Cablegate: Armenia 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report Submission

DE RUEHYE #0105/01 0571405
R 261405Z FEB 10





E.O. 12958: N/A


B) 09 YEREVAN 135
C) 09 YEREVAN 263
D) 09 YEREVAN 494
E) 09 YEREVAN 259
F) 09 YEREVAN 300


1. (SBU) This cable represents Embassy Yerevan's submission for the
tenth annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report, which covers
events from mid-February 2009 through mid-February 2010. Paragraphs
5 to 52 are keyed to the information requested in reftel A.

2. (SBU) During the reporting period, the GOAM continued to
demonstrate sustained momentum in strengthening its efforts to
combat trafficking in persons, matching words with concrete actions.
Criminal prosecution of suspected traffickers increased, as did the
severity of the punishments meted out, and there were no suspended
sentences or early releases of traffickers. The GOAM undertook
extensive anti-trafficking public awareness activities of its own,
and actively participated in or leveraged those sponsored by foreign
donors. The GOAM also initiated, sponsored, supported, or
participated in wide-ranging anti-trafficking trainings that
benefitted public servants in law enforcement, social services,
border controls, and overseas diplomatic missions.

3. (SBU) The initial review of the National Referral Mechanism
resulted in proposed changes in the provision of assistance that
could result in more substantive aid to victims, and changes to a
governmental decrees for the first time identified trafficking
victims as eligible for free state-provided medical care. Changes
to the criminal code increased the minimum punishment for
traffickers from three to five years. Law enforcement and judicial
personnel also showed a significantly improved attitude towards
victims, which was borne out by their sensitive treatment during
court proceedings. In spite of a severe economic crisis in Armenia
and draconian cuts in social spending, the GOAM in its 2010 budget
continued to allocate substantial monies to its anti-TIP efforts,
including a significant increase over 2009 in funding for assistance
to trafficking victims.

4. (SBU) There appeared to be strong and growing collaboration
between the GOAM, local organizations, and foreign donors in their
collective fight against trafficking in persons, with a demonstrable
increase in transparency and collegiality between law enforcement
personnel and the local NGOs that assist trafficking victims. For
the third year in a row, there were no reported cases of
trafficking-related corruption. The criminal case that was reopened
in late 2008 into the escape by a convicted trafficker in 2006 with
the aid of corrupt officials produced no breakthroughs, however,
with the GOAM actively pursuing the extradition of the trafficker
from Uzbekistan where she was located in late 2009 following a legal
aid request by Armenian law enforcement in August 2009.


5. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A of
reftel A paragraph 25.

-- What is (are) the source(s) of available information on human
trafficking? What plans are in place (if any) to undertake further
documentation of human trafficking? How reliable are these

There are a number of sources on information on TIP in the country:

- The law-enforcement bodies and other government agencies that
provide official statistics and information on specific trafficking
criminal cases, including on indictments;

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- The members of the Ministerial Council to Combat Trafficking in
Persons (Anti-TIP Council) and the Inter-Agency Working Group
against Trafficking in Persons (Anti-TIP WG) are also valid sources
of information. The Anti-TIP WG, according to its mandate, prepares
semi-annual and annual reports on its activities and submits them to
the Council, which is chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister and whose
members are made up of government ministers. These reports are also
distributed among all stakeholders.

- The Anti-Trafficking Support and Resource Unit (ATSRU), which
continued to operate throughout the reporting period at the premises
of the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA), with funding
from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
The ATSRU was very active during the year, regularly preparing and
distributing factual and analytical reports on a number of issues
including victim assistance, victim profiling, trial monitoring,
current anti-TIP programs, etc. ATSRU also did an excellent job
keeping the anti-TIP community informed on upcoming events, trials
and media coverage.

- International organizations, such as OSCE, ILO (International
Labor Organization) and UNDP (United Nations Development Program),
and others which provide information related to various anti-TIP
programs in the field, as well as governmental activities on the
policy level. The international organizations, however, do not
possess information on specific TIP cases or the situation on the

- Local NGOs that work with TIP victims, such as Hope and Help,
UMCOR (United Methodist Committee on Relief) and Democracy Today,
which provide information on specific cases, victims' stories, and
government efforts to assist victims;

- In the period from July through December 2009, the National
Statistical Survey, with the financial and expert support of the
ILO, conducted a Household Survey on Migration and Forced Labor.
According to the ILO the main objective of the survey is to
understand and quantify trafficking in migrants from Armenia. In
particular, the study aims at understanding the various patterns of
trafficking in migrants, the mechanisms of recruitment, the means of
deception, the means of coercion, or more generally the working
conditions of migrants in the various countries of destination and
sectors of activity. Particular attention will be paid to the
situation of women migrants. The survey was conducted in over 5,000
households. The survey results were being summarized at the time of
submission of this report. Post will send a septel on the survey
findings once they become available.

- The Armenian Association of Social Workers, with the support of
the Children Support Center Foundation (CSCF), is also currently
summarizing the results of a survey sponsored by the Czech
organization "People in Need," which is aimed at ascertaining the
awareness and susceptibility of children to trafficking risks. The
survey was conducted from October to December 2009 and included
quantitative research with 1,200 households and more in-depth
research with 800 children. Post will send a septel on the survey
findings once they become available.

6. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B of
reftel A paragraph 25.

-- Is the country a country of origin, transit, and/or destination
for men, women, or children subjected to conditions of commercial
sexual exploitation, forced or bonded labor, or other slave-like
conditions? Are citizens or residents of the country subjected to
such trafficking conditions within the country? If so, does this
internal trafficking occur in territory outside of the government's
control (e.g. in a civil war situation)? From where are people
recruited or from where do they migrate prior to being subjected to
these exploitative conditions? To what other countries are people
trafficked and for what purposes? Provide, where possible, numbers
or estimates for each group of trafficking victims. Have there been
any changes in the TIP situation since the last TIP Report (e.g.
changes in destinations)?

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Armenia is a source country for women and girls trafficked for
sexual exploitation largely to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and
Turkey. It is also a source country for Armenian men and women
trafficked to Russia for labor. During the year an Armenian court
also handed down a sentence in a trafficking case in which female
victims underwent labor exploitation in Turkey. There were no
reports of male TIP victims undergoing labor exploitation in

During the year the trial of two Russian traffickers who allegedly
exploited Russian trafficking victims as striptease dancers in local
night clubs, was still in process (ref D). In cooperation with
Russian law enforcement, Armenian police identified 11 more victims
in this case (all of whom were already in Russia), bringing the
total number of victims of the alleged traffickers to 24. The
written testimonies of the newly discovered victims were used in
court proceedings.

There were also cases of internal trafficking reported during the
year, in territory within the government's control. In particular,
one of the new TIP cases launched by police involved an adult female
victim who was forced into prostitution by a partner. In April 2009
the court sentenced to 7 years in prison a trafficker who had forced
5 boys into begging (ref C). The trial of the former deputy
director of a special needs school who was accused of forcing into
begging two minor boys and sexually assaulting a third boy was still
in progress. (Note: Ref B contains information on both of the forced
begging cases that were discovered in 2008. Both cases were
initially launched under the criminal statute proscribing
involvement of children into anti-social activities, and later were
requalified into trafficking -- one in 2008, the other in 2009. End

According to official statistics, during the calendar year 2009
there were 60 new victims of trafficking identified as such within
criminal cases launched under the relevant trafficking articles of
the criminal code:

- 11 women were the new Russian victims who had been trafficked into
Armenia by the two Russian traffickers who exploited them as
striptease dancers in Armenian night clubs.

- 14 women were Armenian victims who had undergone sexual
exploitation in Turkey;

- 13 women were Armenian victims who had undergone sexual
exploitation in the UAE;

- 16 (three Armenian women and 13 Armenian men) underwent labor
exploitation in Russia;

- 1 Armenian woman was a victim of internal sexual exploitation;

- and 5 were Armenian minor boys who were forced into begging.

During the reporting period two NGOs that assist TIP victims -- Hope
and Help and UMCOR -- sheltered a total of 23 victims, most of whom
were included in the figure above. (Note: During calendar year 2009
the number of victims sheltered by NGOs was 26. End Note.)

There were no significant changes in trafficking destinations.
Local interlocutors (both NGOs and law enforcement representatives)
claimed that the number of victims of sexual exploitation -- who had
been trafficked to Turkey and the UAE and who had been recruited or
victimized in the past couple of years -- appeared to have declined.
A prosecutor dealing with TIP cases suggested that this could be
the result of the drastically increased punishments for traffickers
and new public awareness activities undertaken by the government.

7. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section C of
reftel A paragraph 25.

-- To what kind of conditions are the trafficking victims

According to various accounts, victims in Turkey and the UAE are

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deprived of their documents, cannot leave the place where they are
kept, do not have control or cannot make decisions over their
bodies, are threatened with murder, rape and other physical abuse or
to be sold into even worse conditions to other pimps. They are
beaten, raped, and physically abused for disobedience, and assessed
with constantly growing debts that must be repaid to traffickers.
In many cases the pimps sell the victims to one another. Victims
are afraid to go to the police due to their illegal status. In the
case of trafficking of victims to Russia for labor exploitation,
according to various accounts the victims are kept in very grave
conditions, are underfed, overworked, subjected to physical violence
and threats thereof, threatened to be turned over to police, and
undergo other forms of psychological pressure. (Note: One of the
male labor victims assisted by the NGOs has contracted drug
resistant TB as a result of his victimization, and is currently in
very grave condition. End Note.) In some, perhaps numerous cases,
the social conditions that the victims encounter are better than
their economic situation in Armenia, and therefore they endure the
exploitation and sometimes return to the destination countries and
endure such exploitation even when they know they could possibly be
trafficked again.

8. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section D of
reftel A paragraph 25.

-- Vulnerability to TIP: Are certain groups of persons more at risk
of human trafficking (e.g. women and children, boys versus girls,
certain ethnic groups, refugees, IDPs, etc.)? If so, please specify
the type of exploitation for which these groups are most at risk.

Trafficking victims overwhelmingly come from impoverished
communities; the common factor among the vulnerable groups is
poverty and the lack of socio-economic opportunities. Mira
Antonian, the head of Children Support Center Foundation, shared a
disturbing observation that their surveyors had encountered during
the survey on children's awareness of TIP. While showing a good
level of awareness on the existence of exploitative labor
conditions, the children indicated that they would agree to any kind
of exploitative work conditions offered to them in order to improve
the social condition of their families. According to other
observers this attitude is found among adults as well.

The groups most vulnerable to sex trafficking include prostitutes,
young women who have recently "aged out" of orphanages and special
schools, the unemployed, homeless people, refugees, single mothers
and divorced women, as well as persons with disabilities, including
mental disabilities. Girls and boys in difficult social conditions,
or who have undergone abuse in their families, are also a risk
group. Labor traffickers take advantage of unemployed or seasonal
workers from poverty-stricken communities, especially in rural

9. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section E of
reftel A paragraph 25.

-- Traffickers and Their Methods: Who are the
traffickers/exploiters? Are they independent business people?
Small or family-based crime groups? Large international organized
crime syndicates?

The traffickers are pimps, mostly women and usually Armenian
citizens residing in the UAE and in Turkey, each of whom has
established networks of recruiters and other facilitators on various
issues (e.g. preparing false documents, arranging transportation,
etc). In some cases the Armenian traffickers have acquired the
citizenship of the destination country (usually by marriage), which
makes their extradition virtually impossible. This is especially
true of cases in Turkey. Those pimps (mainly women, who in some
cases had formerly worked as prostitutes in the destination
countries, and who sometimes have one or multiple convictions for
pimping) have very good connections in the destination and transit
countries, and usually have local partners - boyfriends or husbands
- who help them. In some of the cases the traffickers were members
of the same family, i.e., they operated with the help of siblings.

Armenian law enforcement bodies have begun to prosecute traffickers

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as organized criminal groups (if there is more than one trafficker)
and have also started to use money laundering charges when
appropriate. However, in those cases where the organized criminal
group charge was used, it referred more to groups of people who had
the same criminal intent, as opposed to criminal syndicates or mafia
groups. Hence while it is clear that the traffickers in destination
countries (i.e., Russia, UAE, and Turkey) must have some support
from local actors, there has not been a single report from any
source that Armenian traffickers are part of international crime

-- What methods are used to gain direct access to victims? For
example, are the traffickers recruiting victims through lucrative
job offers? Are victims sold by their families, or approached by
friends of friends? Are victims "self-presenting" (approaching the
exploiter without the involvement of a recruiter or transporter)? If
recruitment or transportation is involved, what methods are used to
recruit or transport victims (e.g., are false documents being used)?

The victims are usually approached by "friends of friends,"
neighbors or acquaintances. The recruiters usually lure victims
with promises of high wages, either to engage in prostitution or,
much less frequently, for work as nannies, care-providers or
waitresses. Though most, but not all, trafficking victims know they
are going to work as prostitutes, they are not fully aware of the
exploitative conditions in which they will work. In one case a
Turkey-based trafficker had contacted the sister of the victim (who
was unaware of her sister's situation). The trafficker told the
sister that her sister (i.e., the first victim) had become ill and
needed her help. The duped sister then went to Turkey to help her
sister and consequently fell victim to trafficking herself. The
victims in the labor trafficking case had been promised a reasonable
wage, which they never received. There are cases when victims
"self-present," i.e. they learn that their friend is going to travel
abroad for a job and want to join her/him and ask the recruiter to
arrange for their employment as well. Traffickers also encouraged
victims to become recruiters, promising them money they had already
earned but been deprived of by their traffickers or future proceeds
earned by new victims.

Those trafficked to the UAE usually fly to Dubai directly from
Yerevan, or sometimes via Moscow. According to law enforcement
bodies, in most of the current cases the victims are transported
with their real documents. The trafficking route to Turkey is via
bus through Georgia. In the case of Russia, victims fly with their
documents; there are direct flights to a number of Russian cities
and Armenian citizens do not require visas to enter Russia.

-- Are employment, travel, and tourism agencies or marriage brokers
involved with or fronting for traffickers or crime groups to traffic

There have been no reports to indicate this.

--------------------------------------------- --
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10. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- Does the government acknowledge that human trafficking is a
problem in the country? If not, why not?

All GOAM actors who work in the field acknowledge the problem of
trafficking in the country. The lead actors in the field, in
particular the Deputy Prime Minister and law enforcement officials,
continue to demonstrate a strong commitment to combat trafficking.

11. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- Which government agencies are involved in efforts to combat sex
and labor trafficking - including forced labor - and, which agency,

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if any, has the lead in these efforts?

In addition to individual state agencies, there are two governmental
chains that are in charge of trafficking issues on both the
practical and policy level (ref B).

The Ministerial Council to Combat Trafficking in Persons was
established in December 2007 and is chaired by the Deputy Prime
Minister/Minister of Territorial Administration, whose approach
towards the issue of trafficking has been very proactive, decisive
and effective, and who has demonstrated the political will to match
his words with concrete actions. In addition to the Deputy PM, the
Council is comprised of the following officials: Minister of Sports
and Youth Affairs, Minister of Justice, Minister of Trade and
Economic Development, Minister of Finance and Economy, Minister of
Education and Science, Minister of Labor and Social Affairs,
Minister of Health, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Prosecutor General,
Head of National Security Council, Head of Police, Head of
International Relations Department of the Staff of the President,
and Head of the Migration Agency under the Ministry of Territorial
Administration (secretary of the Council). (Note: By a November 17,
2009 Presidential decree, the Migration Agency was upgraded to the
State Migration Service (SMS), and the restructuring of the agency
is currently underway. The head of the SMS continues to be the
secretary of the Ministerial Council. End note.) The Anti-TIP
Council has a broad mandate to implement, coordinate and monitor the
government's antitrafficking efforts. The Council held regular
sessions during the year and always invited the international and
NGO communities to observe; Post has attended and observed all of
the Council's sessions held during the reporting period, and at its
March 2009 session the Ambassador delivered remarks to the body,
which the Council welcomed.

The second chain is the Inter-Agency Working Group against
Trafficking in Persons (Anti-TIP WG) that organizes the ongoing
activities of the Council. The working group includes
representatives from all of the law enforcement bodies (Police,
National Security Service (NSS) including the border guard service,
Prosecutor General's Office (PG); the Migration Agency under the
Ministry of Territorial Administration; staff of the Government;
staff of the Parliament; as well as the Ministries of Foreign
Affairs; Justice; Health; Labor and Social Affairs; Economy;
Education and Science; Sports and Youth affairs; Finance; and the
National Statistical Service. The MFA has the lead in this working
group and is the main contact point for both international and local
actors. NGOs and international organizations participate actively
at the sessions of the working group, which were held regularly
during the year. The group members worked actively outside of the
regular session format as well. In particular, the group members
worked through the year on preparing the next National Plan of
Action (NPA) to cover 2010-2012, developing comprehensive changes to
the criminal code in reference to anti-TIP articles, and other
actions envisaged by the current NPA (2007-2009).

In terms of assistance to the victims, according to the National
Referral Mechanism (NRM), the key agency is the Ministry of Labor
and Social Affairs (MoLSA), which has yet to embrace its anti-TIP
mandate as proactively as it could.

The Anti-Trafficking Support and Resource Unit (ATSRU) continued to
operate within the premises of the MoLSA with funding from the OSCE.
OSCE will fund the activities of ATSRU through July 2011, following
which the unit will completely be transferred and integrated into
the MoLSA. The ATSRU, which was staffed and became fully
operational beginning from December 1, 2009, functioned based on its
mandate of a) assisting relevant national entities to combat
trafficking through improved cooperation between the Government and
NGOs; b) developing strategies for victim protection and provide
assistance to the NRM; and c) providing assistance in the drafting
of the GOAM's next National Action Plan to combat trafficking

In terms of investigation of trafficking crimes, the police have the
lead. They police also play a prominent role in the NRM's

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12. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section C
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- What are the limitations on the government's ability to address
these problems in practice? For example, is funding for police or
other institutions inadequate? Is overall corruption a problem?
Does the government lack the resources to aid victims?

Lack of adequate resources, exacerbated by the ongoing economic
crisis, continues to limit the government's ability to address the
problem of trafficking. However, despite a severe economic crisis
in Armenia, and thanks to the will of the governing authorities, the
2010 budget continued to allocate substantial funding for anti-TIP
programs, with the 2010 funding for victims being significantly
increased over the 2009 level (see below for details).

Another significant limitation is the lack of staff in all agencies,
as well as the current staff's limited technical capacity, both of
which are again conditioned by limited financing. In particular,
the police indicated the lack of special investigative equipment
that would significantly broaden the scope of their investigations.
Another obstacle is the lack of experience of various officials
involved in the government's anti-trafficking efforts, a deficiency
which has gradually been addressed throughout various trainings over
the past several years.

According to the police another obstacle is the country's imperfect
legislation, which sometimes limits their ability to adequately
punish traffickers. Throughout the year the anti-TIP WG continued
to work on legal amendments to the Criminal Code, which the anti-TIP
Council approved during its February 19, 2010 session. The draft
changes still need to undergo inter-agency review and approval by
the government (Cabinet of Ministers) before being presented to the
Parliament for approval and enactment. The proposed amendments to
the Criminal Code will address a number of issues, including
harmonizing the Criminal Code articles on involvement of children in
prostitution and other types of exploitation; criminal punishment
for those who use the services of trafficking victims, etc.

Another continuous problem is that labor migration is not

The overall phenomenon of corruption inside the government apparatus
could also be limiting the GOAM's ability to better combat
challenges such as trafficking. However, no reports of
trafficking-related corruption were reported during the reporting
period, making this reporting period the third in a row that
trafficking-related corruption has not been observed.

The law enforcement agencies, as well as representatives from the
MFA, told Post that another serious obstacle is the low level of
anti-TIP cooperation with Russia, Georgia, the UAE and Turkey,
although there appeared to be progress in the level and quality of
cooperation with Russia and the UAE during the reporting period.
Armenian police reported one example of successful cooperation with
Russian law enforcement bodies, in the case of the Russian
traffickers. In the case of Turkey, the main reason is the lack of
diplomatic relations; this, however, has not prevented the GOAM from
seeking to initiate cooperation with Turkey. According to law
enforcement bodies, Armenia received virtually no cooperation from
Georgia on trafficking cases.

13. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section D
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- To what extent does the government systematically monitor its
anti-trafficking efforts (on all fronts -- prosecution, victim
protection, and prevention) and periodically make available,
publicly or privately and directly or through regional/
international organizations, its assessments of these
anti-trafficking efforts?

The government's Inter-Agency Working Group against Trafficking in
Persons (Anti-TIP WG) is the main monitoring body. It has a
reporting mechanism under which every group member, as well as local
and international organizations, present summaries of the activities

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of their agency in the area for a specific period. This reporting
mechanism covers all fronts -- prosecution, victim related
information, budget spending, etc. The interagency working group,
according to its mandate, prepares semi-annual and annual reports on
its activities based on the information above, and submits it to the
Ministerial Council to Combat Trafficking in Persons, after which
the reports are circulated among stakeholders. The Anti-TIP WG and
Council members, as well as representatives of the law enforcement
bodies, also periodically brief the mass media (through interviews,
talk shows, etc.) on the progress they are making in combating TIP.

14. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section E
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- What measures has the government taken to establish the identity
of local populations, including birth registration, citizenship, and

The Passports and Visas Department of the Police provides birth
certificates at the birth of a child, which includes information on
the parents of a child and their nationality and citizenship. Once
children turn 16 they receive passports which indicates citizenship
and nationality. The passports also include information on
registration (i.e., residence) of a person -- either permanent or

15. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section F
of reftel A paragraph 26.

-- To what extent is the government capable of gathering the data
required for an in-depth assessment of law enforcement efforts?
Where are the gaps? Are there any ways to work around these gaps?

The government is capable of gathering data required for an in-depth
assessment of all its law-enforcement efforts. To improve these
efforts, with the support of international organizations the GOAM is
currently working on creating two databases: one for victim data
collection to be located under the Ministry of Labor and Social
Affairs, and the other for trafficker data collection to be based in
the police. (Note: Currently there are negotiations underway between
the various agencies whether to allow the police to have access to
the MoLSA database. End Note.)


16. (SBU) In reference to questions A though D of paragraph 27 the
answers mostly repeat information from Post's submissions for
earlier annual TIP reports. There has been one amendment to the
criminal statues proscribing trafficking, which is described below.

17. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Existing Laws against TIP: Does the country have a law or laws
specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons -- both sexual
exploitation and labor? If so, please specifically cite the name of
the law(s) and its date of enactment and provide the exact language
[actual copies preferable] of the TIP provisions. Please provide a
full inventory of trafficking laws, including non-criminal statutes
that allow for civil penalties against alleged trafficking crimes
(e.g., civil forfeiture laws and laws against illegal debt). Does
the law(s) cover both internal and transnational forms of
trafficking? If not, under what other laws can traffickers be
prosecuted? For example, are there laws against slavery or the
exploitation of prostitution by means of force, fraud, or coercion?
Are these other laws being used in trafficking cases??

Articles 132 and 132-1 of Armenia's Criminal Code cover all aspects
of human trafficking - labor and sexual, internal and

- Article 132 - Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or
receipt of persons with the aim of exploitation; and

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- Article 132-1 - Engagement of other persons in prostitution or
other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, or
slavery or practices similar to slavery.

On November 18, 2009 the parliament adopted changes to these
articles. President Serzh Sargsian signed the changes into law on
December 12, 2009, which then took effect on January 2, 2010.
According to those changes the criminal punishments envisaged by
Article 132 were increased bringing them up to match with the
punishments envisaged by Article 132-1. Hence, according to the
November changes in Article 132, the minimum punishment increased
from 3-6 years of imprisonment to 5-10 years; the punishment for
trafficking of minors (as one of the aggravating factors) increased
from 7-10 years of imprisonment to 7-12 years. Therefore now the
minimum punishment for trafficking as envisaged under both statutes
is five years imprisonment. Changes to both statutes also
stipulated confiscation of the trafficker's assets as a form of
punishment, and exempted trafficking victims from criminal
prosecution for crimes they were forced to commit as a result of
their victimization, provided the victims supported the
investigation of these crimes.

The Code's two pimping statutes (261 and 262) provide for
prosecution and punishment of those found guilty of organization of
prostitution and recruitment of prostitutes.

Victims of trafficking may obtain restitution during a criminal
case, or in a civil case, after the completion of the criminal case.
In the latter case, the judge may rule that the victim is entitled
to seek civil damages. According to prosecutors who prosecute TIP
cases, some victims in the 2009 cases were planning to seek civil
damages once the criminal cases against their traffickers were to
come to an end. The Labor Code includes articles prohibiting forced
labor, abuse of workers, and employment of children.

18. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Punishment of Sex Trafficking Offenses: What are the prescribed
and imposed penalties for the trafficking of persons for commercial
sexual exploitation, including for the forced prostitution of adults
and the prostitution of children?

Only incarceration can be imposed upon convicted traffickers, i.e.,
penalties that do not impose incarceration, such as fines or
corrective labor, are inapplicable to trafficking cases.

Under the Criminal Code the applicable prison term is from five to
15 years, depending on the aggravating circumstances. These
sentences are commensurate with those for rape. (See below under
law enforcement statistics for actual information on sentences).

19. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section C
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Punishment of Labor Trafficking Offenses: What are the
prescribed and imposed penalties for labor trafficking offenses,
including all forms of forced labor? If your country is a source
country for labor migrants, do the government's laws provide for
criminal punishment -- i.e. jail time -- for labor recruiters who
engage in recruitment of workers using knowingly fraudulent or
deceptive offers with the purpose of subjecting workers to compelled
service in the destination country? If your country is a
destination for labor migrants (legal/regular or illegal/irregular),
are there laws punishing employers or labor agents who confiscate
workers' passports or travel documents for the purpose of labor
trafficking, switch contracts without the worker's consent as a
means to keep the worker in a state of compelled service, or
withhold payment of salaries as means of keeping the worker in a
state of compelled service??

The trafficking statues of the criminal code are equally applicable
to sexual and labor trafficking cases. Armenia is a source country
for labor migrants, and the trafficking statutes of the criminal
code are also applicable for labor recruiters who engage in

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recruitment of workers using knowingly fraudulent or deceptive
offers with the purpose of subjecting workers to trafficking in the
destination country.

20. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section D
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- What are the prescribed penalties for rape or forcible sexual

The prescribed penalties for rape and forcible sexual assault are
from 3 to 15 years of imprisonment depending on the aggravating

21. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section E
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Law Enforcement Statistics: Did the government take legal action
against human trafficking offenders during the reporting period? If
so, provide numbers of investigations, prosecutions, convictions,
and sentences imposed, including details on plea bargains and fines,
if relevant and available. Please note the number of convicted
trafficking offenders who received suspended sentences and the
number who received only a fine as punishment. Please indicate
which laws were used to investigate, prosecute, convict, and
sentence traffickers. Also, if possible, please disaggregate
numbers of cases by type of TIP (labor vs. commercial sexual
exploitation) and victims (children under 18 years of age vs.
adults). What were the actual punishments imposed on convicted
trafficking offenders? Are they serving the time sentenced? If not,
why not?

The GOAM reporting system runs by calendar years, hence, the
following statistical information refers to 2009 calendar year.

During 2009 the police investigated 15 criminal cases under
trafficking statutes (132 and 132-1) charging 10 new suspects in
connection with those criminal cases. (Note: The National Security
Service investigated another criminal case, but suspended it early
on. The GOAM did not provide details on that case and did not
include this case in its statistics. End note.)

Seven of the 15 cases investigated by police were transferred from
2008; three of the 15 cases were re-launched from previous years;
one case was initially launched under a criminal code article
prosecuting involvement of children in anti-social activities and
was later re-qualified as trafficking; and four were totally new
criminal cases. (Note: Please note that some of the cases that were
launched in February 2009 Post reported in ref B. End Note.)

- In two of these 15 cases Turkey was the destination country where
women were subjected to sexual trafficking.

- In six of these 15 cases the UAE was the destination country where
women were subjected to sexual trafficking.

- In three of the 15 cases victims (man and women) underwent labor
exploitation in Russia.

- One case referred to the investigation of the two Russian
traffickers who exploited victims as exotic dancers in local night
clubs. The investigation of this case continued from 2008. (See
paragraph 6 and elsewhere for more details.)

- The three other cases referred to internal trafficking -- the two
forced begging cases of minors and the one case of forced
prostitution of an adult by a partner.

These 15 cases progressed as follows: two cases were dropped due to
lack of evidence; two cases were suspended until the discovery of
the traffickers; five cases were completely finished and sent to the
courts; and in the remaining six cases, the investigative body split
the cases and sent to the courts the cases against those suspects
who were caught, and suspended the rest of the case pending the
discovery of the wanted traffickers. There were no investigations
transferred to the next year.

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One of the two cases that was dropped due to lack of evidence
referred to a major labor TIP case connected with Russia (ref E).
The case was launched on the report of the 8 victims who had stated
that they had undergone labor exploitation in Russia. Russian law
enforcement bodies had conducted an investigation based on the
request of Armenian law enforcement, and responded with case
materials (witness interviews) saying that they, Russian law
enforcement, could not substantiate the accusations of trafficking.
According to Tigran Petrosian, the head of the police Anti-TIP Unit
under the Criminal Investigation Department, by Armenian law the
police was forced to take the findings of the Russian law
enforcement bodies as a basis for dismissing the case, even though
the Armenian police still considered the persons involved to be
victims of trafficking. The police subsequently referred those
victims to NGOs for victims' assistance.

During the year 12 trafficking cases went on trial. By the end of
the year the courts convicted 11 traffickers under 8 of these 12
criminal cases to prison sentences ranging from three to 13 years.

See details on the convictions below:

- On April 2, 2009 an Armenian court convicted Garik Hovhannisian to
seven years in prison for forcing 5 minor boys into begging (ref

- On April 20, 2009 an Armenian court convicted four persons as
being part of an organized criminal group for trafficking Armenian
victims to the UAE (ref F). The main accomplice Anush Martirosian,
a notorious pimp long sought by the police, and two of her three
accomplices, were charged under trafficking statutes. Anush
Martirosian was sentenced to 13 years in prison; Sofia Martirosian
was sentenced to 5 years in prison; and Mariam Martikian was
sentenced to 4 years in prison. The fourth accomplice Sonia
Gabrielian was tried on charges of assisting in pimping and
attempting to bribe one of the victims during the investigation.
She was sentenced to a one year sentence and a fine of approximately
USD 520. (Note: Sonia Gabrielian's conviction is not included in the
figure of 11 total trafficking convictions above. End Note.)

-- On July 30, 2009 an Armenian court convicted Armanush Tadevosian
to 8 years in prison for forcing Armenian victims into prostitution
in the UAE.

-- On September 9, 2009, an Armenian court convicted Laura Azarian
to 9 years and her brother Gagik Karapetian to 7 and half years in
prison for labor exploitation and other forms of sexual exploitation
of Armenian victims in Turkey. One of the victims was locked in a
house and forced to do housework; later she and other victims were
taken to casino night clubs to entertain guests where they were
forced into performing oriental dances, sitting on client's laps and
allowing them to grope them. (Note: Armenian law enforcement bodies
describe the latter actions as well as strip dancing as other types
of sexual exploitation, as opposed to labor exploitation. End

-- On September 22, 2009 the court convicted Gohar Gevorgian to 5
years in prison for forcing an Armenian victim into prostitution in
the UAE.

-- On November 24, 2009, the court convicted Narine Khemchian to
three years in prison for recruiting a trafficking victim, who was
later forced into prostitution in the UAE.

-- On November 30, 2009, the court convicted Amalya Matulian to 11
years of prison and confiscation of assets gained through illegal
means on multiple charges of trafficking (for forcing Armenian
victims into prostitution in the UAE), illegal border crossing and
document forgery.

-- On December 18, 2009, another notorious pimp Marieta Muradian was
convicted to 13 years in prison for forcing Armenian victims into
prostitution in the UAE.

By the end of 2009 there were 4 criminal cases -- out of the 12

YEREVAN 00000105 012 OF 028

cases -- against 8 defendants in progress, the hearings of which
resumed in 2010. The ongoing cases included the case against the
two Russian traffickers who exploited victims as exotic dancers in
local night clubs; the case against the former deputy director of a
special school who had forced two students into begging and sexually
assaulted a third boy; one internal trafficking case when a man had
forced his then-underage female partner into prostitution; and
finally one major trafficking case against four persons who had been
trafficking Armenian victims for the purpose of sexual trafficking
over a period of many years. The main accomplice in the latter case
was Gohar Kirakosian (Kilinch), a Turkey-based pimp of ethnic
Armenian origins, and the GOAM was trying to establish cooperation
with GOT in order to prosecute her.

One more case against one defendant, accused of forcing his adult
female partner into prostitution, was transferred to the court in
the end of 2009 and the trial got underway in early 2010.

The lawyer of ATSRU monitored all of the trafficking trials. In a
report summarizing the observations for 2009, the lawyer made the
following remarks about the trial processes: the judges did not
apply mild punishments, or punishments less than those envisaged by
the TIP statutes; the judges did not requalify any charges with
others carrying milder punishments; there were no acquittals; and
victims and witnesses periodically changed their testimony under the
influence of the defendant (e.g., convincing by relatives, material
encouragement, or compassion towards the defendant). The lawyer also
made some recommendations calling for more efficient measures of
witness and victim protection, given that some victims were
threatened and insulted during trials by the defendant and his/her
relatives. The lawyer also noted that the awareness on trafficking
issues and the NRM should be increased among attorneys participating
in trafficking trials.

In the beginning of 2009, 21 traffickers were wanted by law
enforcement bodies. During the year the case against one of these
persons was dropped, and five were apprehended. Five more were
announced wanted and searched for during the year. By the end of
2009, 20 suspects were still wanted on charges of trafficking.

There are a number of articles in the Criminal Code, which according
to the police also pertain to a certain extent to trafficking, and
the police presented Post with the relevant statistics on them as
well. (Note: The proposed legal amendments -- that have been
already approved by the Council -- seek to redefine these statutes.
End Note.)

One such example is Article 168 of the criminal code on "Sale and
Purchase of Children." According to the Police they investigated 4
cases on charges of sale and purchase of children in 2009. These
cases mostly had to do with illegal practices of adoption of
children. One case involving 4 children resulted in two convictions
of 5 years, and 5 years and 6 months of imprisonment. Another case
involving one child resulted in one conviction of a five years'
suspended sentence. Another case was dropped due to lack of
evidence, and one more is still in progress.

In 2009 the GOAM investigated 45 new criminal cases on charges of
pimping (Articles 261, 262). Three of these cases involved pimping
abroad (1 case to Turkey and 2 cases to the UAE). According to the
police there was a chance that they would requalify these cases into
trafficking once they had gathered more evidence. In addition, two
of these 45 cases engaged four minors, and the police signaled that
those cases would also be requalified into trafficking as well,
pending the investigation. (Note: The anti-TIP WG wants to remove
any reference to sexual exploitation of minors from under the
statutes prosecuting pimping and to proscribe these actions only
through the application of trafficking statutes. End note.)

There were no reports of early release of traffickers.

22. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section F
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Does the government provide any specialized training for law
enforcement and immigration officials on identifying and treating

YEREVAN 00000105 013 OF 028

victims of trafficking? Or training on investigating and
prosecuting human trafficking crimes? Specify whether NGOs,
international organizations, and/or the USG provide specialized
training for host government officials.

During the year law enforcement and immigration officials actively
participated in trainings provided by GOAM, ATSRU, local and
international organizations. Government officials (mainly anti-TIP
WG and Council members) also actively participated themselves as
trainers in such trainings.

The MFA facilitated the participation of 25 police officers in
specialized one month training on trafficking (starting from June
22, 2009) in the Egyptian Police Academy in Egypt. The Egyptian
side funded the Armenian participants.

During the reporting period ATSRU held seminars and trainings on
national and international TIP legislation, the NRM, NGO and state
cooperation, the role of MoLSA and the police in victims assistance,
and migration issues for local representatives of regional
Children's Rights Protection Unit, State Labor Inspectorate,
Employment Service, police as well as local NGOs and mass media
representatives targeting Yerevan and most large towns in the
regions. The trainings were held in Yerevan for 26 participants, in
Vanadzor for 23 participants, in Gyumri for 26 participants, in
Kapan for 32 participants. Two more trainings were organized
jointly with UNDP -- one for 46 participants from Armavir and
Ararat, and another one for 40 participants from Gavar and Hrazdan.

In the reporting period, within a European Commission program, the
Hope and Help NGO arranged for the participation of seven Armenian
prosecutors and five socials workers in a seminar on "Child
Trafficking and Sexual Abuse" held in Tbilisi, Georgia together with
Georgian counterparts.

The Hope and Help NGO, jointly with ILO within the project on
"Development of Capacities of Law Enforcement Authorities in
prevention of Trafficking in Persons," held sensitization training
for law enforcement bodies on prevention of trafficking and forced
labor on the basis of international conventions. Two-day trainings
were held in Yerevan and four regions for police, prosecutors,
judges, and National Security Service and labor inspectors. A
total of 82 participants took the training, of which 65 were
representatives of law enforcement bodies. They were lectured on
national and international TIP legislation and practices, the
National Referral Mechanism, migration, and illegal labor practices.

During the reporting period UMCOR, through the USG (INL) funded
project on "Strengthening of Law Enforcement Response to Human
Trafficking," conducted the following trainings for the law
enforcement bodies:

- In April and May four two-day trainings sessions were held
entitled "The Role of Law Enforcement in Combating Human
Trafficking." A total of 46 police officers from the Main
Investigation Department, Yerevan city Investigation Department, 8
districts of Yerevan city, as well as 10 Regional Investigation
Departments participated in the training. The training curriculum
consisted of two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical
part was conducted by the UMCOR Consultant and UN Special Rapporteur
on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, and the practical part was led by
the Head of the Anti-TIP Unit of the Police Department and Deputy
Head of Investigation of Special Importance Cases Department of the
Main Investigation Department of the Armenian Police.

- 15 representatives of Police Departments from Yerevan city and 6
Armenian regions (Ararat, Aragatsotn, Gegharkunik, Tavush, Vayots
Dzor, and Syunik) participated in the Training of Trainers course,
which included discussion of previous training materials, new legal
trends in the field, review and discussion of "Human trafficking"
informational video film, changes in the Armenian Criminal Code,
National Referral Mechanism, William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims
Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 of the US Congress, Council
of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Persons,
investigation methodology, etc.

YEREVAN 00000105 014 OF 028

- In collaboration with the Department of the Fight Against
Organized Crime and Main Investigation Department of the Armenian
Police, UMCOR organized three one-day roundtable discussions with
participation of front-line police officers and investigators from
Yerevan and the regions. The aim of the roundtables was to identify
gaps in data collection and to develop ways to improve cooperation
between front-line police officers and investigators. Overall, 24
front-line police officers and 23 investigators from the
abovementioned groups participated (with the roundtables aimed at
enhancing cooperation between police and investigators during the
investigation process of trafficking cases).

- Within the same project INL organized a training for a total of 21
law-enforcement officials from the Police Anti-Trafficking
Department, Police Illegal Migration Department, National Security
Service, regional and Yerevan-based investigators) by international
trainers -- representatives of the U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement (ICE). The aim of the trainings was an exchange of
international experience on U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
operations, as well as presentation of Best Practices in
investigation of Trafficking in Persons, Human Smuggling and Illegal
Migration Cases.

Trafficking is included in the curriculum of all the specialized
educational facilities of the law enforcement bodies.

The Ministry of Justice continued during the year to hold training
courses on prevention of trafficking, prosecution, and victims and
witness protection in the Legal Institute of the MoJ which trains
the workers of the services carrying out mandatory enforcement of
judicial and criminal acts.

In March, 2010 the UNDP will launch a computer-based training center
at the Prosecutor General's School. The center will be used by the
police, judges and potentially customs officials in addition to
prosecutors. UNDP will install in this training center the
computer-based training course on organized crime in Russian
(consisting of 80 modules) developed by the UN Office of Drugs and

During the year UNDP, jointly with OSCE and ILO, reviewed the
Training Manual on Combating Human Trafficking for Law Enforcement
Agencies based on comments of the MFA, and further circulated the
draft among various specialized schools (Police Academy, School of
Prosecutors, School of Judges, Union of Advocates) for their
assessment. When ready the manual will used by these schools for
training of relevant law enforcement personnel.

During the year UNDP also developed training manuals for front line
police officers on identification and investigation of
trafficking-related cases. Once the manuals are published (expected
by the end of February, 2010) the police will use them during its
internal training programs.

23. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section G
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Does the government cooperate with other governments in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases? If possible,
provide the number of cooperative international investigations on
trafficking during the reporting period.

There have been no joint international investigations on trafficking
during the period; however, in a number of cases the GOAM has
solicited with varying degrees of success the assistance/cooperation
of foreign governments in investigations of specific cases. These
mostly referred to cooperation on specific cases with Russian law
enforcement bodies. (See references above.)

Even though there are no diplomatic relations with Turkey, the GOAM
tries to initiate cooperation with Turkey through Interpol and the
Armenian and Turkish Embassies in Georgia. Currently the GOAM is
translating into Turkish case materials to be sent to Turkey
requesting the prosecution of a notorious pimp named Gohar (Kilinch)
Kirakossian (ref B).

YEREVAN 00000105 015 OF 028

According to Armenian law-enforcement bodies the level of
cooperation with the UAE is still very weak. However, on December
5, 2009 the GOAM signed a bilateral memorandum of understanding with
the United Arab Emirates on combating trafficking in persons, and is
hopeful that this agreement will promote cooperation with the UAE.
The GOAM negotiated two deportations of wanted traffickers from the
UAE during the year.

All GOAM reps were unhappy about the level of cooperation with
Georgia, due to unwillingness from the Georgian side.

24. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section H
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Does the government extradite persons who are charged with
trafficking in other countries? If so, please provide the number of
traffickers extradited
during the reporting period, and the number of
trafficking extraditions pending. In particular, please report on
any pending or concluded extraditions of trafficking offenders to
the United States.

There have been no reported cases of extraditions either to or from
the country in the reporting period.

The GOAM, as a result of the activities of the MFA consular section
and the police, was able to negotiate the deportation of two wanted
traffickers from the UAE, who were then apprehended at the Armenian
border. According to law enforcement bodies, bureaucratically it is
much easier to facilitate deportation of wanted traffickers than

25. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section I
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- Is there evidence of government involvement in or tolerance of
trafficking, on a local or institutional level? If so, please
explain in detail.

For the third reporting period in a row, there has been no evidence
of government involvement in, or tolerance of trafficking. In the
case of the convicted ethnic-Armenian Uzbek trafficker Anush
Zakharyants (ref B) who escaped Armenia in 2006 with the assistance
of corrupt officials, the criminal investigation into her escape
that was reopened in December 2008 continued throughout the
reporting period without any breakthroughs. As for its attempts to
recapture Zakharyants, the government submitted a request for legal
aid in August, 2009 to Uzbek law enforcement bodies; on October 5,
2009 Uzbek law enforcement bodies informed the GOAM that they had
located and interrogated Zakhariants in the status of a witness. On
December 14, 2009 the Armenian Prosecutor General's Office requested
that Uzbekistan extradite Zakharyants to Armenia. By the time of
the submission of this report, the extradition request remained

26. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section J
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- If government officials are involved in human trafficking, what
steps has the government taken to end such complicity? Please
indicate the number of government officials investigated and
prosecuted for involvement in trafficking or trafficking-related
criminal activities during the reporting period. Have any been
convicted? What sentence(s) was imposed? Please specify if
officials received suspended sentences, or were given a fine, fired,
or reassigned to another position within the government as
punishment. Please indicate the number of convicted officials that
received suspended sentences or received only a fine as punishment.

For the third reporting period in a row, there were no new cases of
the involvement of government officials in trafficking. See above
for an update on the 2006 Anush Zakhariants case.

27. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section K
of reftel A paragraph 27.

YEREVAN 00000105 016 OF 028

-- For countries that contribute troops to international
peacekeeping efforts, please indicate whether the government
vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced
nationals of the country deployed abroad as part of a peacekeeping
or other similar mission who engaged in or facilitated severe forms
of trafficking or who exploited victims of such trafficking.

There have been no reported cases of Armenian international peace
keepers being engaged in or having facilitated severe forms of
trafficking or who exploited victims of such trafficking.

28. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section L
of reftel A paragraph 27.

-- If the country has an identified problem of child sex tourists
coming to the country, what are the countries of origin for sex
tourists? How many foreign pedophiles did the government prosecute
or deport/extradite to their country of origin? If your host
country's nationals are perpetrators of child sex tourism, do the
country's child sexual abuse laws have extraterritorial coverage
(similar to the U.S. PROTECT Act) to allow the prosecution of
suspected sex tourists for crimes committed abroad? If so, how many
of the country's nationals were prosecuted and/or convicted during
the reporting period under the extraterritorial provision(s) for
traveling to other countries to engage in child sex tourism?

There is no identified child sex tourism problem in the country.


29. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- What kind of protection is the government able under existing law
to provide for victims and witnesses? Does it provide these
protections in practice?

According to Prosecutors there are no real mechanisms for
implementing the provisions of the Criminal Procedural Code on
Protection of Victims and Witnesses, with the lack of funding and
technical capabilities being the main limiting factors.

In practice, however, the authorities have taken some measures to
protect the victims, such as allowing the testimony of victims to be
received in court without always requiring the victims' face-to-face
in-court presence. Additionally, the victims may have their own
attorney present at the trial, as well as an escort, which
appreciably aids their peace of mind and well being. Moreover,
based upon trial observations by USG personnel, the judges and
prosecutors of Armenia have been very respectful of the trafficking
victims and sensitive to their situation.

The lawyer of the ATSRU, who has been monitoring almost all TIP
trials, in an annual report reviewing the course of these trials
from the point of view of the protection of victims' interests,
welcomed that over the past year the law-enforcement bodies took
some concrete measures to protect the witnesses/victims. In
particular the report noted that an official warning was presented
to a person who had threatened the victim in connection with the
victims' testimony, and in another case the police would escort and
provide transportation to the victim. The report also noted that
since there was no official body designated with victims/witness
protection, it was the Police Anti-TIP unit under the criminal
investigation department who took upon themselves responsibility,
although it did not constitute part of their regulatory

Reacting to the concerns of an NGO about the need for better victim
protection that was expressed during the February 19, 2010 session
of the Ministerial Council to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Deputy
Prime Minister Armen Gevorgian instructed the Ministry of Justice to
come up with concrete suggestions on fixing the problem as soon as

YEREVAN 00000105 017 OF 028

30. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the country have victim care facilities (shelters or drop-in
centers) which are accessible to trafficking victims? Do foreign
victims have the same access to care as domestic trafficking
victims? Where child are victims placed (e.g., in shelters, foster
care or juvenile justice detention centers)? Does the country have
specialized care for adults in addition to children? Does the
country have specialized care for male victims as well as female?
Does the country have specialized facilities dedicated to helping
victims of trafficking? Are these facilities operated by the
government or by NGOs? What is the funding source of these
facilities? Please estimate the amount the government spent (in
U.S. dollar equivalent) on these specialized facilities dedicated to
helping trafficking victims during the reporting period.

There are two NGO-run trafficking victims' shelters in the country
accessible for local and foreign victims, adults and children, males
and females.

The Hope and Help NGO maintains one of the shelters with USG
funding, which is not permanent and opens only when a victim needs a
safe haven. Hope and Help provides material, legal, medical, social
and psychological assistance to victims, and in addition engages the
victims in vocational training. During the reporting period, Hope
and Help sheltered and provided assistance to 10 victims (or 11
victims under the 2009 calendar year).

UMCOR runs the second shelter, which is permanent, and also provides
victims with material, legal, medical, social and psychological
assistance, and connects victims with training programs to help the
victim reintegrate into society. Throughout 2009 UMCOR's shelter
was funded directly by UMCOR's head office based in the US. During
the reporting period, UMCOR sheltered and provided assistance to 13
victims (or 15 under the 2009 calendar year). In addition to the
shelter UMCOR through funding from GTIP and the Norwegian Government
maintained during 2009 a drop-in center for TIP victims, where
initial identification of victims took place, and which provided
social, medical and legal assistance to those victims who did not
want to stay in the shelter.

UMCOR's implementer, the Democracy Today NGO, as well as the Hope
and Help NGO, maintained trafficking hotlines.

The 2009 co-funding of the UMCOR shelter (ref B) by the GOAM did not
work out due to technical reasons that had to do with funding
allocation procedures. On November 26, 2009 the GOAM -- through a
government decision -- established a procedure that would solve the
technical problems with allocation of money to the NGOs who will
provide social-psychological rehabilitation services to victims of
trafficking. The decision that came into force on December 10
envisages that there can be constant and changing expenses in
providing services to victims. This was the main problem that had
prevented the co-funding of the UMCOR shelter. The NGOs said that
they would need to maintain a shelter 24/7 even if there were no
victims constantly in it. So by this new decision the NGOs will get
reimbursed (or funded) for maintaining the shelter, and also will be
reimbursed (or funded) separately for each victim (per capita).

The GOAM allocated approximately USD 70,000 USD in its 2010 budget
for the provision of social-psychological rehabilitation services to
victims of trafficking. (Note: The anti-TIP monies that were not
spent in 2009 for these particular services were transferred to
2010, are included in the USD 70,000 figure, and were augmented by
approximately $15,000. The augmentation in the currency of dollars
paled in comparison to the augmentation in the local currency, the
dram. In 2009, for example, the GOAM allocated 16,000,000 million
drams, for these services; in 2010 this figure became 26,000,000
drams. The discrepancy in the difference between the rise in dollar
terms and dram terms has to do with the fact that the dram
dramatically devalued in one day in March 2009, by 20 percent.
GTIP: The point we're trying to make here is that the GOAM
significantly and quantitatively increased its dram outlay for
funding these services, even if the exchange rate conversion does

YEREVAN 00000105 018 OF 028

not necessarily reflect this. This increase is simply huge in the
local context. End Note.) The MoLSA hopes to sign a contract with
UMCOR by the end of February 2010 that would fund UMCOR for their
rent of the shelter (approximately USD 16,000 for the 2010 calendar
year), and the contract -- when signed -- will retroactively take
effect on February 1, 2010. The GOAM will then determine what to do
with the remaining approximately USD 54,000, with some members of
the WG already considering the possibility of buying space for
establishing a state-run shelter.

31. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section C
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government provide trafficking victims with access to
legal, medical and psychological services? If so, please specify
the kind of assistance provided. Does the government provide
funding or other forms of support to foreign or domestic NGOs and/or
international organizations for providing these services to
trafficking victims? Please explain and provide any funding amounts
in U.S. dollar equivalent. If assistance provided was in-kind,
please specify exact assistance. Please specify if funding for
assistance comes from a federal budget or from regional or local

The government provides trafficking victims with access to legal,
medical and psychological services. According to the NRM the legal,
medical, psychological and social services are provided to the
victims by the NGOs, who had the funding in 2009 to provide those

The Ministry of Labor and Social Services (through the social worker
commission tasked with advising the ATSRU) provided detailed
consultations to all the victims (or rather to NGOs regarding each
victim) on various social benefits that the trafficking victims were
eligible for, and assisted with processing paperwork.

The MoLSA also tried throughout the year to help two victims to
register their children, one of whom was born in Dubai (in a
migration prison) and the other in Turkey. The registration of
children who are born abroad is a very bureaucratic and cumbersome
procedure, and the Department on Registration of Civil Acts under
the Police had still not registered these children by end of the
reporting period. MoLSA planned to raise the issue at the WG in the
hopes of achieving some results.

After the September 3 changes to the Government Decree N318-N "On
Free Medical Aid and Servicing Guaranteed by the State" that made
TIP victims eligible for these services, the MoLSA provided referral
letters (to be processed through the Ministry of Health) to two
victims who received complete medical assistance at various
hospitals free of charge.

The GOAM, in its 2010 state budget, allocated approximately USD
6,000 to the Ministry of Health for this purpose. This is the same
amount as was allocated in the 2009 state budget, most of which was
not spent.

32. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section D
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government assist foreign trafficking victims, for
example, by providing temporary to permanent residency status, or
other relief from deportation? If so, please explain.

Foreign TIP victims receive the same form of assistance as local
victims. According to Post's information, those victims who did not
want to leave Armenia stayed without any problems in the country and
continued to work elsewhere on the local economy.

33. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section E
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government provide longer-term shelter or housing
benefits to victims or other resources to aid the victims in
rebuilding their lives?

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The post-shelter housing of victims and their long-term
reintegration continues to remain a serious challenge for the
government to address. The third and final stage of identification
of victims, according to the NRM, envisages the possibility of long
term housing; however, that provision remains vague and there are no
clear-cut procedures explaining how such provision should be carried
out. (Note: All the problems described in ref B paragraph 36 in
connection with non applicability of the Law on Social Assistance
towards TIP victims remain unchanged. The MoLSA hopes to fix the
problem during the coming year. End Note.)

In summer 2009 one of the victims, a graduate of an orphanage,
received an apartment through a government program that provided
housing to orphanage graduates. In spite of this instance of
housing assistance to a victim, the government program that provided
housing to orphanage graduates remained suspended, in light of a
December 2008 government audit that uncovered significant violations
in the program's implementation.

34. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section F
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government have a referral process to transfer victims
detained, arrested or placed in protective custody by law
enforcement authorities to institutions that provide short- or
long-term care
(either government or NGO-run)?

The GOAM adopted its National Referral Mechanism (NRM) on November
20, 2008 (ref B). While NGOs have continuously expressed concerns
about the disproportionate regulatory focus of the NRM on
prosecution of traffickers (rather than on meeting the needs of
trafficking victims), the NGOs who deal with TIP victims in practice
did not report encountering any problems in connection with the NRM
implementation. According to them, the NRM, which lacks procedures
and mechanisms on how the actual assistance should be provided to
the victims, in concrete terms has yet to make drastic differences
to the manner in which they operate.

Between 2008 and the beginning of 2009, the GOAM reviewed the
implementation of the NRM in order to reveal the gaps and
shortcomings in the practical phase. The inter-agency Anti-TIP
Working Group drafted some changes based on that review, which the
Ministerial Council approved, and expects the government to approve
sometime in February or March 2010. The changes do not
comprehensively address the problems identified by the NGOs and
international organizations in the NRM; however, the changes that
have been drafted appear to be positive. One of the proposed
changes envisages an increase from 7 to 30 days that housing must be
provided to a victim in the initial stage of identification. The
other change makes it explicit that NGOs can refer victims either to
police, or the MoLSA, as opposed to both agencies which is not quite
clear from the current NRM. The third and last change is technical;
it add psychological services to the list of services provided to a
victim during the initial stage of identification -- something that
is already done but which the GOAM wanted to spell out.

In another positive development, on September 3 the GOAM made
changes to the Governmental Decision N318-N "On Free Medical Aid and
Servicing Guaranteed by the State" to include "trafficking victims"
as a separate vulnerable category to be covered by the decree.

Below is a more detailed description of the three step
identification process, and the specific type and volume of
assistance envisaged for each step in the NRM:

1) Preliminary (initial) identification takes place when the victim
has just been discovered.

The assistance to the victim at this stage includes: primary medical
aid; immediate in-kind assistance (food, clothing, sanitation etc);
legal consultancy; and, if necessary, provision of short-term
housing of maximum 7 days.

2) Intermediate identification takes place when the victim is
recognized by the investigative body as a victim (aggrieved side)

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within a criminal case prosecuted under trafficking statutes.

The assistance at this stage includes: provision of temporary
housing for up to 60 days; medical examination and aid in accordance
with the Decree N318-N "On Free Medical Aid and Servicing Guaranteed
by the State" adopted by the Government of the Republic of Armenia
on March 4, 2004; legal assistance; psychological assistance;
measures addressed to the re-integration into the society,
including, inter-alia, assistance in professional training; and
where necessary, emergency monetary assistance in the defined

3) Final identification takes place by the court when a verdict is
in place in a given criminal case. In the event where the case does
not go to court in compliance with the Criminal Procedure Code, the
decision made by the criminal prosecution body on recognizing the
person as the aggrieved shall serve as a ground for final

Final assistance shall be rendered by virtue of the final
identification based on the needs assessment of the given person,
and envisages a full package of assistance as stipulated by the Law
"On Social Assistance" of the Republic of Armenia, as well as
further measures addressed to the re-integration.

35. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section G
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- What is the total number of trafficking victims identified during
the reporting period? (If available, please specify the type of
exploitation of these victims - e.g. "The government identified X
number of trafficking victims during the reporting period, Y or
which were victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation and Z of
which were victims of nonconsensual labor exploitation.) Of these,
how many victims were referred to care facilities for assistance by
law enforcement authorities during the reporting period? By social
services officials? What is the number of victims assisted by
government-funded assistance programs and those not funded by the
government during the reporting period?

According to official statistics during the 2009 calendar year there
were 60 victims of trafficking identified as such within criminal
cases launched under the relevant trafficking articles of the
criminal code. Of these 14 were women trafficked to Turkey where
they underwent sexual exploitation, 13 were women who were
trafficked to the UAE where they underwent sexual exploitation, 13
men and 3 women to Russia where they underwent labor exploitation,
and 11 were Russian women exploited in Armenia as striptease
dancers; and there were six victims of internal trafficking -- one
adult female who was forced into prostitution and five minor boys
who were forced into begging. According to the newly adopted
National Referral Mechanism, all 60 victims had undergone the 2nd
stage of the 3-step identification process. (Note: Per the NRM,
once the verdict is in place, or if a case is suspended, the police
prepare a document indicating that the victim has undergone final
identification and refers the victim to the NGOs and MoLSA for
further assistance. End Note.)

According to the police, during 2009 they referred 22 out of the 60
victims to NGOs, with the remaining victims refusing such assistance
(for various reasons including harvest season), or being not in the
country when they were identified as victims. According to one of
the NGOs dealing with the TIP victims, the police were not
consistent in their approach of inviting NGOs during the
identification of victims, so that the NGO representatives could
personally and directly offer services to the victims. Sometimes
they invite the NGOs, sometimes they did not. The second NGO said
that they are never asked to be present at identification, and that
they are simply called and informed that there is a victim who needs

In the reporting period the Hope and Help and UMCOR NGOs
collectively assisted a total of 23 victims, of whom 19 were
referred to them by the police. NGOs had discovered/identified the
other 4 victims either through their hotlines, their social workers
or other NGOs. (Note: During the 2009 calendar year the NGOs

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assisted 26 victims, of whom according to them 20 were referred by
police. End note.)

36. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section H
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Do the government's law enforcement, immigration, and social
services personnel have a formal system of proactively identifying
victims of trafficking among high-risk persons with whom they come
in contact (e.g., foreign persons arrested for prostitution or
immigration violations)?

The National Referral Mechanism is to be used in this case.

-- For countries with legalized prostitution, does the government
have a mechanism for screening for trafficking victims among persons
involved in the legal/regulated commercial sex trade?

Prostitution is not legalized in Armenia.

37. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section I
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Are the rights of victims respected? Are trafficking victims
detained or jailed? If so, for how long? Are victims fined? Are
victims prosecuted for violations of other laws, such as those
governing immigration or prostitution?

The rights of the victims are respected. They are not treated as
criminals; they are not detained, jailed or deported. Victims are
not prosecuted for violations of other laws. Additionally, at TIP
trials, trafficking victims are now universally being treated with
respect and sensitivity by judges, prosecutors, and other officials.

According to the November 18, 2009 changes in the TIP statues,
trafficking victims are now exempted from criminal prosecution for
crimes they were forced to commit as a result of their
victimization, provided the victims supported the investigation of
these crimes.

38. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section J
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government encourage victims to assist in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking? How many victims
assisted in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers during
the reporting period?

Yes, according to the police all 60 victims identified by the police
have assisted in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers.

-- May victims file civil suits or seek legal action against
traffickers? Does anyone impede victim access to such legal

The victims may file civil suits and seek legal actions against
traffickers. In practice, this has been respected.

-- If a victim is a material witness in a court case against a
former employer, is the victim permitted to obtain other employment
or to leave the country pending trial proceedings?

Not applicable.

-- Are there means by which a victim may obtain restitution?

While there is no state victim restitution program, the victims may
obtain restitution through court decisions, based on their claims
during the criminal proceedings against traffickers, or a separate
civil suit filed against the trafficker. In the latter case, the
judge may rule that the victim is entitled to seek civil damages, or
the criminal case itself can become a base for such suit. With the
exception of one labor trafficking case, the judges have not
satisfied the claims for damages in any of the trafficking cases
submitted so far.

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39. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section K
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in identifying trafficking victims and in the
provision of assistance to trafficked victims, including the special
needs of trafficked children?

Please refer to answers to paragraph 22 for this question.

-- Does the government provide training on protections and
assistance to its embassies and consulates in foreign countries that
are destination or transit countries?

According to the MFA all personnel leaving for a new
assignment/mission abroad are individually briefed on trafficking
and receive the TIP manual for Armenian consular officers abroad.

-- What is the number trafficking victims assisted by the host
country's embassies or consulates abroad during the reporting
period? Please explain the type of assistance provided (travel
documents, referrals to assistance, payment for transportation

In general and as part of their mandate, all consular officers
abroad assist the return of victims who apply to them for help, by
providing them with return certificates, referring them (based on
the NRM) for further assistance, and providing them with airplane
tickets. The MFA could not provide, however, concrete numbers since
the consular officers abroad (due to severe lack of staff) do not
maintain a registration system of victims.

During the reporting period, one of the NGOs reported a case where
they had identified a victim in Dubai and where the MFA consular
section did everything it had and could do to help the return of the
victim; the victim decided at the last minute not to return,
however. The MFA had provided the victim with documents,
renegotiated with the airline a change of the departure date of the
ticket when the victim did not show up the first time, negotiated
with the border guards service on greeting her at the border without
problems, and did everything else possible to help her return.

40. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section L
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Does the government provide assistance, such as medical aid,
shelter, or financial help, to its nationals who are repatriated as
victims of trafficking?

Currently all the assistance to repatriated victims of trafficking
is channeled through the two existing shelters.

The GOAM continues to work with other governments on regulating
illegal migration, repatriating its citizens, and preventing
trafficking. GOAM has signed readmission agreements with Bulgaria,
Sweden, Switzerland, Lithuania, Denmark, Germany, the Benelux
countries, and Norway.

41. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section M
of reftel A paragraph 28.

-- Which international organizations or NGOs, if any, work with
trafficking victims? What type of services do they provide? What
sort of cooperation do they receive from local authorities?

There are numerous players in this field. The two main NGOs that
have shelters, hotlines and specific re-integration programs are
Hope and Help and UMCOR. The international organizations such as
OSCE, UNDP, ILO, and others carry out various projects on a wider
range of trafficking issues. See throughout the report for more


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42. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Did the government conduct anti-trafficking information or
education campaigns during the reporting period? If so, briefly
describe the campaign(s), including their objectives and
effectiveness. Please provide the number of people reached by such
awareness efforts, if available. Do these campaigns target
potential trafficking victims and/or the demand for trafficking
(e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or beneficiaries of forced labor)?
(Note: This can be an especially noteworthy effort where
prostitution is
legal. End Note.)

During the reporting period various public awareness activities
(campaigns, TV programs, pres coverage, etc) were carried out, many
of which were conducted, initiated or supported by GOAM officials.

The GOAM approved several line items in its 2009 budget (ref B) for
the implementation of public awareness activities; most of this
money was spent as allocated.

The Migration Agency under the Ministry of Territorial
Administration was allocated approximately USD 16,000 for the
publication and distribution of anti-TIP brochures and leaflets.
(Note: As compared with the budget description in Ref B there
appears to be a decrease of funding; however, that is explained by
the drop in value of the local currency compared with the dollar.
End Note.) The MA in the reporting period spent half of the
allocated sum by publishing 100,000 copies of information leaflets
describing legal procedures for traveling, residing and working
abroad. The MA allocated those leaflets to various agencies for
further distribution among their beneficiaries: the State Labor
Service of the MoLSA received 10,000 copies; regional bodies
providing social services received 30,000 copies; and the
international Zvartnots airport in Yerevan received 20,000 copies to
be distributed among travelers; and various resource centers
received 40,000 copies. The Migration Agency planned to spend the
remaining money on the publication of a brochure on trafficking;
however, the Ministerial Council after some deliberations determined
that since NGOs had already extensively covered the field in this
area the money could be saved (even though the Migration Agency had
already drafted the text of the brochure and it was ready for
publication). (Note: Post considered this decision to be justified
given the severe economic crisis in the country and the drastic cuts
that had to be made to the budget during the calendar year 2009, as
well as the fact that local and international NGOs continuously
publish and distribute materials on trafficking on their own
initiative. End Note.)

In its 2009 budget, the GOAM allocated approximately USD 33,000 to
the Ministry of Youth and Sport Affairs (MYSA) for conducting
"Campaigns Among Youth to Increase Awareness on the Threat of
Trafficking" and regional workshops on "Role of Youth in Prevention
of Human Trafficking." The programs were combined and accomplished,
and the Ministry spent about 60 percent of the allocated funding.
Within this project, from July 27-30 MYSA organized a four day
training of trainers in Yerevan on the role of youth in trafficking
prevention for heads of the regional youth centers and volunteers
from all 10 regions of Armenia (for a grand total of about 40
participants). As a next step, the participants of the training
together with guest lecturers, throughout the summer and fall,
organized one- or two-day-long trainings in all the regional youth
centers for about 20 young people residing in the area.

The final stage of the MYSA public awareness project was a TV bridge
(digital video conference) between Yerevan and three regions that
was aired in the end of December on Armenia's Public TV channel that
has nationwide coverage and on three more regional TV stations. The
program brought together approximately 50 participants in Yerevan
and experts located in the TV stations in Kapan (Syunik region)
Gyumri (Shirak region) and Alaverdi (Lori region). The participants
from the government included the Deputy Minister of Sport and Youth
Affairs, the head of the Anti-TIP WG, and the head of the Anti-TIP
Police Unit. The experts and the youth participants discussed the

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issue of trafficking during the program, and among other things the
discussion focused on vulnerable/ risk groups, modes and types of
trafficking, TIP legislation, practice and actions to be taken by
entrapped victims, Armenian consular representations abroad, police
prosecution of the traffickers and cooperation with victim, NGOs
assistance, the role of the church, etc. The experts answered the
questions of the program host in a very comprehensive manner so that
the spectators could get a complete picture of what trafficking is
and understand the differences between TIP and other crimes; learn
how to behave in the difficult situation; and how to help victims of
trafficking. During the whole program the hot line numbers were on
the TV screen. The discussions were combined with small public
service announcements PSAs showing common patterns of recruiting of
victims and interviews with victims of trafficking (with altered
voice and covered face).

In the 2009 budget the GOAM allocated approximately USD 2,000 to be
spent by MoLSA for public awareness activities, including increasing
public awareness on trafficking. MoLSA spent the allocated money by
funding a program on trafficking within the "Social Hour" series.
The program was aired on November 28, 2009 on the public-private H2
TV station, and repeated once again during the following week.

In the 2010 state budget approved in December 2010, the GOAM has
once again allocated approximately USD 2,000 to be spent by MoLSA
for public awareness activities (to include trafficking awareness),
and another USD 21,000 to be spent by the MYSA on trafficking
prevention activities among youth.

In addition to the TV bridge other TV stations (as well as Armenian
Public TV) occasionally aired talk shows on trafficking and GOAM
officials actively participated in the talk shows. One such program
was called "Court Hour" aired on Armenia Public TV which was
dedicated to trafficking and broadcast in two segments on October 24
and 31, 2009. Most of the programs were aired in the evening hours
when there was a larger viewing audience.

The official TV program of the police called "02" twice aired
productions where trafficking was also discussed. The police weekly
"02" newspaper carried three publications during the year on
trafficking. During their periodic press conferences in which they
summarized police activities over a certain period, police leaders
and spokespeople always referred to the progress of anti-trafficking
activities and criminal prosecutions of trafficking cases.

From June 12-14, 2009 an intensive three day training was held on
"Sensitization Training for Journalists: Improved Media Coverage of
Trafficking Issues" that was organized by the GOAM (the Ministry of
Territorial Administration), OSCE and UNDP. The initiative of
holding such a seminar for media on TIP issues was raised at one of
the Anti-TIP Council sessions. The GOAM recruited and ensured the
participation of 20 journalists (from both print and TV media); UNDP
covered all logistical expenses; and OSCE provided materials
(guidance for media on highlighting TIP cases). Among other GOAM
representatives, the head of the Police Anti-TIP unit also held a
session on the role of the police in the fight against TIP and
presented recent statistics. The Deputy Prime Minister also
attended the training and held an hour and half off-the-record
session with journalists in which he openly discussed a number of
TIP related issues, including the outstanding case of Anush
Zakhariants. According to all local observers, the training was
critical for the journalists, who often misunderstand and
misrepresent trafficking related issues in their reporting.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM), with strong
cooperation of the Ministry of Education, implemented a regional
project entitled "Secondary School Education to Contribute to the
Prevention of Trafficking in Persons in Armenia, Azerbaijan and
Georgia." The two year project, funded by the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation and launched in November 2008, aims to
introduce a topic on counter-trafficking to the school curriculum.
During 2009, a student textbook, a teacher's manual, and a parent's
book including the topic was endorsed by the Ministry of Education
and piloted in 18 schools in Armenia. In addition to the relevant
school staff, 32 specialists from the regional subdivisions of the
National Institute on Education of the Ministry of Education were

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trained on this new topic.

The Migrants Support Points (MSP) in Yerevan, Gyumri and Artashat
(ref B) continued to operate with the support of the UNDP "Travel
Safe: Pre-Migration Registration and Appropriate Surveys" program
through the end of 2009. At the end of 2009 when the UNDP program
ended, the MSPs were fully transferred under the jurisdiction of the
State Migration Service (formerly the Migration Agency). In those
centers labor migrants were provided with information and assistance
when planning to travel and work abroad. UNDP, jointly with ILO,
IOM, OSCE, provided additional training to MSP staff, in order that
they provide information services to returned labor migrants as
well. UNDP also organized a one-day workshop for MSP staff on
migration trends in Armenia, as well as possible impacts of the
global financial crisis on the migration situation in Armenia. On
November 2, the UNDP organized two capacity building trainings for a
total of 42 representatives of the MSP staff, local self governing
bodies, local NGOs and mass media. The trainings were held on
November 2 and again on November 18-20, 2009.

Throughout September-November, 2009, through a UNDP grant, the
Armenian Red Cross Society, jointly with the UN Armenia Association
NGO, International Youth Bridges Foundation and Audio-Visual Reports
Association NGO, implemented a project entitled "Youth against Human
Trafficking." The main goal of the program was to raise awareness
of the Armenian population in general and youth groups in particular
on trafficking in human beings and its relation to forced labor
issues. Within this project a 5-day training of trainers was
provided to 30 young people from seven regions of Armenia and
Yerevan on TIP, project management and campaigning issues. An
educational film on the application of the National Referral
Mechanism, 2000 informational booklets, and 200 posters and
materials on the project were developed and presented in the target
seven regions and Yerevan as well as in universities and other
educational institutions. The results of the program were presented
on December 2, the "International Day for Abolition of Slavery,"
within the framework of "16 Days of Activism against Gender
Violence" organized by UNDP.

During the reporting period, UMCOR (within a UNDP project) actively
worked with MoLSA, the State Employment Agency, local social, and
the employment and youth agencies of the Shirak and Tavush regions
on the development of the provision of professional trainings to
local vulnerable youth seeking to enter the local labor market. In
Shirak region, 20 young people participated in a four-month training
course at the Gyumri Stocking Factory. The factory hired the best
students upon completion of the training and passing of
qualification exams. In Tavush region, three girls completed
trainings on hairdressing and cosmetology, while 19 young men
accomplished three and a half months of training in auto-repair at
the Ijevan State College. All participants received tools to work
on their own using their newly acquired professional skills.

In addition, a special training on trafficking-related risks and
prevention was delivered to project beneficiaries. A total of 42
young people from at-risk groups were trained in 15 occupational
specialties; 21 are currently employed, while the rest of trainees
are on waiting lists. In addition UMCOR supported 14 students in
higher educational institutions (seven from the Shirak region and
seven from the Tavush region) with one-year tuition fees. The
selection of beneficiaries was conducted in collaboration with the
representatives of regional social agencies and state youth centers.

In June, UMCOR organized roundtable discussions on youth issues
entitled "Decreasing Trafficking Risks among Youth through Provision
of Employment Opportunities." Representatives from the Ministry of
Labor and Social Issues, Ministry of Sport and Youth Affairs, State
Employment Agency, Armenia Employers' Republic Union, as well as
"Yerevan State University Graduates and Career Center" and local
NGOs participated. Invited experts presented the situation in
Armenia regarding youth employment, the provision of necessary
assistance to young people seeking job opportunities through
vocational training projects, organization of job fairs and
qualification improvement courses. Discussions were conducted on
issues related to trafficking risks connected with youth

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unemployment, prevention and awareness raising.

In June 2009 UMCOR, jointly with Ministry of Health, organized
one-day training for medical personnel addressing anti-trafficking
issues and the role of health personnel in combating trafficking in
Yerevan. Twenty representatives of Yerevan City Hall's health
department, Yerevan polyclinics, as well as representatives of
Regional Health Departments and Polyclinics from 4 regions (Armavir,
Kotayk, Aragatsotn, and Ararat) participated in the training.

In 2008, UMCOR, jointly with MOLSA and the ILO Office in Armenia,
had organized a one-day training of trainers for 36 representatives
of social and employment agencies on "The Role of the Social and
Labor Agencies in Combating Trafficking." UMCOR reported that
during 2009 the TOT participants continued to provide trainings in
the regions to social workers and employment agency employees.

During the reporting period UMCOR (through GTIP funding), jointly
with the Democracy Today NGO, held seminars on the issue of
trafficking for representatives of the Career Center of the Yerevan
State University.

In November UMCOR (again through GTIP funding) conducted two
anti-TIP trainings for Zvartnots airport personnel -- 20 persons who
are directly involved in passengers' registration. Main topics
discussed were the following: the phenomenon of trafficking in human
beings; TIP specifics in Armenia; profiling of vulnerable groups;
trafficking prevention; victim identification and referral. UMCOR
distributed a stock of informational flyers to the airport for
distribution to passengers during registration of flights.

In the reporting period ILO organized trafficking sensitization
training workshops and trainings for the Employers' Association of
Armenia (24 participants) and for the Children's Protection Unit of
the regional governors' offices and Yerevan (36 participants).

During the reporting period the World Vision (WV) NGO through direct
GTIP funding conducted a number of trainings to raise awareness on
trafficking of various groups. WV organized training of trainers
for 109 community guardians from 10 communities and established
community guardians groups on the following topics: definition and
description of TIP; social description of people who are vulnerable
to trafficking; factors and conditions that have led to the
trafficking of children; summary of the types of assistance
available for victims, including through the NRM; major issues
concerning protection of victims and vulnerable social groups.
Following this the community guardians groups organized trainings
for 246 community members. Together with People in Need NGO, WV
organized trainings for 18 media reps and journalism students,
focusing on investigating and reporting on trafficking. WV trained
a total of 110 teachers from 22 schools in Yerevan, Gyumri,
Stepanavan and Alaverdi on TIP issues. Also WV organized two-day
training for four social workers from Yerevan, Gyumri, Stepanavan
and Alaverdi and three-day training for seven professors/lecturers
from the Yerevan State University, Departments of Sociology and
Social Work.

-- Do these campaigns target potential trafficking victims and/or
the demand for trafficking (e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or
beneficiaries of forced labor)? (Note: This can be an especially
noteworthy effort where prostitution is legal. End Note.)

Such campaigns mostly target the victims or potential victims of
trafficking, and have a valuable prevention role.

43. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Does the government monitor immigration and emigration patterns
for evidence of trafficking?

The Migration Agency monitors emigration and immigration patterns in
general, but not specifically for trafficking.

44. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section C
of reftel A paragraph 29.

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-- Is there a mechanism for coordination and communication between
various agencies, internal, international, and multilateral on
trafficking-related matters, such as a multi-agency working group or
a task force?

See above for details on the ministerial level Council and the
inter-agency working group.

In February 2009 UNDP finished its work on establishing a computer
network for the Prosecutor General's office, linking all the
regional offices with the PG's office; the system was launched in
May 2009. It is hoped that the new network will facilitate
prosecutors' work on TIP cases.

45. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section D
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Does the government have a national plan of action to address
trafficking in persons? If the plan was developed during the
reporting period, which agencies were involved in developing it?
Were NGOs consulted in the process? What steps has the government
taken to implement the action plan?

Yes, GOAM has a national plan of action (NPA) to address trafficking
in persons, which was adopted in December, 2007. It is the second
such NPA and covers the period from 2007-2009. The GOAM is already
making plans for the following NPA for the period of 2010-2012. The
UNDP, OSCE, ILO and the International Center on Migration Policy
Development are advising the Government on the NPA, and held a
workshop November 13 to begin working on recommendations for the new

From July 23 to 25, 2009 the WG with the financial support of UNDP
held a three day workshop/round table where the implementation of
the NPA 2007-2009 was discussed and the participants -- WG members,
local and international organizations -- identified priority areas
to be addressed by the next NPA which is currently in the drafting
stage. GOAM expects to have the draft of the new NPA ready in
March, 2010.

46. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section E
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Required of all Posts: What measures has the government taken
during the reporting period to reduce the demand for commercial sex

No such measures have been taken.

47. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section F
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Required of all Posts: What measures has the government taken
during the reporting period to reduce the participation in
international child sex tourism by nationals of the country?

No such measures have been taken. But neither were there any
reports during the reporting period to indicate the participation of
Armenian nationals in international child sex tourism.

48. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section G
of reftel A paragraph 29.

-- Required of posts in countries that have contributed over 100
troops to international peacekeeping efforts (Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso,
Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Denmark,
Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan,
Kenya, Korea (ROK), Malawi, Malaysia, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Russia, Rwanda, Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United
Kingdom, Uruguay, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe): What measures has
the government adopted to ensure that its nationals who are deployed

YEREVAN 00000105 028 OF 028

abroad as part of a peacekeeping or other similar mission do not
engage in or facilitate severe forms of trafficking or exploit
victims of such trafficking? If posts do not provide an answer to
this question, the Department may consider including a statement in
the country assessment to the effect that "An assessment regarding
Country X's efforts to ensure that its troops deployed abroad for
international peacekeeping missions do not engage in or facilitate
trafficking or exploit trafficking victims was unavailable for this
reporting period."

Armenia contributes less than 100 troops to any peace-keeping
mission abroad. However, from June 29 to July 1, Armenian
peacekeeping forces underwent TIP training with the support of the
NATO Defense College. MFA initiated and the Ministry of Defense
organized the training.


49. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section A
of reftel A paragraph 30.

-- Does the government engage with other governments, civil society,
and/or multilateral organizations to focus attention and devote
resources to addressing human trafficking? If so, please provide

Please see above for examples of international cooperation. GOAM
also participates actively in international conferences devoted to
TIP, at which the Deputy Prime Minister has taken part.

50. (SBU) This paragraph corresponds to the questions in section B
of reftel A paragraph 30.

-- What sort of international assistance does the government provide
to other countries to address TIP?

Government does not provide international assistance to other
countries to address TIP.

51. (SBU) Per request in paragraph 24 of reftel A, the following are
estimates of numbers of hours spent on the preparation of the TIP
report cable by various embassy officers.

Political Assistant: 70 hours.
Political Officer: 8 hours.
RLA Officer: 1 hour.
INL Officer: 1 hour.
INL assistant: 16 hours
DCM: 1 hour.

52. (SBU) Post's trafficking POC is Political Officer Daniel
Hastings, tel 374-10-49-43-02, fax 374-10-46-47-42.


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