income and keep them in school.

Sectors and Locations for Worst Forms of Child Labor
--------------------------------------------- -------

12. Coffee
Type of exploitation: Child picking of coffee berries to contribute
to family income. Children receive lower and/or more irregular pay
than adults, perform hard work, and work long hours in dangerous
conditions.

Sources of information: ILO/IPEC, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta
University, Association of Media Women in Kenya (AMWIK), the
Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE), and press.

Narrative and Sources: See para 6 for risks associated with
agriculture. According to ILO/IPEC, University of Nairobi
researchers, and the Federation of Kenyan Employers in 2008, child
labor has been largely eradicated in the plantations over the last
15 years, and especially in the last five years, through a
combination of free primary education and anti-child labor programs
under which plantation management discouraged parents from bringing
children to the fields, and provided or supported schools or day
care alternatives, sometimes with feeding programs. However,
ILO/IPEC, University of Nairobi researchers, and the Association of
Media Women in Kenya (AMWIK) believe children continue to pick
coffee in Thika, Kiambu, Nyeri and Kirinyaga Districts in Central
province during peak seasons on small and family farms to provide
family income.

ILO/IPEC Commercial Agriculture Program Officer Wangui Irimu stated
at a June 7, 2007 meeting that child labor in commercial agriculture
is often invisible, as parents evade company policies by sneaking
their children into the plantation to pick, claiming the harvest as
their own, and collecting the payment for the childrens' work. In
his paper "Agricultural Policies and the Elimination of Child Labour
in Kenya" for the June 7, 2007 ILO/IPEC policy forum, University of
Nairobi fellow John M. Njoka stated, "The coffee sub-sector is a
major employer of children." The bulk of coffee comes from
smallholders, and "Most child labour in this sector is invisible."

Incidence of child labor: Undetermined, but believed to have shrunk
over the last five years to thousands. An August 5, 2007 article in
the Standard newspaper quotes Central Provincial Commissioner Jasper
Rugut as stating there are 70,000 school-going children engaged in
child labor in the province, most of whom are working in coffee
farms and quarries in Thika, Murang'a, Maragua and Nyeri Districts.

Efforts to combat use of children in the production of goods: see
para 9.

13. Tea
Type of exploitation: Child picking to contribute to family income.
Children receive lower and/or more irregular pay than adults,
perform hard work, and work long hours in dangerous conditions.

Sources of information: ILO, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta
University, Association of Media Women in Kenya (AMWIK), the
Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE), COTU, and press.

Narrative and sources: See para 6 for risks associated with
agriculture. According to the ILO, University of Nairobi
researchers, and the Federation of Kenyan Employers in 2008, child
labor has been largely eradicated in the plantations over the last
15 years, and especially in the last five years, through a
combination of free primary education and anti-child labor programs
under which plantation management discouraged parents from bringing
children to the fields, and provided or supported schools or day
care alternatives, sometimes with feeding programs. However, family
farms and small producers still use their children as labor.

The 2007 "Baseline Survey On Children In Commercial Sex In Kenya's
Four Towns Of Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret & Nyeri," report submitted to
ILO/IPEC found that children 10 years and above picked tea
year-round in the Nyeri area in Central Province.

In his paper "Agricultural Policies and the Elimination of Child
Labour in Kenya" for the June 7, 2007 ILO/IPEC policy forum,
University of Nairobi fellow John M. Njoka stated "The participation
of children in commercial agriculture could be highly invisible due
to the labour enforcement mechanisms adopted following years of
activism and work with the plantation owners." At the same event,
ILO/IPEC Commercial Agriculture Program Officer Wangui Irimu stated
that parents try to evade company policies and increase family
income by sneaking their children into the plantation to pick,
claiming the harvest as their own, and collecting the payment for
the childrens' work. In the discussion, some participants claimed
that some local managers may occasionally tolerate the practice.

Incidence: Unknown, but not believed to be significant.

Efforts to combat use of children in the production of goods: see
para 9. FKE reports that large producers, millers and marketers
hold workshops for small producers to raise awareness about the need
to prevent child labor.

14. Fish
Type of exploitation: Fishermen in Nyanza Province on Lake Victoria
hire boys to work on their boats. Indian Ocean fishermen in Coast
Province may use their children as workers. Children receive lower
and/or more irregular pay than adults, perform hard work, and work
long hours in dangerous conditions. These children or their
families are unable to access tuition-free primary education because
they cannot afford uniforms, books, or other schooling costs.

Narrative and Sources: According to the ILO/IPEC, World Vision,
CRADLE, the African Network for the Prevention and Protection
Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN), the KNBS Child Labour
Analytical Report, and University of Nairobi researchers in 2008,
poverty in Nyanza Province drives children, especially HIV/AIDS
orphans, to work in the fishing industry, either on the boats on the
lake, or unloading and marketing the catch on the beaches. The
risks include attacks by carnivorous and poisonous fish;
decompression illness; rupture of ear drums; death or injury from
hooks, nets, and ropes; gastro-intestinal and other diseases.

The 2007 "Baseline Survey On Children In Commercial Sex In Kenya's
Four Towns Of Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret & Nyeri," report submitted to
ILO/IPEC found that children worked at Dunga and Usoma beaches near
Kisumu.

According to an April 10, 2006 article in the Standard, Bondo
District Commissioner (DC) David Jakaiti received complaints from
local leaders that over 100 school-age children were engage in
fishing and other manual jobs on the beaches of Usigu Division and
ordered chiefs to round up the children and ensure they were taken
back to school. Usigu East Councilor Jwenge Okwaro said the
children were working on Oele, Ugambe and Nyaudenge beaches for
three months, and called for prosecution of the fishermen exploiting
children to make more money.


Incidence: In the hundreds or low thousands. The KNBS Child Labour
Analytical Report found 637 boys age 10-14 worked in the fishery
sector. It is unknown how many fishery workers are among the
270,000 subsistence agriculture and fisheries workers. However, the
Lake Victoria fisheries are declining due to other factors. The use
of children among Indian Ocean fishermen is thought to be minimal
and mainly among families using their own children.

Efforts to combat: See para 9. Both ILO/IPEC and World Vision
implemented USDoL funded child labor programs in the area. Working
with District officials and other NGOs through the Area Advisory
Councils, they organized District and local child labor committees
to raise awareness of the problem and rescue children from labor,
including the fishing sector of Lake Victoria.

15: Ballast, sand, and gold
Type of exploitation: Hiring children to load or unload sand.
Hiring children or using family members to break rocks into gravel.
Children receive lower and/or more irregular pay than adults,
perform hard work, and work long hours in dangerous conditions.

Sources and Narrative: ILO, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta
University, Solidarity Center, Central Organization of Trade
Unions-Kenya (COTU), Africa Now, the Federation of Kenyan Employers
(FKE), The Nation, The Standard, the June 2008 Child Labour
Analytical Report by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS).
Sand is mined for the construction industry, and unskilled youth
are hired as laborers. Children ages 5-17 are hired or used by
their families to break rocks with hammers into gravel in small
quarries for ballast for road or other construction without any
protective gear. The hazards include exposure to harmful dusts such
as silica, gas, fumes and extreme humidity and temperature levels;
awkward working positions (bending, kneeling, lying); respiratory
diseases that which could manifest as silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis,
asbestosis, emphysema; musculo-skeletal disorders; fractures and
death from falls/cave-ins.

The 2007 "Baseline Survey On Children In Commercial Sex In Kenya's
Four Towns Of Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret & Nyeri," report submitted to
ILO/IPEC found that children collected sand at Usoma near Kisumu in
Nyanza Province, and sand and stones from quarries around Nyeri, in
Central Province.

An August 31, 2007 article in the Nation indicated that child labor
was a problem in the sector when it reported the National
Environment Management Authority (NEMA) would require all sand
harvesters under the Mining Bill to follow regulations including a
minimum age of 18 for sand loaders. The Employment Act of 2007
overtook the Mining bill by setting a minimum age of 18 for
hazardous work, including sand mining. An August 5, 2007 article in
the Standard newspaper quotes Central Provincial Commissioner Jasper
Rugut as stating there are 70,000 school-going children engaged in
child labor in the province, most of whom are working in coffee
farms and quarries in Thika, Murang'a, Maragua and Nyeri Districts.
ILO/IPEC implemented a project between 1994 and 2000 on the
elimination of child labor in soapstone in Kissii District, Nyanza
province and believed child labor had been ended in the mines.
However, an August 27, 2006 article in the Standard reported that
Parliamentary investigators found children mining soapstone at a
mine in Tabaka, Gucha District, next to Kisii. A March 30, 2006
article in the Standard reported that 10 underage prospectors had
recently drowned in artisanal gold mines in Kakamega District in
Western Province. It was also believed that adults offered payment
for gold nuggets from abandoned mines, enticing children to risk
their lives.

Incidence: The KNBS Report found 5,474 children working in the
mining and quarrying sectors ages 10-17 all over the country.
Efforts to combat: See para 9.

16. Horticulture: vegetables and flowers
Type of exploitation: child labor on family farms and children hired
by small producers. Children receive lower and/or more irregular
pay than adults, perform hard work, and work long hours in dangerous
conditions.

Sources and narrative: ILO, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta
University, Flower Council of Kenya, Central Organization of Trade
Unions-Kenya (COTU), Africa Now, the Federation of Kenyan Employers
(FKE), The Nation, The Standard. See para 6 for risks associated
with agriculture. In Central Province, including Kirinyaga
District, families and small producers are believed to use child
labor to produce beans and other vegetables for export. Flower
plantations in Rift Valley and Central Provinces do not use child
labor, but some of the small satellite producers from whom they buy
product are believed to sometimes use their children as workers. An
August 5, 2007 article in the Standard claimed that child rights
officials believed horticultural farmers in parts of Kieni West and
East Divisions in Nyeri District have a record of recruiting young
boys.

Incidence: unknown
Efforts to combat: See para 9. The Flower Council of Kenya and the
Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya (FPEAK) have also
worked with the EU, customers and audit organizations to prevent
child labor not only in the commercial plantations, but also in
their small satellite producers to retain their access to European
markets.

17. Sugar
Type of exploitation: contractors hiring and transporting children
to work at harvest time. Children receive lower and/or more
irregular pay than adults, perform hard work, and work long hours in
dangerous conditions.

Sources and Narrative: ILO/IPEC
University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University, Solidarity Center,
Central Organization of Trade Unions-Kenya (COTU), Africa Now, and
the Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE). For the hazards of
working in agriculture, see para 6. Sugar is focused mainly in
Nyanza and Western Provinces, produced by both plantations and small
growers. Labor demand is seasonal, peaking at planting and
harvesting. There have been reports that contractors have hired and
transported truckloads of children to work at these seasons.
ILO/IPEC Commercial Agriculture Program Officer Wangui Irimu stated
at a June 7, 2007 meeting that child labor in commercial agriculture
is often invisible, as parents evade company policies by sneaking
their children into the plantation to pick, claiming the harvest as
their own, and collecting the payment for the childrens' work.

Incidence: unknown.
Efforts to combat: Sugar plantations participated in the FKE project
with ILO/IPEC to end child labor (para 6) in their own operations,
and among their satellite growers.

18. Construction of buildings, roads, bridges, etc.
Type of exploitation: trafficking or hiring child laborers who need
income. Children receive lower and/or more irregular pay than
adults, perform hard work, and work long hours in dangerous
conditions.

Sources and Narrative: Association of Media Women in Kenya (AMWIK),
Central Organization of Trade Unions-Kenya (COTU), ANPPCAN the June
2008 Child Labour Analytical Report by the Kenya National Bureau of
Statistics (KNBS). ANPPCAN's 2006 study on child trafficking in the
Africa region found that 14 of the 69 trafficking victims it
interviewed said they were employed in construction, security or
transport. AMWIK's "Child Breadwinners" included one boy who
related that he had worked at construction sites in Nairobi from age
13-17 doing menial tasks including digging trenches, pushing
wheelbarrows, and mixing cement and concrete. Hazards in the
construction sector include: Being struck by falling objects;
stepping on sharp objects; falling from heights; exposure to dust,
heat and noise; exposure to high voltage or live electrical
equipment; heavy lifting, work over water, with ladders, and in
confined spaces; and, structural collapse.

Incidence: The KNBS Report found over 4,000 boys, mostly ages 15-17,
working in the construction sector.
Efforts to combat: See para 6.

19. Meat
Type of exploitation: Families using their children as herders.

Sources and Narrative: It is widely reported that pastoralist
peoples in Kenya's arid and semi-arid regions in Rift valley,
Eastern and North Eastern Provinces use their sons to herd the
livestock their families depend on for survival. Many families are
nomadic, making accessing education very difficult, even when
desired. The pastoralists sell animals to slaughterhouses for cash
income. The hazard of herding include: injuries from animal kicks
and snake bites; pricks from wild thorns trees; and, wounds or death
from raiders and rustlers.

Incidence: The KBS report does not break out herding from other
agricultural occupations. In Northeastern Province, only 50% of the
500,000 children attend school, the lowest rate in Kenya. Rift
Valley Province is the second lowest school attendance rate, at 85%,
which represents 500,000 children out of school or unstated.
Eastern Province has another 241,000 children out of school or
unstated. It is likely that a significant share of the 1 million
children not in school in these provinces are engaged in herding.
Efforts to combat: See para 6.


20. Written Sources:

Dynamics of Child Labour in Kenya: Key Issues, Challenges and
Prospects
John M. Njoka and Paul K. Kamau
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
5/10/06

CHILD LABOUR POLICY REVIEW: KENYA COUNTRY REPORT
Daniel N Sifuna
Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta University
9/1/06

ANPPCAN Report on the Conference on Child Trafficking
Nairobi
8/17/06

Combating Child Labour in Commercial Agriculture in Kenya
Wangui Irimu, Project Coordinator
ILO/IPEC
July 2005

Child Labour in Micro and Small Enterprises; Policy Brief
Geoffrey R. Njeru
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
March 2007

Education and the Mitigation of Child Labour in Kenya; Policy Brief
John Mugo
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
March 2007

"Baseline Survey On Children In Commercial Sex In Kenya's Four Towns
Of Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret & Nyeri," report submitted to ILO/IPEC
by Sam Owuor Ogola and Patricia Jane Ochieng', 2007.

SLUTZ

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