The Rise of Femicide and Women in Drug Trafficking
of Femicide and Women in Drug Trafficking
While men have predominantly run drug trafficking organizations (DTOs), women have participated in them since the 1920s. Their role may have appeared miniscule compared to that of their male counterparts, but they have played key roles such as drug mules and bosses. According to an interview with Howard Campbell, professor of Anthropology at the University of Texas-El Paso, conducted by the Latin American Advisor, women, such as Ignacia Jasso de González (alias ‘La Nacha’) and María Dolores Estévez Zuleta (aka ‘Lola La Chata’) were prominent figures in drug dealing and trafficking in the 1920s and 1950s. Although women have been active in DTOs for many years, even at times taking on dominant roles, only in the past ten years have they become increasingly visible in the media. The notion that women do not regularly participate and are not affected by DTOs is demonstrably obsolete. Women today are acting as equal partners in all aspects of drug trafficking, from running crews to laundering funds, resulting in the rise of incarcerated and violently treated women. A glance into women’s association with DTOs reveals an increased crime rate, as well as the adversities that drug trafficking predictably brings upon them. Unfortunately, there is a clear lack of solutions to these often dangerous conditions.
In this era, it comes as no surprise that women have become more involved in the drug business. In the past, women could be counted on to struggle for their right to loosely be a part of a male-dominated world, not only in Latin America, but also around the globe. Over time, women have tended to enter many industries that were previously appealing to men. The same is true with drug trafficking, a very profitable business, with between USD 18 and USD 35 billion in drug earnings per year, according to U.S. authorities. It is not surprising that women gradually have increased their degree of participation. Once men started recruiting women as paid mules, their involvement escalated, as did the degree of violence.
This analysis was prepared by COHA Research Associate Andrea Mares.
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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Wins Re-election by a Landslide
On October 23, 2011, Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was re-elected by one of the widest margins in the country’s history. Sra. de Kirchner obtained fifty-four percent of the votes while her challenger, socialist Hermes Binner, acquired just seventeen percent. The provincial elections also confirmed the victory of Kirchner’s Peronist coalition; seven of eight governors were elected from the ranks of the ruling Frente para la Victoria.
Ultimately, the opposition had hobbled itself by failing to unite behind a single candidate. Rivals like Eduardo Duhalde, a dissident Peronist, and Ricardo Alfonsín, member of the Radical Civil Union, divided the anti-Kirchner vote. The most likely successful candidate would have been Mauricio Macri, leader of the center-right, had he not declined to run. Macri is probably working up to the 2015 election, for which Kirchner will no longer be able to run due to constitutional rules that do not permit a president to exceed more than two consecutive terms.
This analysis was prepared by COHA Research Associate Sara Bruziches.
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