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Cablegate: Public Diplomacy and the Evolution of Zimbabwean

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

241246Z Jul 00


UNCLASSIFIED PTQ0395

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L-00 OIC-02 PA-00 IRM-00 IAP-00 USIE-00 CRYE-00
R-00 IIP-00 DRL-02 SAS-00 /005W
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FM AMEMBASSY HARARE
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6673

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 HARARE 004057

SIPDIS

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN
DEMOCRACY


1. SUMMARY: THE WIN OF 57 PARLIAMENTARY SEATS BY THE
MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE (MDC) IN THE JUNE, 2000
ELECTIONS MARKS AN IMPORTANT NEW STAGE IN THE EVOLUTION
OF ZIMBABWEAN DEMOCRACY. AFTER 20 YEARS AS A ONE-PARTY
STATE, THE RULING ZIMBABWE AFRICAN NATIONAL UNION -
PATRIOTIC FRONT (ZANU-PF) PARTY WILL NOW NEED TO
COMPETE WITH A MEANINGFUL OPPOSITION IN THE PARLIAMENT.
WHILE ZANU-PF STILL CONTROLS A PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY,
AND WILL PROBABLY BE ABLE TO PASS THE LEGISLATION IT
DESIRES (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CONSTITUTIONAL
AMENDMENTS -- THOSE REQUIRE A TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY) IT
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z
MUST NOW COMPETE IN THE MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS AND
IDEOLOGIES WITH A NEW GENERATION OF POLITICAL THOUGHT.
THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A VIABLE OPPOSITION IN
ZIMBABWE WAS A COMPLEX AND LENGTHY PROCESS, AND OWES
ITS SUCCESS TO THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE. IT
IS POSSIBLE, HOWEVER, TO RELATE U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLIC
DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS TO THE GROWTH OF A POLITICAL
ENVIRONMENT AMENABLE TO DEMOCRATIC PLURALISM IN
ZIMBABWE. THIS REPORT ATTEMPTS TO OUTLINE HOW USG
PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS IN ZIMBABWE HELPED TO CREATE
SOME OF THE CONDITIONS THAT LED TO BROADER PUBLIC
INVOLVEMENT IN THE NATION'S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. END
SUMMARY.
ZIMBABWE HAVE THE RIGHT TO THAT CLAIM. WE CAN,
HOWEVER, TAKE CREDIT FOR HAVING PROVIDED THE PEOPLE OF
ZIMBABWE WITH IDEAS, EXAMPLES AND SKILLS WHICH
STRENGTHENED THEIR OWN EXPRESSIONS OF SELF-
DETERMINATION. OUR PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN NON-PARTISAN,
PROVIDING INFORMATION AND AMERICAN EXPERIENCES TO
MEMBERS OF THE RULING PARTY AS WELL AS TO PEOPLE WHO
HAVE BECOME LEADERS IN THE OPPOSITION AND IN CIVIL
SOCIETY. THE NON-PARTISAN NATURE OF OUR PROGRAMS
UNDERSCORES THE NOTION THAT ONLY THE PEOPLE OF ZIMBABWE
CAN CLAIM CREDIT FOR POLITICAL PROGRESS IN THEIR
COUNTRY. IT ALSO SUPPORTS THE NOTION THAT IDEAS AND
INFORMATION, OUR BASIC COMMODITIES, BREED POLITICAL
DEVELOPMENT.

3. IN THE 20 YEARS SINCE ZIMBABWE'S INDEPENDENCE, A BROAD
ARRAY OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HAS CONTRIBUTED TO
THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY. THE FOLLOWING IS A
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z
PARTIAL LISTING OF PROGRAMS THAT HAVE BEEN ESPECIALLY
PRODUCTIVE. WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT AF/PD ALSO ASK
FORMER USIS OFFICERS WHO HAVE WORKED IN ZIMBABWE FOR
ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC
DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS HERE.

4. THE MAY 2000 EMINENT PERSONS IN CONSULTATION (EPIC)
PROGRAM -- THIS PROGRAM LED DIRECTLY TO THE PRODUCTION
OF CRITICAL VOTER EDUCATION MATERIAL IMMEDIATELY BEFORE
ZIMBABWE'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. THIS AMBASSADORIAL
INITIATIVE WAS FUNDED BY USAID/ZIMBABWE AND MANAGED BY
THE EMBASSY'S PUBLIC AFFAIRS SECTION. DURING ONE OF
THE PROGRAM'S WORKSHOPS, A FLIER TO EDUCATE ZIMBABWE'S
VOTERS ABOUT THE SECRECY OF THE BALLOT WAS CONCEIVED
AND DESIGNED. WITHIN TWO WEEKS, THE LEGAL RESOURCES
FOUNDATION, A LEADING ZIMBABWEAN NGO, HAD PRODUCED ONE
MILLION COPIES OF THE FLIER. IT WAS USED AS AN INSERT
IN ALL OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS AND GIVEN AWAY AT
SHOPS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. SECRECY OF THE BALLOT
WAS A MAJOR CONCERN FOR MANY VOTERS IN ZIMBABWE AND THE
TIMELY PRODUCTION OF THE FLIER WAS AN IMPORTANT MEANS
OF HELPING TO PROMOTE THE FREEST, FAIREST POSSIBLE
ELECTIONS.
5. CIVITAS PROGRAMS BETWEEN 1997 AND 1999 -- THE MOST
CONCRETE RESULT OF ZIMBABWEAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE
CIVITAS INITIATIVE WAS THE DEVELOPMENT AND INCLUSION OF
CIVIC EDUCATION MATERIALS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
CURRICULA. MR. CONRAD KUONA, ONE OF
THE ZIMBABWEAN
PARTICIPANTS IN THE MAY 1997 CIVITAS CONFERENCE IN
PRETORIA, WAS NAMED TO THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION'S
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 HARARE 04057 01 OF 03 241243Z
COMMISSION ON EDUCATION. USING THIS POSITION,
MATERIALS AND WISDOM GAINED THROUGH THE CIVITAS
PROGRAM, AND CONTINUED POST SUPPORT (INCLUDING AN
ACADEMIC SPECIALIST), MR. KUONA INTEGRATED CIVIC
EDUCATION MATERIAL INTO THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM. AS A
DIRECT RESULT OF THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, SECONDARY SCHOOL
STUDENTS THROUGHOUT ZIMBABWE NOW RECEIVE INSTRUCTION ON
CITIZENS' BASIC CIVIC RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

6. THE CIVITAS PROGRAM, IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN USIS-
ADMINISTERED GRANT FROM USAID, RESULTED IN THE 1998
CREATION OF A NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAM IN ZIMBABWE.
THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY THE PUBLICATION IN 1999 OF A BOOK
ON WHY AND HOW TO ORGANIZE NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH PROGRAMS.

7. IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVE, BUT AVOWED BY ONE ZIMABWEAN
PARTICIPANT IN THE MAY 1997 PRETORIA CIVITAS CONFRENCE,
IS THE PROPOSITION THAT ZIMBABWE'S CONSTITUTIONAL
REFORM BEGAN THERE. VICTOR JUMO, THEN WITH THE
ZIMBABWEAN NGO "THE LEGAL RESOURCES FOUNDATION," TELLS

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ0398

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ACTION AF-00

INFO LOG-00 AMAD-00 A-00 UTED-00 TEDE-00 IO-00 LAB-01
OIC-02 PA-00 IRM-00 IAP-00 USIE-00 R-00 IIP-00
DRL-02 SAS-00 /005W
------------------71A7E5 241244Z /38
R 241246Z JUL 00
FM AMEMBASSY HARARE
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6674

UNCLAS SECTION 02 OF 03 HARARE 004057

SIPDIS

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN
DEMOCRACY

US THAT ZIMBABWEAN PARTICIPANTS IN CIVITAS '97 WERE
INSPIRED AT THE CONFERENCE BY THEIR SOUTH AFRICAN
COUNTERPARTS' WORK ON CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM. UPON
RETURNING TO ZIMBABWE, THE ZIMBABWEAN CIVITASIANS
CONVOKED A MEETING OF OTHER NGOS. THAT MEETING LED TO
THE CREATION OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY
(NCA). THE NCA'S WORK TO PROMOTE CONSTITIONAL REFORM
GALVANIZED PULIC OPINION, LED TO THE GOVERNMENT'S
CREATION OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION, AND RESULTED
IN A DRAFT CONSTITUTION IN LATE 1999. POPULAR
REJECTION OF THAT DRAFT IN THE FEBRUARY 2000 REFERENDUM
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z
GENERATED A SENSE OF POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT AMONG
ZIMBABWEAN VOTERS AND HELPED TO CREATE THE VOTER TURN-
OUT AND COURAGE WHICH ELECTED AN UNPRECEDENTED
OPPOSITION BLOCK TO PARLIAMENT IN JUNE 2000.
8. INTERNATIONAL VISITOR GRANTS HAVE PROVIDED FIRST-TIME
EXPOSURE TO THE U.S. FOR A NUMBER OF ZIMBABWEANS WHO
HAVE GONE ON TO POSITIONS OF NATIONAL PROMINENCE. THE
LIST OF FORMER IV GRANTEES READS LIKE A WHO'S WHO OF
INFLUENTIAL ZIMBABWEANS. ONE OF THE MOST NOTABLE IS
MORGAN TSVANGIRAI, THE LEADER OF THE NEWLY FORMED
OPPOSTION PARTY, THE MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC CHANGE
(MDC). TSVANGIRAI PARTICIPATED IN A 1989 MULTI-
REGIONAL IV PROGRAM. OF COURSE, NOT EVERY SINGLE IV
ALUMNI HAS PROVEN TO BE A DISTINGUISHED DEFENDER OF
DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND FREE MARKETS, BUT THE
OVERALL LIST IS OVERWHELMINGLY POSITIVE. THE FOLLOWING
PARAGRAPHS OFFER A PARTIAL LISTING OF PROMINENT IV
ALUMNI.

9. MEDIA: "DAILY NEWS" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION)
EDITOR IN CHIEF GEOFF NYAROTA; "DAILY NEWS" NEWS EDITOR
WILLIAM BANGO (1987); "DAILY NEWS" DEPUTY EDITOR BILL
SAIDI (1993); "STANDARD" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION)
EDITOR IN CHIEF CLIVE WILSON; ZIANA (ZIMBABWE
ASSOCIATED NEWS AGENCY) EDITOR IN CHIEF WILF MBANGA
(1981); JOY TV DIRECTOR ISHMAEL KADUNGURE (1983);
"HERALD" (GOVERNMENT-OWNED DAILY) EDITOR IN CHIEF
BORNWELL CHAKAODZA (1998); "CHRONICLE" (GOVERNMENT-
OWNED DAILY IN BULAWAYO) EDITOR IN CHIEF STEPHEN MPOFU
(1990); "FINANCIAL GAZETTE" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-
OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR IN CHIEF TREVOR NCUBE (1990);
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z
"STANDARD" (INDEPENDENT, PRO-OPPOSITION WEEKLY) EDITOR
IN CHIEF MARK CHAVUNDUKA.

10. JUDICIARY: SUPREME COURT CHIEF JUSTICE ANTHONY GUBBAY
(1990); HIGH COURT JUDGE GODFREY CHIDYAUSIKU (1984);
HIGH COURT JUDGE PADDINGTON GARWE (1987); HIGH COURT
JUDGE FERGUS BLACKIE (1992); HIGH COURT JUDGE YUNUS
OMERJEE (1995); HIGH COURT JUDGE WILSON SANDURA (1996).

11. GOVERNMENT: NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER OF FINANCE NKOSANA
MOYO (EISENHOWER FELLOW IN 1995); NEW ZANU-PF MINISTER
OF JUSTICE PATRICK CHINAMASA (1983); NEW ZANU-PF
MI
NISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS JOHN NKOMO (1986); NEW ZANU-PF
MINISTER OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT
CREATION BORDER GEZI (1992); NEW ZANU-PF GOVERNOR OF
MIDLANDS PROVINCE CEPHAS MSIPA (1982); CLERK OF THE
PARLIAMENT AUSTIN ZVOMA (1983); NEW MDC MEMBER OF
PARLIAMENT MIKE AURET (1986); NEW MDC MEMBER OF
PARLIAMENT DAVID COLTART (1988); NATIONAL COMMISSIONER
OF POLICE AUGUSTINE CHIHURI (1995); NEW MDC MEMBER OF
PARLIAMENT TENDAI BITI (1999).

12. ACADEMICS: DR. RUKUDZO MURAPA (VICE CHANCELLOR OF
AFRICA UNIVERSITY); UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE HEAD
LIBRARIAN STANISLAUS MADE (1985).

13. BUSINESS: BARCLAY'S BANK MANAGING DIRECTOR ISAAC
TAKAWIRA (1989); COMMERCIAL FARMERS' UNION DIRECTOR
DAVID HASLUCK (1980); CEO OF ECONET CELLULAR PHONE
SYSTEM STRIVE MASIYIWA (1992).
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 HARARE 04057 02 OF 03 241243Z

14. CIVIL SOCIETY: ZIMBABWEAN COORDINATOR FOR THE AFRICAN-
AMERICAN INSTITUTE DOREEN SIBANDA (1981); DIRECTOR OF
THE NATIONAL GALLERY PROF. GEORGE KAHARI (1981);
DIRECTOR OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DOCUMENTATION AND RESEARCH
TRUST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA PHILIAT MATSHEZA (1996);
NATIONAL COORDINATOR OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL
ASSEMBLY ISAAC MAPHOSA (1999).

15. LOOKING AHEAD, WE BELIEVE THAT PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
PROGRAMS IN THE NEXT TWO OR THREE YEARS CAN MAKE THE
MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS THROUGH SUPPORT FOR RULE
OF LAW (FOCUS ON STRENGTHENING THE JUDICIARY), SUPPORT
FOR CIVIL SOCIETY (FOCUS ON CIVIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS
EDUCATION), AND SUPPORT FOR THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA
(FOCUS ON LIBERALIZATION OF BROADCAST MEDIA).

16. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO WORK FURTHER WITH AF/PD AND OTHERS
TO REFINE AND FLESH-OUT THE HISTORY OF PD PROGRAMS IN
ZIMBABWE AND THEIR CUMULATIVE EFFECT ON THIS NATION'S

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ0399

PAGE 01 HARARE 04057 03 OF 03 241243Z
ACTION AF-00

INFO LOG-00 AMAD-00 A-00 UTED-00 TEDE-00 IO-00 LAB-01
OIC-02 PA-00 IAP-00 USIE-00 R-00 IIP-00 DRL-02
SAS-00 /005W
------------------71A7E7 241244Z /38
R 241246Z JUL 00
FM AMEMBASSY HARARE
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 6675

UNCLAS SECTION 03 OF 03 HARARE 004057

SIPDIS

DEPT FOR AF/PD (PATIN, ROBERTSON, HOWARD)

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: OIIP ZI KPAO
SUBJECT: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ZIMBABWEAN
DEMOCRACY

DEVELOPMENT.
IRVING

UNCLASSIFIED

>

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