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Cablegate: Un On Drc: Give Troops, Pressure Kagame; 85

VZCZCXYZ0010
PP RUEHWEB

DE RUCNDT #1062/01 3180035
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
P 130035Z NOV 08 ZDK ZDS
FM USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5353
INFO RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEHLGB/AMEMBASSY KIGALI PRIORITY 0295
RUEHKI/AMEMBASSY KINSHASA PRIORITY 1661

UNCLAS USUN NEW YORK 001062

C O R R E C T E D COPY (CORRECT PARA'S NUMBERING SECT 2)

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PGOV PREL PHUM KPKO CG RW
SUBJECT: UN ON DRC: GIVE TROOPS, PRESSURE KAGAME; 85
PERCENT OF MONUC NOW IN EAST DRC

REF: USUN 1004

1. (SBU) SUMMARY: UN Under-Secretary-General Le Roy on
November 11 called on the Security Council to approve rapidly
the UN request for more MONUC troops. He warned MONUC was
"all alone" in the east and reinforcements were desperately
needed to defend Goma and protect civilians. Le Roy said
Council members with any influence should press Rwandan
President Kagame to pressure the CNDP to stop its attacks.
Le Roy asked for advice on how MONUC should address the FDLR
considering the DRC army "doesn't exist" in the east. DPKO
also conducted a military briefing on November 11, noting
MONUC reconfigured its forces to move 85 percent of its
troops to North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri, and was now
stretched dangerously thin. While the U.S. called the
reinforcement of MONUC, the Council appears split in its
support. END SUMMARY.

MONUC "STANDING ALL ALONE," FARDC IN EAST "DOESN'T EXIST"

2. (SBU) UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Operations (DPKO) Alain Le Roy reiterated MONUC's urgent call
for additional troops (ref. A), during closed consultations
of the Security Council November 11. Stressing that the
situation in east Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) may
become worse in the next few weeks, he quoted the DRC foreign
minister's allegation that the DRC army (FARDC) now "doesn't
exist" in the east for all intents and purposes. Le Roy said
FARDC elements offered no resistance to CNDP attacks, and
both CNDP and FARDC have been credibly accused of atrocities.
MONUC has become the only force capable of protecting
civilians in east DRC, "standing all alone," according to Le
Roy. He noted MONUC's priorities were to defend Goma and
protect civilians.

3. (SBU) Le Roy urged the Council to approve rapidly the call
for troop reinforcements, made through UN Secretary-General
Ban on October 31. One of the two requested battalions, he
noted, would be a reserve force for all of MONUC. DPKO said
the other battalion would reinforce North Kivu, and the
Special Forces would be used as a rapid reaction force. DPKO
stressed the need for MONUC to become flexible again, having
lost its ability to respond rapidly as it has become
entrenched in fixed locations protecting civilians. Le Roy
compared MONUC to when he was in the Balkans, where the
international community in Kosovo had more than twice MONUC's
troops (40,000) to protect a country one-hundredth the size
of the DRC.

4. (SBU) Le Roy expressed the need for broad security sector
reform, which would take, in his opinion, three to five years
to train a competent FARDC, but warned the current crisis
needed immediate attention. He noted MONUC was
reconfiguring as best it could without reinforcements, but
needed additional assets as soon as possible to fulfill its
mandate.

PRESSURE KAGAME TO PRESSURE NKUNDA

5. (SBU) Le Roy and all Council members said the only lasting
solution was a political one. Le Roy requested everyone with
any influence on Rwandan President Kagame to call on him to
pressure General Nkunda and the CNDP to stop attacks, return
to its August 28 positions, and respect all previous
agreements. Le Roy said it was Kagame's pressure on Nkunda
that led to the October 29 CNDP unilateral ceasefire. Le Roy
was concerned by Nkunda's newly announced plan to form a new
government in North Kivu. Le Roy noted Special Envoy
Obasanjo planned to go to the region November 14.

BAN ENCOURAGES KABILA AND KAGAME TO INCREASE COOPERATION

6. (SBU) Le Roy briefed the Council on the plan discussed in
Nairobi November 7 with UN Secretary-General Ban, President
Kabila, and President Kagame. The "roadmap," developed in
early November by the Rwandan and DRC foreign ministers and
consistent with the Goma and Nairobi agreements, calls for:
normalized bilateral relations between the DRC and Rwanda; an
integration of the CNDP into the FARDC; the disarmament of
the FDLR; and verification mechanisms. Kabila is supportive
of this plan, Kagame is considering it. Kagame and Kabila
agreed to continue weekly foreign minister meetings,
alternating between capitals, to enhance bilateral dialogue.
Ban invited both to participate in a trilateral meeting with
him; Kabila accepted, Kagame declined.

DRC ASKS MONUC TO LEAD ACTION AGAINST FDLR, DPKO SEEKS CLARITY

7. (SBU) Le Roy said one root cause of the regional conflict

was the continued presence of the Hutu rebel group FDLR. The
FDLR, Le Roy said, had been surprisingly quiet during this
recent violence, until the last 72 hours when it had been
seen with Hutu rebel groups fighting against the CNDP.

8. (SBU) Le Roy reported that the GDRC, in a change of plan,
recently asked MONUC to lead the operations against the FDLR,
instead of conducting mandate-approved joint FARDC/MONUC
operations. Alleging the lack of a functioning DRC army in
the east, Le Roy has asked for guidance from the Security
Council regarding this request and how it would fit under its
current mandate. Le Roy expressed reservation regarding
MONUC becoming an attacking force, as he thought that would
compromise its ability to protect civilians and make its
bases more vulnerable to rebel attacks. Le Roy believed
troop contributing countries would be reticent to accept an
attack mandate.

MOST MONUC FORCES NOW IN EAST DRC, FEW REINFORCEMENTS LEFT

9. (SBU) The DPKO technical briefing on November 11 said
there are currently 2,480 MONUC troops in Goma, including 300
Guatemalan Special Forces. An additional 300 troops are
expected to arrive in Goma by November 22. Four attack
helicopters are now in Goma (vice three), and four more are
within an hour's flight (being based in Ituri and South
Kivu). The current locations of MONUC's troops in DRC
following recent reconfigurations are:

38% in North Kivu (5,817 troops)
23% in South Kivu (3,512 troops)
24% in Ituri (3,769 troops)
5% in Katanga (794 troops)
5% in Western Brigade/Kinshasa (830 troops)
4% in Kisangani (677 troops)

Total troops in DRC = 15,505.

10. (SBU) To reinforce Goma further, DPKO is considering
sending Benin's troops in Katanga, Nepal's troops in Ituri,
or Pakistan's troops in South Kivu, noting each move would
further weaken MONUC in the losing region. Again, with no
other reinforcements in country, DPKO urged the Council's
rapid approval and deployment of additional troops.

11. (SBU) The UK asked whether MONUC was fully staffed to its
mandate limit of 17,030 troops, noting the briefing total
shared was only 15,505 troops. DPKO said it would
investigate the apparent troop number discrepancy, but
believed the difference was minor. DPKO warned the MONUC
report, due November 19, might be late, as it was taking into
account the most recent events in the east.


U.S. SUPPORTS MONUC REINFORCEMENT

12. (SBU) Ambassador DiCarlo noted rapid deployment of troops
was necessary to be effective in responding to this current
crisis. Noting the situation on the ground appeared to be
deteriorating, she said special attention should be given to
the troops that could be deployed quickly to help, such as
the infantry battalions and the Special Forces. She said it
was quite clear MONUC needed to be reinforced. DiCarlo said
the CNDP and FDLR must be addressed in parallel to have any
lasting effect. She asked Le Roy if MONUC was able to open
humanitarian corridors to protect civilians in a better
manner. Le Roy responded that MONUC had a robust existing
mandate to protect civilians, but repeated the need for
additional resources to allow flexibility in response to
threats to civilians.

SECURITY COUNCIL SPLIT REGARDING MORE MONUC TROOPS

13. (SBU) The Council appears split regarding support for
MONUC's troop increase request. South Africa, Belgium,
Burkina Faso, Panama, and Costa Rica vocally supported an
increase. France and Indonesia appeared to hedge support.
The UK and Russia stressed MONUC should maximize its current
force abilities.

14. (SBU) South African PermRep Kumalo said it "was ready to
help in any way," and MONUC "needs to be strengthened to face
these challenges." Kumalo said MONUC was now in a difficult
position since MONUC is required to support the FARDC in its
mandate, but there is no effective FARDC in the east for it
to support. Burkinabe PermRep Kafando also said the mandate
should be revised if needed to make MONUC more effective.

15. (SBU) French PermRep Ripert said an EU force was not

feasible, and MONUC should be supported within its mandate.
He called the current situation "one of the most serious
crises" ever in the DRC, but said France would consider
options and reinforcements after the Council received the
SYG's report (due November 19). UK PermRep Sawers said all
groups must be addressed, saying the CNDP and the FDLR exist
almost symbiotically. He called for a clear strategy to
address the rebel groups, but did not/not want MONUC to take
the place of the FARDC. MONUC must, according to Sawers,
support the FARDC.
Khalilzad

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