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Cablegate: Documents On Syrian Support for Terrorism

O 190550Z DEC 86
FM SECSTATE WASHDC
TO ALL DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR POSTS IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY BEIRUT IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY KABUL IMMEDIATE
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW IMMEDIATE
AMCONSUL LENINGRAD IMMEDIATE

UNCLAS STATE 391887

FOR POLITICAL OFFICERS, INFO PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICERS

E.O. 12356: N/A
TAGS: PTER SY
SUBJECT: DOCUMENTS ON SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM

1. FOLLOWING IS THE TEXT OF A FACT PAPER ON SYRIAN
SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM AND A CHRONOLOGY OF SELECTED
TERRORIST INCIDENTS BY SYRIAN-SUPPORTED GROUPS. EARLIER
VERSIONS OF BOTH DOCUMENTS WERE RELEASED TO THE PRESS ON
NOVEMBER 14 AND APPEARED IN THE USIA WIRELESS FILE ON
THAT DATE. BOTH DOCUMENTS HAVE NOW BEEN REVISED TO
REFLECT THE HASI CONVICTION IN WEST BERLIN ON NOVEMBER
26. WE ASSUME USIS MADE APPROPRIATE USE OF THE MATERIAL
APPEARING IN THE WIRELESS FILE. WE ARE SENDING THE
REVISED VERSIONS SO THAT POLOFFS MAY SHARE THE
INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THESE DOCUMENTS WITH HOST
GOVERNMENTS.

2. (BEGIN TEXT OF FACT PAPER)

DECEMBER 5, 1986

SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: 1983-1986

NEW EVIDENCE OF SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR AND DIRECT INVOLVEMENT
IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM HAS BEEN BROUGHT TO LIGHT IN
TWO RECENT TRIALS INCLUDING THE CONVICTION IN GREAT
BRITAIN OF NIZAR HINDAWI FOR THE ATTEMPTED BOMBING OF AN
EL AL CIVILIAN AIRPLANE WITH 375 PASSENGERS ABOARD.

SYRIA CLEARLY HAS A LONG RECORD OF INVOLVEMENT IN
TERRORISM. SYRIA IS ONE OF THE "CHARTER MEMBERS" OF
COUNTRIES ON THE U.S. GOVERNMENT'S TERRORISM LIST, WHICH
WAS FIRST COMPILED IN 1979. (COUNTRIES CURRENTLY ON THE
LIST ARE SYRIA, LIBYA, IRAN, SOUTH YEMEN, AND CUBA.)

THE PATTERN OF SYRIAN ACTIVITY IN SUPPORT OF TERRORISM
HAS VARIED. FROM THE MID-1970'S THROUGH 1983, SYRIAN
PERSONNEL ARE KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN
TERRORIST OPERATIONS. THESE OPERATIONS WERE PRIMARILY
DIRECTED AGAINST OTHER ARABS, SUCH AS SYRIAN DISSIDENTS,
MODERATE ARAB STATES SUCH AS JORDAN, AND PRO-ARAFAT
PALESTINIANS, AS WELL AS ISRAELI AND JEWISH TARGETS. IN
1982, FOR EXAMPLE, A CAR BOMB EXPLODED IN FRONT OF THE
OFFICES OF A LEBANESE-OWNED PRO-IRAQI NEWSPAPER IN
DOWNTOWN PARIS, KILLING ONE PERSON AND INJURING SCORES OF
OTHERS. FRANCE LATER EXPELLED TWO SYRIAN DIPLOMATS AND
ORDERED ITS AMBASSADOR HOME FOR CONSULTATIONS.

BY LATE 1983 DAMASCUS HAD CURTAILED USE OF ITS OWN
PERSONNEL. INSTEAD, IT BEGAN TO RELY MORE HEAVILY ON
TERRORIST GROUPS MADE UP OF NON-SYRIANS WHO HAVE BASES
AND TRAINING FACILITIES IN SYRIA AND SYRIAN-OCCUPIED
AREAS OF LEBANON. THE MOST NOTORIOUS OF THESE IS THE ABU
NIDAL ORGANIZATION.

AVAILABLE EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT SYRIA PREFERS TO
SUPPORT GROUPS WHOSE ACTIVITIES ARE GENERALLY IN LINE
WITH SYRIAN OBJECTIVES, RATHER THAN TO SELECT TARGETS OR
CONTROL OPERATIONS ITSELF. DAMASCUS UTILIZES THESE
GROUPS TO ATTACK OR INTIMIDATE ENEMIES AND OPPONENTS AND
TO EXERT ITS INFLUENCE IN THE REGION. YET AT THE SAME
TIME IT CAN DISAVOW KNOWLEDGE OF THEIR OPERATIONS. SUCH
SYRIAN-SUPPORTED GROUPS HAVE CARRIED OUT SCORES OF
ATTACKS AGAINST PALESTINIAN AND OTHER ARAB, TURKISH,
ISRAELI AND WESTERN TARGETS DURING THE PAST THREE
YEARS.

THIS YEAR, INVESTIGATIONS INTO MAJOR INCIDENTS HAVE
REVEALED ANOTHER CHANGE IN SYRIAN ACTIVITIES: THAT SYRIA
HAS NOT ABANDONED ITS WILLINGNESS TO BE DIRECTLY INVOLVED
IN TERRORIST ATTACKS. THE BRITISH TRIAL AND
INVESTIGATION OF THE ABORTIVE EL AL BOMBING EXPOSED THE
DIRECT INVOLVEMENT OF PRESIDENT ASSAD'S INTELLIGENCE
SERVICES. AND THE WEST BERLIN TRIAL INTO THE BOMBING OF
THE GERMAN-ARAB FRIENDSHIP UNION IN WEST BERLIN REVEAED
THE INVOLVEMENT OF SYRIAN OFFICIALS. TO A LARGE DEGREE,
SYRIA HAD BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN COVERING ITS TRACKS. NOW,
HOWEVER, IN BRITAIN AND BERLIN, EVIDENCE OF MORE DIRECT
SYRIAN INVOLVEMENT HAS EMERGED.


LONDON AND BERLIN INVESTIGATIONS

IN THE BRITISH INVESTIGATION OF THE ABORTED EL AL ATTACK,
HINDAWI TOLD BRITISH POLICE HE WAS RECRUITED BY HAITHAM
SAID, AN AIDE TO MAJOR GENERAL AL-KHULI, CHIEF OF SYRIAN
AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE. ACCORDING TO THE EVIDENCE
PRESENTED AT THE TRIAL, AL-KHULI'S OPERATIVES: (1)
SUPPLIED HINDAWI, A JORDANIAN, WITH A SYRIAN PASSPORT;
(2) GAVE HIM DOLLARS 12,000 AND PROMISED HIM MORE MONEY
WHEN HE COMPLETED HIS MISSION TO PLANT A BOMB ABOARD AN
EL AL CIVILIAN AIRLINER; (3) PROVIDED HIM WITH THE BOMB
WHICH WAS CARRIED INTO LONDON ABOARD THE SYRIAN ARAB
AIRLINES, WHICH ALSO GAVE HIM SAA CREW MEMBER HOTEL
ACCOMMODATIONS; AND (4) TRAINED HIM IN THE BOMB'S USE.

HINDAWI TRIED TO USE HIS PREGNANT GIRL FRIEND AS THE
UNWITTING CARRIER OF THE SOPHISTICATED BOMB WHICH WAS
BUILT INTO HER CARRY-ON BAG. IF AN ALERT SECURITY
OFFICIAL HAD NOT SPOTTED THE DEVICE AFTER HER BAG CLEARED
AN EARLIER CHECK, 375 INNOCENT PERSONS, INCLUDING SOME
230 AMERICANS, WOULD HAVE PERISHED.

AFTER THE APRIL 17 PLAN FAILED, ACCORDING TO EVIDENCE
PRESENTED AT THE TRIAL, HINDAWI FOLLOWED INSTRUCTIONS TO
GO TO THE SYRIAN EMBASSY, WHERE HE WAS GREETED BY THE
AMBASSADOR AND HIDDEN IN A SYRIAN SAFEHOUSE IN LONDON.
BRITISH PRESS REPORTS OF THE INVESTIGATION SAY BRITAIN
ALSO HAS EVIDENCE THAT THE SYRIAN AMBASSADOR IN LONDON
WAS PERSONALLY INVOLVED SEVERAL MONTHS BEFORE THE
ATTEMPTED BOMBING IN RECRUITING HINDAWI FOR SYRIAN
INTELLIGENCE.

IN WEST BERLIN, HINDAWI'S BROTHER, AHMAD HASI, AND
ANOTHER ARAB, FAROUK SALAMEH, WERE CONVICTED FOR THE
MARCH 29 BOMBING OF THE GERMAN-ARAB FRIENDSHIP UNION IN
WEST BERLIN IN WHICH ELEVEN PERSONS WERE INJURED. IN A
SWORN STATEMENT, HASI SAID HE PICKED UP THIS BOMB AT THE
SYRIAN EMBASSY IN EAST BERLIN FROM A SENIOR SYRIAN AIR
FORCE INTELLIGENCE OFFICER, HAITHEM SAEED, AND A SYRIAN
EXPLOSIVES EXPERT WAS SENT FROM DAMASCUS TO REPAIR THE
DEVICE AFTER IT TWICE FAILED TO EXPLODE.

ABU NIDAL

SYRIA CONTINUES TO SUPPORT THE MOST ACTIVE AND BRUTAL
INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUP OPERATING TODAY, ABU NIDAL.
(SEE NOTE BELOW) ALTHOUGH ABU NIDAL NOW ALSO RECEIVES
BACKING AND SUPPORT FROM LIBYA, AND SANCTUARY IN EASTERN
EUROPE, DAMASCUS HAS PROVIDED ABU NIDAL WITH IMPORTANT
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT EVER SINCE THE GROUP MOVED FROM IRAQ
IN 1983. SYRIA ALLOWS ABU NIDAL'S GROUP TO MAINTAIN
TRAINING CAMPS IN THE LEBANESE BIQA' VALLEY, AN AREA
UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE SYRIAN ARMED FORCES. SYRIA
PROVIDES THE GROUP WITH TRAVEL DOCUMENTS AND PERMITS ITS
OPERATIVES TO TRANSIT FREELY THROUGH DAMASCUS WHEN
DEPARTING ON MISSIONS. SYRIA CONTINUES TO PERMIT
OPERATION OF ABU NIDAL FACILITIES IN DAMASCUS. (THE
SYRIAN GOVERNMENT ASSERTS THAT THE SOLE FUNCTION OF THESE
FACILITIES IS LIMITED TO CULTURAL AND POLITICAL AFFAIRS.)

ALTHOUGH LAST DECEMBER'S ROME AIRPORT ATTACK WAS
COMMITTED UNDER LIBYAN SPONSORSHIP, THE SURVIVING MEMBER
OF THE FOUR-MAN TERRORIST TEAM, ACCORDING TO REPORTS ON
THE ITALIAN INVESTIGATION, TOLD INVESTIGATORS THE TEAM
WAS TRAINED IN SYRIAN-OCCUPIED AREAS OF LEBANON BY
SYRIANS. THE TEAM THEN TRAVELED TO DAMASCUS, WHERE IT
REMAINED WHILE FINAL PREPARATIONS WERE MADE FOR THE
ATTACK IN WHICH 16 CIVILIANS AND 3 TERRORISTS WERE
KILLED.

IN ANKARA ON NOVEMBER 6, TURKISH PROSECUTERS ISSUED AN
INDICTMENT ACCUSING SIX PALESTINIANS WORKING FOR THE ABU
NIDAL ORGANIZATION OF KILLING A JORDANIAN DIPLOMAT IN
JULY, 1985. THE INDICTMENT ALSO LINKED THE MEN WITH FOUR
OTHER ACTIONS, INCLUDING THE SEPTEMBER 6, 1986 ATTACK ON
AN ISTANBUL SYNAGOGUE, KILLING 21 PERSONS AND A 1983
ATTEMPT TO PLACE A BOMB ON AN ALITALIA FLIGHT, AND THE
ATTEMPTED CAR BOMBING OF A U.S. OFFICERS CLUB IN IZMIR IN
1983.

(BEGIN NOTE) THE OFFICIAL NAME OF THE ABU NIDAL
ORGANIZATION IS "FATAH - REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL." IT IS
HEADED BY SABRI AL-BANNA, A PALESTINIAN WHO USES THE NOM
DE GUERRE ABU NIDAL. THE GROUP'S ORIGINAL NAME WAS THE
BLACK JUNE ORGANIZATION WHEN IT WAS FORMED IN 1976.
IRONICALLY, THIS GROUP FIRST CONCENTRATED ON SYRIAN
TARGETS, INCLUDING AN ATTACK ON SYRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER
KHADDAM, NOW VICE PRESIDENT, IN 1977. (END NOTE)

THE ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION'S MOVE TO SYRIA IN 1983 WAS
FOLLOWED BY A DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THE GROUP'S TERRORIST
ATTACKS: MORE THAN A DOZEN ATTACKS IN 1984 AND TWICE
THAT NUMBER IN 1985. MORE THAN HALF OF THE 1985 ATTACKS
OCCURRED IN WESTERN EUROPE, INCLUDING ATTACKS ON BRITISH
TOURISTS AT HOTELS IN ATHENS. WHEN KING HUSSEIN
LAUNCHED HIS FEBRUARY 1985 PEACE INITIATIVE, JORDAN
BECAME A MAJOR TARGET. BUT WHEN JORDANIAN-SYRIAN
RELATIONS BEGAN TO WARM IN MID-1985, ATTACKS ON
JORDANIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD DIMINISHED.

IN ITS DEALINGS WITH WESTERN COUNTRIES, SYRIA HAS
CONSISTENTLY TRIED TO PLAY DOWN THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS
CONNECTION WITH ABU NIDAL AND HAS DENIED PERMITTING HIS
GROUP TO ENGAGE IN TERRORIST ACTIVITY. HOWEVER, THERE IS
NO EVIDENCE THAT DAMASCUS HAS ACTUALLY RESTRAINED ABU
NIDAL'S ACTIVITIES (ABU NIDAL TRAINING CAMPS IN THE
SYRIAN-CONTROLLED BIQA' VALLEY CONTINUE TO OPERATE FOR
EXAMPLE) OR CUT BACK ON OTHER FORMS OF SUPPORT. ALTHOUGH
IT MAY NOT KNOW ABOUT EVERY OPERATION, GIVEN THE AMOUNT
AND NATURE OF SYRIAN SUPPORT, DAMASCUS COULD INFLUENCE
AND CONSTRAIN THE ABU NIDAL GROUP'S ACTIVITIES IN SYRIA
AND SYRIAN-CONTROLLED AREAS OF LEBANON IF IT CHOSE TO DO
SO.

OTHER SYRIAN-SUPPORTED PALESTINIAN GROUPS

SYRIA ALSO PROVIDES VARYING AMOUNTS OF SUPPORT TO OTHER
RADICAL PALESTINIAN GROUPS. THESE INCLUDE: SAIQA, WHICH
IS UNDER TOTAL SYRIAN CONTROL; THE ABU MUSA GROUP, NOW
ALMOST TOTALLY DEPENDENT ON DAMASCUS; THE POPULAR FRONT
FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINE--GENERAL COMMAND
(PFLP-GC); AND THE MARXIST POPULAR FRONT FOR THE
LIBERATION OF PALESTINE (PFLP), WHICH NOW MAINTAINS ITS
PRINCIPAL BASE IN DAMASCUS.

IN ALL, SYRIAN-SPONSORED GROUPS, INCLUDING THE ABU NIDAL
ORGANIZATION, WERE LINKED TO ABOUT 30 TERRORIST ATTACKS
DURING 1985, A QUARTER OF THEM IN GREECE ALONE. THE ABU
MUSA GROUP ANNOUNCED FROM DAMASCUS ITS RESPONSIBILITY FOR
ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO BOMB AN EL AL AIRLINER, IN MADRID ON
JUNE 26 OF THIS YEAR. THE SUSPECT IN THAT ATTEMPT HAS
ADMITTED BEING A MEMBER OF THE GROUP. TWO WEEKS LATER,
OTHER GROUPS SUPPORTED BY SYRIA, THE PFLP AND THE
LEBANESE SYRIAN SOCIAL NATIONALIST PARTY, ATTEMPTED AN
ATTACK ON AN ISRAELI RESORT TOWN ON JULY 10, 1986.

SUPPORT FOR NON-PALESTINIAN TERRORISTS

IN ADDITION TO THE RADICAL PALESTINIAN GROUPS, A VARIETY
OF OTHER TERRORISTS HAVE FACILITIES AND RECEIVED
TERRORIST TRAINING IN SYRIA OR SYRIAN-CONTROLLED AREAS OF
LEBANON: THE JAPANESE RED ARMY, THE KURDISH LABOR PARTY,
THE ARMENIAN SECRET ARMY FOR THE LIBERATION OF ARMENIA
(ASALA), AND THE PAKISTANI AL ZULFIKAR. IN ADDITION, THE
LEBANESE ARMED REVOLUTIONARY FACTION (LARF) IS BASED IN
THE LEBANESE VILLAGE OF QUBAYAT, WITHIN THE AREA OF
SYRIAN CONTROL IN LEBANON.

TO THESE GROUPS MUST BE ADDED THE INDIVIDUAL
INTERNATIONAL TERRORISTS WHO FREQUENT DAMASCUS. BRUNO
BREGUET, AN ASSOCIATE OF CARLOS, THE INTERNATIONAL
TERRORIST, WAS ARRESTED IN PARIS IN FEBRUARY 1982 FOR
TRANSPORTING ARMS AND EXPLOSIVES. LATER RELEASED, HE WAS
RECENTLY SIGHTED ON A FLIGHT TO DAMASCUS, MET ON ARRIVAL
BY SYRIAN AUTHORITIES, AND ESCORTED THROUGH THE AIRPORT
WITHOUT HAVING TO PASS THROUGH THE NORMAL CONTROLS.
EVIDENCE EXISTS THAT FREDERIC ORIACH, A MILITANT MEMBER
OF THE FRENCH ACTION DIRECT, SPENT JULY AND AUGUST 1986
IN DAMASCUS PURSUING IDEOLOGICAL AND MILITARY STUDIES.

CASUALTIES AND CONTROL

ATTACKS BY SYRIAN-SUPPORTED GROUPS SINCE 1983 HAVE KILLED
OR WOUNDED NEARLY 500 PEOPLE.

SYRIAN-SUPPORTED GROUPS HAVE ATTACKED U.S. FACILITIES IN
THE MIDDLE EAST OVER 10 TIMES SINCE 1983. IN JORDAN LAST
YEAR, FOR EXAMPLE, THE SYRIAN-SPONSORED JORDANIAN PEOPLES
REVOLUTIONARY PARTY ATTEMPTED TWO ANTI-U.S. ATTACKS.
BOMBS WERE FOUND AT A USAID EMPLOYEE'S HOME AND AT THE
AMERICAN CENTER FOR ORIENTAL STUDIES. THESE OPERATIONS,
AS WELL AS OTHERS AIMED AGAINST JORDANIAN TARGETS, HAVE
HALTED SINCE THE SYRIAN-JORDANIAN RAPPROCHEMENT LATE LAST
YEAR--UNDERSCORING SYRIA'S ABILITY, IF IT WISHES, TO
CONTROL ITS SURROGATES' ACTIVITIES AND TO SEVERELY CURB
THE CAPABILITY OF THOSE TO WHOM IT PROVIDED SAFE HAVEN
AND SUPPORT.

THIS HAS BEEN ACKNOWLEDGED BY A TOP SYRIAN OFFICIAL WHO
TRIED TO DISMISS, IN A WASHINGTON POST PRESS INTERV1EW
THIS SEPTEMBER, EVIDENCE THAT ABU NIDAL'S GROUP WAS
INVOLVED IN TERRORIST ATTACKS. SYRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER
FAROUK CHARAA SAID IN DISCUSSING THE ACTIONS OF THE ABU
NIDAL GROUP: "WHOEVER KNOWS MY GOVERNMENT MUST REALIZE
THAT SUCH ATTACKS COULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT WITHOUT ITS
AWARENESS." (END TEXT OF FACT PAPER.)

3. (BEGIN TEXT OF CHRONOLOGY)

CHRONOLOGY OF SELECTED TERRORIST INCIDENTS BY
SYRIAN-SUPPORTED GROUPS: 1983-1986

THE FOLLOWING LIST OF TERRORIST INCIDENTS IS NOT
INTENDED TO BE ALL-INCLUSIVE BUT IS ILLUSTRATIVE OF
SYRIA'S INVOLVEMENT IN AND SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM AND
TERRORIST GROUPS. THE GROUPS CITED HERE HAVE LINKS WITH
SYRIA.

1986

26 NOVEMBER WEST BERLIN. A COURT CONVICTED TWO ARABS FOR
THE MARCH 29 BOMBING OF THE GERMAN-ARAB
FRIENDSHIP UNION WHICH INJURED 11 PERSONS. IN
A SWORN STATEMENT ONE OF THE DEFENDENTS, AHMAD
HASI, SAID HE PICKED UP THE BOMB AT THE SYRIAN
EMBASSY IN EAST BERLIN FROM A SYRIAN AIR FORCE
INTELLIGENCE OFFICER. HASI IS A BROTHER OF
NIZAR HINDAWI, WHO WAS CONVICTED IN A BRITISH
COURT FOR THE ATTEMPTED BOMBING OF AN EL AL
AIRLINER.

6 NOVEMBER TURKEY. TURKISH PROSECUTORS ISSUED AN
INDICTMENT ACCUSING SIX PALESTINIANS WORKING
FOR THE ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION OF KILLING A
JORDANIAN DIPLOMAT IN JULY 1985. AN ARREST
WARRANT ALSO WAS ISSUED FOR THE SYRIAN EMBASSY
SECOND SECRETARY, MOHAMMED DARWICHI, WHO WAS
ONE OF THE ORIGINAL DEFENDENTS AND LEFT
TURKEY. THE INDICTMENT ALSO LINKED MEMBERS OF
THE GROUP WITH FOUR OTHER ACTIONS: THE
SEPTEMBER 6, 1986 ATTACK ON AN ISTANBUL
SYNAGOGUE, WHICH KILLED 22 PERSONS; AN ATTEMPT
TO PLACE A BOMB ON AN ALITALIA FLIGHT IN 1983;
THE ATTEMPTED CAR BOMBING OF A U.S. OFFICERS'
CLUB IN IZMIR IN 1983, AND THE KILLING OF A
PALESTINIAN STUDENT IN ANKARA IN 1982.

26 JUNE MADRID. A SPANIARD ATTEMPTED TO BOARD AN EL
AL FLIGHT WITH A SUITCASE BOMB, APPARENTLY
WITHOUT KNOWING IT. THE SUSPECT ARRESTED BY
SPANISH POLICE CARRIED A SYRIAN PASSPORT. A
SPOKESMAN FOR THE ABU MUSA GROUP, WHICH IS
ALMOST TOTALLY DEPENDENT ON DAMASCUS, CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY FOR PLANTING THE BOMB, ALTHOUGH
THE SYRIAN GOVERNMENT DENIED INVOLVEMENT.

17 APRIL LONDON. EL AL SECURITY DISCOVERED A SYRIAN-MADE
BOMB IN THE LUGGAGE OF AN IRISH WOMAN AS SHE
ATTEMPTED TO BOARD A PLANE FOR TEL AVIV. A
BRITISH COURT FOUND HER BOYFRIEND, NIZAR
HINDAWI, GUILTY OF THE ATTEMPTED BOMBING, AND
THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED THAT IT HAD
CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE OF SYRIAN OFFICIAL
INVOLVEMENT IN THE TERRORIST ACT.

2 MARCH WEST BANK. TWO GUNMEN ASSASSINATED THE MAYOR OF
NABLUS, ZAFER AL-MASRI, A PALESTINIAN APPOINTED
BY ISRAEL. BOTH THE ABU NIDAL GROUP AND THE
POPULAR FRONT FOR LIBERATION OF PALESTINE
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

1985

27 DEC. ROME AND VIENNA. ABU NIDAL TERRORISTS
SIMULTANEOUSLY ATTACKED EL AL TICKET COUNTERS IN
THE ROME AND VIENNA AIRPORTS, KILLING MORE THAN
20 PEOPLE, INCLUDING FIVE AMERICANS, AND
WOUNDING SOME 120 OTHERS. (ALTHOUGH THESE
ATTACKS WERE COMMITTED UNDER LIBYAN SPONSORSHIP,
REPORTS ON THE ITALIAN INVESTIGATION INDICATE
THAT THE ROME TERRORIST TEAM RECEIVED TRAINING
IN SYRIAN-CONTROLLED AREAS OF LEBANON AND PASSED
THROUGH DAMASCUS.)

30 SEPT. NETHERLANDS. A SMALL BOMB DAMAGED THE EL AL
OFFICE OF AMSTERDAM. FATAH REVOLUTIONARY
COUNCIL--THE ABU NIDAL GROUP'S OFFICIAL
NAME--CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

25 SEPT. ITALY. A BOMB EXPLODED IN A BRITISH AIRWAYS
OFFICE IN ROME, INJURING 15 PEOPLE. POLICE
ARRESTED HASSAN ITAB FLEEING THE SCENE. ITAB
CLAIMED HE WAS A MEMBER OF THE REVOLUTIONARY
ORGANIZATION OF SOCIALIST MOSLEMS, AN ABU NIDAL
"COVER" NAME, AND WAS LATER IDENTIFIED BY
WITNESSES AS THE SAME MAN WHO THREW A GRENADE AT
THE JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN ATHENS IN MARCH.

18 SEPT. GREECE. MICHEL NIMRI, A JORDANIAN MAGAZINE
PUBLISHER AND REPORTEDLY A PERSONAL FRIEND OF
YASSIR ARAFAT, WAS ASSASSINATED IN ATHENS.
BLACK SEPTEMBER, A NAME USED BY THE ABU NIDAL
GROUP, CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY THE NEXT DAY.

16 SEPT. ITALY. A GRENADE ATTACK ON A ROME SIDEWALK CAFE
INJURED 38 TOURISTS, INCLUDING NINE AMERICANS.
POLICE ARRESTED A PALESTINIAN IN CONNECTION WITH
THE ATTACK. THE REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION OF
SOCIALIST MOSLEMS, ANOTHER SYRIAN-LINKED GROUP,
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY ON 19 SEPTEMBER.

3 SEPT. GREECE. TERRORISTS THREW HAND GRENADES THAT
WOUNDED 19 BRITISH TOURISTS AT THE GLYFADA HOTEL
IN ATHENS. BLACK SEPTEMBER CLAIMED THE ATTACK
WAS TO PRESSURE THE GREEK AUTHORITIES TO RELEASE
A MAN ARRESTED NEAR THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY ON 31
AUGUST.

31 AUGUST GREECE. POLICE ARRESTED A HEAVILY ARMED MAN
NEAR THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY IN ATHENS. SAMIR
SALAMEH ACKNOWLEDGED MEMBERSHIP IN BLACK
SEPTEMBER AND CLAIMED HE PLANNED TO ASSASSINATE
THE JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR.

8 AUGUST GREECE. A BOMB EXPLODED IN THE KITCHEN OF THE
LONDON HOTEL IN ATHENS, INJURING 13 PEOPLE--NINE
OF THEM BRITISH SUBJECTS. THE REVOLUTIONARY
ORGANIZATION OF SOCIALIST MOSLEMS CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY, CONTENDING THE HOTEL WAS A
"HIDEOUT" FOR BRITISH SPIES.

24 JULY TURKEY. THE FIRST SECRETARY AT THE JORDANIAN
EMBASSY IN ANKARA WAS ASSASSINATED BY A LONE
GUNMAN. THE INCIDENT WAS CLAIMED BY BLACK
SEPTEMBER.

11 JULY KUWAIT. TWO BOMBS EXPLODED WITHIN MINUTES OF
EACH OTHER KILLING EIGHT PEOPLE AND INJURING 89
IN TWO CAFES ABOUT TEN KILOMETERS APART. THE
ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY.

1 JULY SPAIN. A BOMB EXPLODED AT THE BRITISH AIRWAYS
TICKET OFFICE IN MADRID, ALSO DAMAGING THE TWA
OFFICE UPSTAIRS. THE ALIA ROYAL JORDANIAN
AIRLINES TICKET OFFICE NEARBY WAS HIT BY
AUTOMATIC WEAPONS FIRE AND TWO GRENADES THAT
FAILED TO EXPLODE. ONE PERSON WAS KILLED AND 27
WERE WOUNDED. CLAIMED BY ORGANIZATION OF THE
OPPRESSED, REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION OF
SOCIALIST MOSLEMS, AND BLACK SEPTEMBER.

4 APRIL GREECE. A ROCKET WAS FIRED AT A JORDANIAN
AIRLINER AS IT WAS TAKING OFF FROM ATHENS
AIRPORT. THE PROJECTILE HIT THE PLAN BUT DID
NOT EXPLODE. BLACK SEPTEMBER CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY.

3 APRIL ITALY. A ROCKET NARROWLY MISSED THE JORDANIAN
EMBASSY ON THE FIFTH FLOOR OF AN OFFICE BUILDING
IN ROME. NO CASUALTIES WERE REPORTED. BLACK
SEPTEMBER CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

21 MARCH ITALY. THREE UNIDENTIFIED MEN THREW HAND
GRENADES INTO A JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN
ROME, INJURING TWO PEOPLE. BLACK SEPTEMBER
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

21 MARCH GREECE. AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN THREW A HAND
GRENADE INTO THE JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN
ATHENS, INJURING THREE PEOPLE. CLAIMED BY BLACK
SEPTEMBER. (SEE SEPTEMBER 25, 1985 INCIDENT.)

21 MARCH CYPRUS. AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN THREW TWO HAND
GRENADES INTO THE JORDANIAN AIRLINE OFFICE IN
NICOSIA. CLAIMED BY BLACK SEPTEMBER.

9 MARCH UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. A BOMB WAS FOUND ON A
JORDANIAN AIRLINER. THE YOUNG PALESTINIAN WHO
CARRIED THE BOMB ONTO THE KARACHI-TO-AMMAN
FLIGHT SAID HE THOUGHT HE WAS TRANSPORTING DRUGS
TO SUPPORT ABU NIDAL TERRORIST OPERATIONS.

22 FEB. JORDAN. THE JORDANIAN PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY
PARTY PLACED A BOMB AT THE AMERICAN CENTER FOR
ORIENTAL RESEARCH IN AMMAN. THE BOMB WAS FOUND
AND DEFUSED.

10 JAN. JORDAN. A BOMB PLANTED BY THE JORDANIAN
PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY WAS DEFUSED NEAR A
USAID EMPLOYEE'S HOME. THE EXPLOSIVES HAD
NEITHER A POWER SOURCE NOR A TIMING DEVICE.

1984

29 DEC. JORDAN. TWO UNIDENTIFIED GUNMEN ASSASSINATED
FAH AL-QAWASMEH, A MEMBER OF THE PLO EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE AND FORMER MAYOR OF HEBRON, OUTSIDE
HIS HOME IN AMMAN. TWO WITNESSES TO THE
SHOOTING WERE INJURED BY GUNFIRE AS THEY TRIED
TO BLOCK THE ASSASSINS' FLEEING VEHICLE. BLACK
SEPTEMBER CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

14 DEC. ITALY. ISMAIL DARWISH, A LEADING MILITARY
FIGURE IN THE FATAH MOVEMENT, WAS GUNNED DOWN ON
A ROME STREET BY AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN WHO FLED ON
A WAITING MOTOR SCOOTER. ARAB REVOLUTIONARY
BRIGADES CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

4 DEC. ROMANIA. THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF MISSION OF THE
JORDANIAN EMBASSY WAS SHOT AND KILLED AS HE WAS
GETTING INTO HIS CAR IN BUCHAREST. BLACK
SEPTEMBER CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

2 DEC. JORDAN. A GUARD DISCOVERED A BOMB CONCEALED IN
AN ATTACHE CASE INSIDE THE AMERICAN LIFE
INSURANCE AND CITIBANK BUILDING IN AMMAN. BOMB
TECHNICIANS DEFUSED THE DEVICE, WHICH CONTAINED
18 BLOCKS OF TNT AND A TIMER. THE JORDANIAN
PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY WAS LATER
DETERMINED TO BE RESPONSIBLE.

4 OCT. CYPRUS. A CAR BOMB EXPLODED BEHIND THE ISRAELI
EMBASSY IN NICOSIA, SLIGHTLY INJURING ONE
PERSON. CLAIMED BY ABU MUSA'S FATAH DISSIDENT
ORGANIZATION.

13 AUGUST JORDAN. JORDANIAN POLICE DEFUSED A BOMB
CONSISTING OF SEVERAL HUNDRED GRAMS OF
SOVIET-MADE EXPLOSIVES NEAR THE RESIDENCE OF A
US EMBASSY OFFICIAL. THE JORDANIAN PEOPLE'S
REVOLUTIONARY PARTY WAS LATER DETERMINED TO BE
RESPONSIBLE.

11 AUGUST JORDAN. MEMBERS OF THE JORDANIAN PEOPLE'S
REVOLUTIONARY PARTY TRIED TO SET OFF A BOMB
OUTSIDE THE JORDAN RADIO AND TELEVISION
STATION. THE BOMB WAS DISCOVERED AND DEFUSED.

3 AUGUST JORDAN. A BOMB EXPLODED UNDER A WATER TRUCK
PARKED NEAR THE U.S. EMBASSY WAREHOUSE IN
AMMAN. THERE WERE NO CASUALTIES AND ONLY MINOR
DAMAGE. THE ABU NIDAL GROUP CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY.

29 MAY CYPRUS. A FORMER SAIQA OFFICER WHO HAD SWITCHED
HIS ALLEGIANCE TO ARAFAT, ABDULLAH AHMAD
SULEIMAN EL SAADI, WAS MURDERED IN LIMASSOL.
FOUR SYRIAN MEN AND TWO WOMEN WERE ARRESTED FOR
THE MURDER AND SUBSEQUENTLY DEPORTED FROM CYPRUS.

3 MAY CYPRUS. AN UNIDENTIFIED MAN SHOT AND KILLED
PALESTINIAN PUBLISHER HANNA MUQBIL AND WOUNDED
HIS SECRETARY IN NICOSIA. MUQBIL WAS REPORTEDLY
A FORMER MEMBER OF ABU NIDAL WHO HAD DEFECTED TO
ARAFAT'S CAMP.

24 MARCH JORDAN. A BOMB WAS DEFUSED OUTSIDE THE BRITISH
CONSULATE IN AMMAN. THE ABU NIDAL GROUP CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY.

24 MARCH JORDAN. A BOMB WAS DISCOVERED AND DEFUSED
OUTSIDE THE BRITISH CULTURAL CENTER. THE ABU
NIDAL GROUP CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

24 MARCH JORDAN. A BOMB EXPLODED IN THE PARKING LOT OF
THE INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL, WHICH IS ACROSS THE
STREET FROM THE U.S. EMBASSY, DAMAGING TWO
VEHICLES AND SLIGHTLY INJURING A USAID EMPLOYEE
AND HIS DAUGHTER. A SECOND BOMB WAS DISCOVERED
IN THE PARKING LOT AND DEFUSED. THE ABU NIDAL
GROUP CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

1983

29 DEC. SPAIN. TWO JORDANIAN EMBASSY EMPLOYEES WERE
ATTACKED BY A LONE GUNMAN AS THEY WERE LEAVING
THE EMBASSY. WALID JAMAL BALKIS WAS KILLED
INSTANTLY, AND IBRAHIM SAMI MOHAMMED WAS
SERIOUSLY WOUNDED. THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY
BRIGADES CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

19 DEC. TURKEY. A CAR BOMB WAS DISCOVERED IN AN
ABANDONED RENTAL CAR MIDWAY BETWEEN THE FRENCH
CULTURAL HOUSE AND THE CORDON HOTEL USED BY
AMERICAN MILITARY PERSONNEL IN IZMIR. THE
BOMB'S TIMER APPARENTLY MALFUNCTIONED. TURKISH
POLICE LINKED THE ABU NIDAL GROUP AND SYRIAN
AGENTS TO THE INCIDENT.

7 NOV. GREECE. TWO SECURITY GUARDS OF THE JORDANIAN
EMBASSY WERE WOUNDED ON A CROWDED STREET IN
ATHENS. ONE OF THE TWO VICTIMS DIED FROM HIS
WOUNDS. THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES CLAIMED
RESPONSIBILITY.

26 OCT. ITALY. THE JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE VATICAN
AND HIS DRIVER WERE WOUNDED IN AN ASSASSINATION
ATTEMPT IN ROME. THE ARAB REVOLUTIONARY
BRIGADES CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

25 OCT. INDIA. JORDANIAN AMBASSADOR WOUNDED BY AN
UNKNOWN ASSAILANT IN NEW DELHI. CLAIMED BY THE
ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES.

13 OCT. JORDAN. TWO HAND GRENADES WERE THROWN INTO A
POLICE BARRACKS IN AMMAN. A MEMBER OF THE
POLICE RECRUITED BY SAIQA CONFESSED TO THE
ATTACK. LOCAL AUTHORITIES SUSPECTED THAT ABU
NIDAL ELEMENTS MAY ALSO HAVE BEEN INVOLVED.

21 AUGUST GREECE. A HIGH-LEVEL PLO OFFICIAL, MA'MUM
MURAYSH, WAS SHOT AND KILLED BY TWO UNIDENTIFIED
MEN ON A MOTORCYCLE. THE VICTIM'S SON AND HIS
DRIVER WERE WOUNDED. THE MOVEMENT FOR
REBUILDING FATAH CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

10 APRIL PORTUGAL. THE PLO OBSERVER TO AN INTERNATIOAL
CONFERENCE OF SOCIALISTS, ISAM AL-SARTAWI, WAS
SHOT TO DEATH IN A HOTEL LOBBY. SARTAWI'S
SECRETARY WAS SLIGHTLY WOUNDED IN THE ATTACK.
THE ABU NIDAL GROUP CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

1 JANUARY ISRAEL. A GRENADE ATTACK ON A CIVILIAN BUS IN
TEL AVIV INJURED 12. BOTH SAIQA AND ABU NIDAL
CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY.

(END TEXT OF CHRONOLOGY.)

4. MINIMIZE CONSIDERED FOR BEIRUT, KABUL, MOSCOW, AND
LENINGRAD.


SHULTZ

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