Plant analysis backs up earlier advice
Plant analysis backs up earlier advice
Thursday 3 September, 2015
The results from analysis of Southland swede plants collected last season is backing up DairyNZ advice to farmers that feeding maturing swede crops increases the risk of ill-health in cows.
Following the analysis, the industry body is recommending that farmers do not feed Herbicide Tolerant (HT) swedes to cows in spring when the animals are in late pregnancy or early lactation. DairyNZ is also advising caution if farmers are considering other leafy varieties.
DairyNZ arranged for swede sample
analysis from 11 Southland farms in September last year
following issues with cows becoming ill and some dying after
feeding on swedes. Staff collected swede samples, dissected
plants as quickly as possible and froze the samples in
liquid nitrogen to stop any spoiling of the plant material
and break down of the glucosinolates (GSLs), the naturally
occurring compounds in brassicas that have been linked to
cow health problems.
Swedes were dissected into up to six plant parts so that each section could be analysed separately. Up to 150 plant parts were analysed from three swede varieties across the 11 different farms.
Key findings from the plant analysis are:
* Total GSL concentrations are higher in the HT swede variety than in the non-HT swede varieties. While there is not much difference in GSL concentrations in the bulb and crown between HT and non-HT swedes, GSL concentrations in the other plant parts are generally higher for HT swedes, with a pronounced difference in the upper leaf and upper stem.
* The risk of ill-health and death in cows increases when total GSL concentrations increase as swedes enter the reproductive stage (elongated stem, new leaf, flowers and seed heads).
* Different parts of the plants included different individual GSLs
* The concentrations of individual GSLs varied between plant parts.
* HT swedes have higher concentrations of GSLs in "reproductive" plant parts, increasing the risk of ill-health for cows grazing swedes with elongated stems and the appearance of flowers.
* No single GSL
stands out as significantly different between plant variety
and plant part.
DairyNZ Southland-South Otago regional leader, Richard Kyte, says the new plant data supports the current DairyNZ advice that farmers should be very cautious when feeding swedes. "This analysis confirms that feeding maturing swede crops increases the risk of ill-health," he says. "We're continuing to advise farmers to focus on managing a number of factors involved in feeding swedes this season, including the proportion of swede that makes up the diet of their cows.
"And these new plant results back up our earlier farmer survey findings that feeding swedes on the milking platform (farm) in spring when cows approach calving and early lactation increases the risk of ill-health.
"The farmer survey we released earlier indicated that in spring 2014, there was a higher risk of ill-health for Herbicide Tolerant (HT) swedes compared with other varieties of swedes in spring. Given those findings and now the plant analysis, we're recommending that farmers do not feed HT swedes to cows in spring when the animals are in late pregnancy or early lactation and when the risk of all the factors that can lead to ill-heath and potential cow deaths can rapidly combine. In spring, air temperatures are expected to increase rapidly, leading to "bolted swedes" and bolted HT swedes have much higher levels of total GSLs. At the time of planting their swedes, farmers have no idea what the following winter/spring is going to be like. The spring is a key risk time as swedes will be closer to going into the reproductive stage," he says.
However, Richard says that the climatic and growing conditions for swedes this season are very different from last year. "We identified through our farmer survey a departure from the ten year climate average for the region in 2014. The warmer air temperatures and fewer frost days may have enhanced both leaf growth and maturity last year. We're seeing quite a different growth pattern this season. Plants don't appear to be bolting. Last season was a bit abnormal," he says.
"The general advice we're giving to farmers is that special care is needed with HT swedes and other leafy varieties like Aparima Gold and Triumph, when warm air temperatures from northerly weather conditions cause swedes to regrow and change quickly. By early August last year farmers were seeing the plant in an advanced reproductive state. But that's not the case this year," says Richard.
"This plant analysis has shown that HT swedes, collected in September 2014, had higher concentrations of GSLs in 're-growth" components of the crop, increasing the risk of ill-health for cows grazing swedes that have bolted and have elongated stems. In a nutshell, we're saying don't feed bolted swedes to livestock."
Richard says it has been a slow process to
get the robust plant analysis completed.
"Unfortunately there is no quick test for plants and we've spent a lot of time developing and establishing a method to determine GSLs with a commercial laboratory - Hill Laboratories."
He says DairyNZ is still monitoring the health of a small number of cows this season. "This is the first step in assessing how we can develop baseline monitoring for detecting early signs of ill-health in cows."
DairyNZ is also conducting two confidential on-line surveys to understand more about how farmers use crops during winter and spring in Southland. "This will help us target advice and identify future research needs for managing crops. I'd urge Southland farmers to complete the survey if they get randomly selected."
DairyNZ will now complete its consolidated report pulling together the results of all the different parts of its study into last year's issues with swedes. "We expect to release this final report to farmers in October," says Richard.
DairyNZ's full farmer advisory on the plant
analysis is available
Key findings and farmer advice based all the work DairyNZ has completed so far
* Farmers need to focus on managing a number of factors when feeding swedes, including the proportion of swede that makes up the diet of their cows.
* All swede varieties can present a risk to animals depending on how and when they are fed and used as part of the farming systems. However feeding maturing swede crops increases the risk of ill-health in cows.
* The chemistry of glucosinolates (GSLs) for swedes and other brassicas is complex. It changes with swede variety, growing conditions and crop maturity. Further complexity is added when the GSLs are changed during eating and digestion.
* Cow ill-health increased last season as the proportion of swedes fed as part of the diet increased. Feeding swedes on the milking platform (farm) in spring when cows are approaching calving or early lactation also increased the risk of ill-health.
* DairyNZ recommends that farmers do not feed HT swedes on the milking platform in spring (late pregnancy, early lactation) when all the factors (warmer temperatures, new leaf growth, bolting) that lead to ill-heath and potential cow deaths can rapidly combine.
* Plant analysis has shown that HT swedes, collected in September 2014, had higher concentrations of GSLs in 're-growth" components of the crop, increasing the risk of ill-health for cows grazing swedes that have bolted and have elongated stems. Farmers should not feed bolted swedes to livestock.
* There was a departure from the ten year climate average in 2014 in Southland. The warmer temperatures and fewer frost days may have enhanced both leaf growth and maturity.