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Cablegate: Ticad Iv: Towards a Vibrant Africa

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DE RUEHKO #1598/01 1630858
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 110858Z JUN 08
FM AMEMBASSY TOKYO
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 4967
INFO RUEHZO/AFRICAN UNION COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEHBJ/AMEMBASSY BEIJING PRIORITY 3848
RUEHRL/AMEMBASSY BERLIN PRIORITY 1428
RUEHBY/AMEMBASSY CANBERRA PRIORITY 2655
RUEHLO/AMEMBASSY LONDON PRIORITY 2073
RUEHMO/AMEMBASSY MOSCOW PRIORITY 2346
RUEHOT/AMEMBASSY OTTAWA PRIORITY 9680
RUEHFR/AMEMBASSY PARIS PRIORITY 6142
RUEHRO/AMEMBASSY ROME PRIORITY 2113
RUEHFK/AMCONSUL FUKUOKA PRIORITY 8301
RUEHNAG/AMCONSUL NAGOYA PRIORITY 6573
RUEHNH/AMCONSUL NAHA PRIORITY 0679
RUEHOK/AMCONSUL OSAKA KOBE PRIORITY 1996
RUEHKSO/AMCONSUL SAPPORO PRIORITY 8889
RUEHGV/USMISSION GENEVA PRIORITY 3349
RUEHRN/USMISSION UN ROME PRIORITY
RUEHBS/USEU BRUSSELS PRIORITY

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 04 TOKYO 001598

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

USAID FOR AFRICA/AA ALMQUIST AND PIERCE

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: EAID ECON PREL JA XA
SUBJECT: TICAD IV: TOWARDS A VIBRANT AFRICA

TOKYO 00001598 001.2 OF 004


1. (SBU) Summary. Japan announced a myriad of commitments
to Africa, including that it would double aid to the region
by 2012, during the May 28-30 Tokyo International Conference
on African Development (TICAD). Co-sponsored by the GOJ, the
World Bank, and the UNDP, the conference brought together
representatives from 51 of 53 African countries who stressed
the importance of infrastructure in economic development, the
continent's vulnerability to climate change, and the need to
resolve the current food crisis in both the immediate and
long term. In light of Japan's tight fiscal situation,
however, the GOJ will likely need to make hard decisions on
the allocation of its aid budget to fulfill the promises made
at TICAD. End Summary.

2. (U) Representatives from 51 of 53 African countries,
including 40 heads of state or government, joined
representatives from donor countries, international
organizations, civil society, and the private sector in Tokyo
May 28-30 for the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on
African Development (TICAD IV). With "Towards a Vibrant
Africa" as its theme, the conference focused on three key
pillars -- boosting economic growth, ensuring human security,
and addressing environmental issues/climate change.

Japan's Commitments to Africa
-----------------------------
3. (U) The co-organizers (Japan, World Bank and UNDP)
stressed that Japan's commitment to Africa was obvious since
TICAD I in 1993, when Japan called together the African
countries to share views on how Japan and others could help
Africa at the conclusion of the Cold War. This first effort
by Japan has been highly lauded in Africa for including all
African leaders to discuss such issues of development,
conflict mitigation, and ownership. Because of Japan's early
commitment and because Japan is leading the G-8 this year,
participation in TICAD was very high, composed of African
heads of states, heads of African organizations and NGOs, the
World Bank, UN organizations, think tanks, academics, the
private sector, and bilateral donors.

4. (U) Prime Minister Fukuda announced several new Japanese
commitments to Africa including a doubling of grant aid and
technical assistance by 2012 and an offer of up to $4 billion
in yen loans for roads and other infrastructure projects.
Japan also plans to inaugurate the Facility for African
Investment through the trade development arm of the Japan
Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) to fund directly or
to provide financial guarantees for Japanese private
investment on the continent. Fukuda also stated Japan would
provide assistance to double African rice production within
ten years, train 100,000 Africans as healthcare workers over
the next five years, contribute $560 million in 2009 to the
Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and
target a "significant portion" of Japan's previously
announced $100 million in emergency food assistance towards
Africa.

5. (U) In addition, Fukuda stated that Japan, as a "peace
fostering nation," will focus on the consolidation of peace
and peacebuilding in Africa and will pursue reform of the UN
Security Council (UNSC) so the UN is more effective in its
peacebuilding efforts. Fukuda also explained Japan's "Cool
Earth Partnership" saying this initiative will provide
assistance to developing countries, including those in
Africa, to help cut greenhouse emissions while promoting
economic growth.

African Leaders Non-Committal on Bid for UNSC Seat
--------------------------------------------- -----
6. (SBU) Prime Minister Fukuda met separately with forty
African leaders on the margin of the conference to solicit
support for Japan's bid for a permanent seat on the United

TOKYO 00001598 002.2 OF 004


Nations Security Council, according to press reports. (Note:
The 53 African countries represented at TICAD account for
approximately one-fourth of total UN members.) Those
leaders' responses, however, were reportedly non-committal.

The African View
----------------
7. (SBU) Each African head-of-delegation received an
opportunity to speak during the plenary sessions. Among
donor countries in attendance, only the EU, France and the
U.S. were offered speaking opportunities. (Note: Japan
withdrew the offer to the U.S. when USAID Administrator
Henrietta Fore could not attend the conference. End note.)
Most of the African speakers focused either on the need for
more infrastructure to boost economic development, the
continent's extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate
change, or the need to address the current food crisis in
both the immediate and long-term. Many welcomed Japan's cool
earth partnership, claiming Africa has not received its fair
share of the funds available under the Clean Development
Mechanism established by the Kyoto Protocol. Certain
speakers called for more foreign direct investment to
establish a viable private sector, noting Africa cannot
successfully develop if it remains simply an exporter of
minerals with no value-added. There was nearly universal
consensus among African participants on the need for Japan to
make African development issues a central theme during the
upcoming G-8 summit in Hokkaido June 7-9.

Rebuilding Post-Conflict States
-------------------------------
8. (U) Several representatives from post-conflict states,
including Liberia, Sierra Leone and Burundi, discussed
efforts to rebuild their nations. They stressed the
importance of good governance, a professional police force,
human capacity building, and the need to share the benefits
of development with all citizens and not just the elite.
Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf also noted the need
to help the "lost generation" of child-soldiers who had
received no education during the conflict years make the
transition back into society. She said the Liberian
government has had success in doing so by providing them with
jobs on infrastructure projects.

Zimbabwe Attacks Donor "Interference"
------------------------------------
9. (U) Zimbabwe Foreign Minister Simbarashe Mumbengegwi
welcomed TICAD's "different approach from other development
efforts that dictate, interfere and impose moral values
without respect for the recipient countries and their
peoples." He said Zimbabwe's efforts to eradicate poverty
and hunger through redistributing resources had met with
"unjustified vilification" from those who "only wish to
protect minority and foreign interests." He also claimed the
Global Fund "is a political weapon to sanction countries for
unjustified, political reasons." Subsequent speakers,
including the EU's, did not address or comment upon
Mumbengegwi's remarks.

Sudan's President Denounces Chad
--------------------------------
10. (U) Sudan President Omar El Bashir thanked the
international community for helping implement the 2006 Darfur
agreement, but said the country's efforts to consolidate
peace were being hampered by external factors. He claimed
Chad is funding the Darfur rebels' continued aggression, in
particular the May 10, 2008 attack on Khartoum, and declared
the international community should "no longer tolerate" this
situation.

Addressing the Food Crisis
--------------------------

TOKYO 00001598 003.2 OF 004


11. (SBU) More than thirty heads of state or government
attended a luncheon discussion on the food crisis sponsored
by the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the
World Food Program and the International Fund for Agriculture
Development and co-chaired by PM Fukuda and Tanzanian
President Jakaya Kikewete (the current African Union
president). The heads of the four international
organizations described their response to the food crisis,
noting the need to address the underlying causes, not just
the emergency aspects of food security. Columbia University
Professor Jeffrey Sachs suggested one solution would be for
countries to develop national plans for delivering seed and
fertilizer to communities and to submit those plans to the UN
and World Bank for financing.

Four "Breakout" Sessions
------------------------
12. (SBU) The session on boosting economic growth centered
on the need to improve infrastructure throughout Africa to
boost economic growth. In addition, representatives from
middle-income African countries cited difficulties in
obtaining concessional financing as a restriction on their
economic potential. While several participants held out the
U.S. African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) as a model other
development partners may want to replicate, no participants
mentioned Comprehensive African Agricultural Development
Program (CAADP) established under the Organization for
African Unity's New Partnership for African Development
(NEPAD).

13. (SBU) Participants in the session on environmental
issues and climate change welcomed Japan's Cool Earth
Partnership initiative and stressed African countries need to
look at the lessons learned from the industrialized world to
avoid becoming high carbon emitters as they develop. Many
speakers called for establishing mid-term emissions reduction
targets for industrialized countries. Participants agreed
Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change and
warned natural disasters brought on by global warming, in
particular drought and desertification, could further imperil
the continent's ability to meet the UN Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs).

14. (SBU) UN High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio
Guterres chaired the session on ensuring human security
through consolidation of peace and democratization.
Participants noted Africa's progress in advancing peace in
recent years, but cited issues that continue to derail peace
efforts. These include land and property rights, migration
of internally displaced persons and refugees, the lack of
rule of law, the lack of jobs and education, famine, issues
related to public health and water, and climate change. The
participants stressed that "good governance" is essential to
consolidate peace and noted the usefulness and the potential
of the African Peer Review Mechanism, an African-owned
initiative. Participants observed African governance and
ownership could only be complemented by international donors
and NGOs.

15. (SBU) During a subsequent session on human security and
meeting the Millennium Development Goals, Japanese Foreign
Minister Masahiko Koumura a highlighted Japan's commitments
toward achieving the MDGs and, with the participants, touched
upon the importance of community empowerment and various
donors' initiatives in education and health. UNICEF
Executive Director Ann Veneman reported the sessions'
findings that decentralized governance and community
empowerment with a focus on women are critical to health and
education delivery, that basic and vocational education
should be strengthened, and that well balanced and
comprehensive approaches are necessary to bolster health
systems and to eradicate disease. African countries'

TOKYO 00001598 004.2 OF 004


ownership is needed to develop, implement, evaluate, and
monitor the MDGs.

The Yokohama Declaration and the Follow-Up Mechanism
--------------------------------------------- -------
16. (SBU) The GOJ released TICAD's "Yokohama Declaration"
May 30 to much fanfare, though some African leaders and press
reports were immediately critical, citing the document's lack
of detail and time-bound commitments. Japan did, however,
agree to establishment of a follow-up mechanism to monitor
progress on the commitments. The mechanism establishes a
secretariat within the Foreign Ministry to track
implementation along with a steering committee consisting of
the GOJ and Tokyo-based members of the African Diplomatic
Corps, international organizations, donor countries, and NGOs
which will produce a yearly progress report. The Declaration
also calls for a yearly meeting of TICAD participants to
discuss results.

Comment
-------
17. (SBU) TICAD IV was an opportunity for Japan to
highlight its increasing development assistance support for
Africa. The co-organizers, the World Bank, the UN
organizations, and others joined Japan to present support for
building a "vibrant Africa." The Action Plan and Appendix
list proposals and commitments, primarily from Japan, the
World Bank and the UN organizations, with additional
selected, though spotty, inputs from other donors. The USG's
ongoing projects in Africa were ultimately not included in
the final text. The GOJ had offered a high-profile speaking
slot to the U.S. Director of Foreign Assistance/USAID
Administrator. This would have been an opportunity to
highlight to African heads of state and other participants
the USG's overwhelming support for Africa, as well as the
emerging USG collaboration with Japan. Only France and the
EU sent Ministers to TICAD IV. TICAD represents a unique
space, especially this year with the G-8 Summit led by Japan,
within which African leaders can communicate their priorities
to a sympathetic audience, and where Japan, the WB and the UN
agencies, can reaffirm their commitment to the continent.

18. (SBU) At TICAD IV, Japan has made some bold
commitments, e.g., doubling aid to Africa. That funding
seems likely to come at a cost to other development
programming in Asia and elsewhere or to Japan's funding of
international organizations given the GOJ's budget deficits
and the determination of the Japanese Finance Ministry to
reduce development assistance spending by two to four percent
annually. Nonetheless, the GOJ's fear of China's rising
influence in Africa combined with its quest for a permanent
seat on the UNSC may spur Japan's efforts to meet the
doubling goal but not without potentially shrinking its
footprint elsewhere in the world. End Comment.
SCHIEFFER

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