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Cablegate: Useb 039: Iraqi Interim Government Decree On The

R 071746Z JUL 04
FM AMEMBASSY BAGHDAD
TO SECSTATE WASHDC 0085
SECDEF WASHINGTON DC
WHITE HOUSE NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 05 BAGHDAD 000058

STATE FOR NEA/NGA; L

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PREL PGOV MOPS PINS PTER IZ
SUBJECT: USEB 039: IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT DECREE ON THE
DEFENSE OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY

1. (U) SUMMARY. THE IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT (IIG) ENACTED
A DECREE ON THE DEFENSE OF NATIONAL SECURITY TODAY. THE
LAW IS AIMED AT BETTER COMBATING THE INSURGENCY WHILE
MAINTAINING BASIC RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. THE LAW
COMPLIES WITH ALL ASPECTS OF THE TRANSITIONAL
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (TAL), WHICH IS EQUIVALENT TO AN IRAQI
BILL OF RIGHTS. POST PROVIDES COMMENTS ON THE LAW AND THE
FULL TEXT OF THE LAW BELOW. END SUMMARY.

2. (U) ON WEDNESDAY, JULY 7, 2004, THE IRAQI INTERIM
GOVERNMENT PASSED A DECREE ON THE DEFENSE OF NATIONAL
SECURITY. POST'S VIEW IS THAT THE LAW IS NOT DESIGNED TO
GRANT THE IIG VAST ADDITIONAL POWERS. TO THE CONTRARY,
MOST OF WHAT THE DRAFT PERMITS COULD ALREADY HAVE BEEN DONE
UNDER EXISTING IRAQI LAW. THE DRAFT SERVES AS AN OMNIBUS
ORDER, CONSOLIDATING IRAQI PROCEDURES WITHIN A RULE OF LAW
FRAMEWORK FOR READY USE IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY. THE
IIG AS SOON AS IT WAS FORMED SIGNALED AN INTEREST IN SUCH
AN ACT TO WORK WITH CPA AND US TO ENDEAVOR THAT THE FINAL
DRAFT COMPORTED WITH HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS UNDER BOTH THE
TAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW. POST VIEWS THE OUTCOME AS
FAVORABLE. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE LAW FOLLOW IN PARAGRAPH 3 AND
THE FULL TEXT OF THE LAW AS TRANSLATED BY THE U.S. EMBASSY
IS IN PARAGRAPH 4.

3. (U) HIGHLIGHTS.

-- THE DECREE IS NOT SELF-EXECUTING. BOTH THE PRIME
MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY (UNANIMOUS VOTE OF THREE
PERSONS) MUST DECLARE AN EMERGENCY CONDITION FOR THE DECREE
TO HAVE EFFECT.

-- THE DEFINITION OF "EMERGENCY CONDITION" LIMITS
APPLICATION TO A CONTINUOUS, SUSTAINED CAMPAIGN OF VIOLENCE
IN A PARTICULAR PART OF IRAQ THAT THREATENS THE PERSONAL
SAFETY OF IRAQIS. AN EMERGENCY CONDITION DOES NOT
AUTOMATICALLY APPLY NATIONWIDE.

-- ANY DECLARED EMERGENCY CONDITION AUTOMATICALLY SUNSETS
AFTER 60 DAYS AND EVERY 30 DAYS THEREAFTER UNLESS
REAFFIRMED BY THE PRIME MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY.

-- ALL SEARCHES AND SEIZURES MUST COMPORT WITH THE TAL AND
THUS REQUIRE JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION IN THE ABSENCE OF
EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES.

-- ALL DETAINEES MUST BE BROUGHT BEFORE A JUDGE WITHIN 24
HOURS, CONSISTENT WITH THE IRAQI CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE.

-- ALL EXECUTIVE DECISIONS, INCLUDING THE DECISION TO
DECLARE AN EMERGENCY, ARE SUBJECT TO JUDICIAL REVIEW AND
OVERSIGHT BY THE NATIONAL COUNCIL.

-- TO THE EXTENT NEW POWERS OR PROCEDURES ARE AUTHORIZED,
THEY APPLY ONLY IN AREAS OF A DECLARED EMERGENCY AND EXPIRE
AFTER THE EMERGENCY.

SUCH NEW POWERS AND PROCEDURES INCLUDE:

-- LIMITED CONTROLS ON MOVEMENT, TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS, AND
EXPLICIT AUTHORIZATION TO ORDER CURFEWS FOR A FIXED PERIOD
OF TIME.

-- CLOSING OR RESTRICTING ACTIVITIES OF PRIVATE
ORGANIZATIONS, UNIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS, AFTER OBTAINING A
COURT ORDER.

-- ABILITY TO ENGAGE IN COVERT SURVEILLANCE MEASURES UPON
JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION.

-- ESTABLISHMENT OF A UNIFIED CHAIN OF COMMAND FOR IRAQI
SECURITY FORCES, ALL OF WHOM WILL REPORT DIRECTLY TO THE
PRIME MINISTER OR HIS DESIGNEE.

-- BROAD POWER TO DELEGATE ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY FROM THE
PRIME MINISTER TO CIVILIAN OR MILITARY OFFICIALS WHERE
NECESSARY.

-- AUTHORITY TO ORDER THE ISOLATION AND ENCIRCLEMENT OF
AREAS EXPERIENCING WIDESPREAD INSURRECTION.

-- AUTHORITY GRANTED TO THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH PRESIDENCY
APPROVAL, TO GRANT PARDONS AND IMMUNITY.

THE FORMER REGIME HAD SUCH POWERS BUT THEY WERE NOT
ESTABLISHED IN WRITING, THEY WERE AVAILABLE AT ALL TIMES,
AND THEY WERE SUBJECT TO ARBITRARY ENFORCEMENT.

-- THE DECREE REAFFIRMS THE IIG'S COMMITMENT TO CARRYING
OUT ELECTIONS BY JANUARY 1995, SAYING "IT IS NOT
PERMISSIBLE TO USE ANY PROVISIONS OF THIS ORDER TO DELAY
...
IONS UNDER 1546,
OR IRAQI SECURITY FORCES OPERATING UNDER UNIFIED MNF-I
COMMAND.

4. (U) BEGIN TEXT OF EMERGENCY LAW.

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ
OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER

ORDER OF SAFEGUARDING NATIONAL SECURITY
NUMBER ( ) FOR THE YEAR 2004

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE.

ACCORDING TO THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 2 OF THE
TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ANNEX, AND ACCORDING TO THE
PROVISIONS OF ARTICLE 25 OF THE ABOVE-MENTIONED LAW, AND
CONSISTENT WITH THE PROVISIONS OF CHAPTER TWO OF THIS LAW,
WE PROMULGATE THE FOLLOWING ORDER.

ARTICLE ONE

THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH THE UNANIMOUS APPROVAL OF THE
PRESIDENCY COUNCIL, MAY DECLARE A STATE OF EMERGENCY IN ANY
PART OF IRAQ UPON THE EXPOSURE OF THE PEOPLE OF IRAQ TO A
DANGER OF GRAVE PROPORTIONS, THREATENING THE LIVES OF
INDIVIDUALS AND EMANATING FROM AN ONGOING CAMPAIGN OF
VIOLENCE BY ANY NUMBER OF PEOPLE, FOR THE PURPOSE OF
PREVENTING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BROAD BASED GOVERNMENT IN
IRAQ, OR TO HINDER THE PEACEFUL PARTICIPATION OF ALL IRAQIS
POLITICAL PROCESS, OR FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE.

ARTICLE TWO

A STATE OF EMERGENCY SHALL BE DECLARED BY AN ORDER
EXPLAINING THE REASONS FOR WHICH THE STATE OF EMERGENCY WAS
DECLARED, AS WELL AS A DEFINITION OF THE AREA IT COVERS,
AND THE DEFINITION OF THE START OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY
AND ITS DURATION, PROVIDED THAT THE STATE OF EMERGENCY
SHALL NOT EXTEND BEYOND 60 DAYS OR BEYOND THE ELIMINATION
OF THE DANGER OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT CALLED FOR ITS
DECLARATION, WHICHEVER COMES FIRST. THE DURATION OF STATE
OF EMERGENCY MAY BE PERIODICALLY EXTENDED, EVERY THIRTY
DAYS 30 DAYS AS NECESSARY BY WRITTEN DECLARATION FROM THE
PRIME MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENCY COUNCIL, AND IT SHALL
AUTOMATICALLY CEASE TO BE EFFECTIVE, IF NOT EXTENDED IN
WRITING, AT THE END OF ANY EXTENSION PERIOD.

ARTICLE THREE

THE PRIME MINISTER, DURING A STATE OF EMERGENCY AND WITHIN
THE LIMITS OF THE AREA WHERE SUCH A STATE OF EMERGENCY IS
DECLARED, IS EMPOWERED WITH THE FOLLOWING INTERIM
EXTRAORDINARY AUTHORITIES.

FIRST: AFTER THE ISSUANCE OF AN ARREST WARRANT OR A SEARCH
WARRANT, EXCEPT IN EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES,
RESTRICTIONS MAY BE IMPOSED ON THE FREEDOMS OF THE CITIZENS
OR THE FOREIGNERS IN IRAQ IN THE INSTANCES OF WITNESSED
CRIMES OR ACCUSATIONS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE OR CREDIBLE
SUSPICION IN THE AREAS OF TRANSPORT, MOVEMENT, ASSEMBLY,
GATHERING, PASSAGE, TRAVEL FROM AND TO IRAQ, THE CARRYING
OR USE OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION OR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS;
THOSE WHOSE BEHAVIOR IS SUSPICIOUS CAN BE DETAINED,
SEARCHED AND THEIR HOMES AND PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT CAN BE
SUBJECT TO SEARCH. THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL DELEGATE THESE
OR OTHER POWERS TO THOSE HE CHOOSES AMONG MILITARY OR
CIVILIAN OFFICIALS.

SECOND: IMPOSE CURFEW DURING A DETERMINED SHORT PERIOD OF
TIME ON THE AREA THAT IS FACING A DANGEROUS SECURITY
THREAT, SEEING EXPLOSIONS, UNREST AND LARGE SCALE ENEMY
ARMED OPERATIONS; HE MAY ISOLATE SUCH AREA, CORDON IT OFF
WITH APPROPRIATE FORCES AND SEARCH IT WHEN THERE IS PROOF
OR SUSPICION THAT SOME OF ITS INHABITANTS POSSESS MEDIUM OR
HEAVY WEAPONS, EXPLOSIVES OR WHEN OUTLAWS SEEK REFUGE
THEREIN AND AFTER A SEARCH WARRANT IS ISSUED, EXCEPT IN
EXTREME EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES.

THIRD: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON ASSETS AND PROHIBITED
POSSESSIONS; PUT A PREVENTIVE FREEZE ON THE ASSETS OF THOSE
ACCUSED OF CONSPIRACY, INSURGENCY, ARMED DISOBEDIENCE,
ARMED UNREST, KILLINGS, BOMBINGS AND ON THE ASSETS OF
WHOEVER PARTICIPATES OR COOPERATES WITH THEM IN ANY WAY IN
THE COMMISSION OF THESE CRIMES OR INCITES THEM AND WHEN
CRIMES ARE COMMITTED AS A RESULT OF SUCH INCITEMENT,
INCLUDING THOSE WHO OFFER THEM HOMES OR PLACES TO STAY OR
GATHER FULLY AWARE OF THEIR INTENTIONS. HE MAY DETAIN THOSE
ACCUSED OF THESE CRIMES WHENEVER THERE IS SUFFICIENT LEGAL
...
AND TO ALL WIRED AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION MEANS
AND EQUIPMENT IF THERE IS EVIDENCE THEY WERE USED IN THE
ABOVE-MENTIONED CRIMES. HE MAY IMPOSE MONITORING OF THESE
MEANS AND EQUIPMENT AND SEARCH AND SEIZE THEM IF THAT COULD
LEAD TO THE UNCOVERING OF THE ABOVE-MENTIONED CRIMES OR
PREVENT THEIR OCCURRENCE, AND THAT IS ONLY AFTER OBTAINING
A WARRANT FROM THE CONCERNED JUDICIAL AUTHORITIES FOR A
DETERMINED PERIOD OF TIME.

FIFTH: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON THE MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION
BY LAND, AIR AND SEA IN SPECIFIC AREAS AND FOR DETERMINED
PERIODS OF TIME.

SIXTH: IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL PLACES,
CLUBS, ASSOCIATIONS, UNIONS, COMPANIES, ESTABLISHMENTS AND
OFFICES, BY LIMITING THEIR HOURS OF OPERATIONS AND BY
MONITORING THEIR ACTIVITIES AND PLACING THEM UNDER GUARD
AND DISBANDING THEM OR SUSPENDING THEM TEMPORARILY IF THERE
IS EVIDENCE OF THEIR CONNECTION TO THE CRIMES MENTIONED IN
PARAGRAPH (FIRST) OF ARTICLE 7, BUT ONLY AFTER GETTING A
COURT ORDER.

SEVENTH: TO SUSPEND TEMPORARILY OR PERMANENTLY THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF LICENSES, POSSESSION OR TRADING OF WEAPONS
AND AMMUNITION, AS WELL AS DANGEROUS MATERIALS AND
EXPLOSIVES, IF IT IS PROVEN THAT THEY WERE USED OR
ATTEMPTED TO BE USED IN THE CRIMES MENTIONED ABOVE, OR IN
THE EVENT THAT THEY REPRESENTED A THREAT TO THE SECURITY
AND STABILITY OF THE AREA, OR WHEN THEIR POSSESSION IS
LEGALLY PROHIBITED.

EIGHTH: TO COMMENCE LIMITED AND APPROPRIATE, SPEEDY
MILITARY AND SECURITY DECISIONS AND MEASURES, IN AREAS
WHERE THE STATE OF EMERGENCY WAS DECLARED, IN COORDINATION
WITH THE MINISTERS OF DEFENSE AND INTERIOR OR ANY OTHER
MINISTER AS WELL AS WITH THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR OR
ANY COMPETENT ENTITY.

NINTH: DURING LARGE SCALE OPERATIONS, CARRIED OUT IN ORDER
TO CONFRONT GREAT ARMED THREATS IN LARGE AREAS, IT SHALL BE
POSSIBLE TO SEEK THE ASSISTANCE OF MULTINATIONAL FORCE, IN
ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL
RESOLUTION 1546 FOR THE YEAR 2004, AND TO TASK THE IRAQI
ARMED FORCES, WITH THE UNANIMOUS APPROVAL BY THE PRESIDENCY
COUNCIL, WITH CLEAR AND SPECIFIC TASKS THAT ARE APPROPRIATE
TO THEIR SITUATION AND CAPABILITIES. THE EXTRAORDINARY
MEASURES SHALL BE IMPLEMENTED IN THE REGION OF KURDISTAN,
IN COORDINATION WITH ITS GOVERNMENT.

ARTICLE FOUR

DECISIONS AND ORDERS ISSUED FOR THE ARREST OR DETENTION OF
PERSONS, OR THE SEIZURE OF ASSETS, PURSUANT TO THE
PROVISIONS OF THIS LAW, SHALL BE PRESENTED TO THE
INVESTIGATIVE JUDGE, ON THE CONDITION THAT THE ACCUSED IS
BROUGHT TO STAND BEFORE THE INVESTIGATIVE JUDGE WITHIN (24)
HOURS FROM THE EXECUTION OF SUCH DECISIONS AND ORDERS.

ARTICLE FIVE

FIRST: THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL EXERCISE THE EXTRAORDINARY
AUTHORITIES PROVIDED FOR ABOVE, IN ACCORDANCE WITH WRITTEN
ORDERS OR NOTICES OR WRITTEN STATEMENTS DISSEMINATED IN
PRINTED, VISUAL AND AUDIO MEDIA, SPECIFYING THE DATE OF
EFFECTIVENESS AND ITS DURATION.

SECOND: WITHOUT INFRINGEMENT ON ANY GREATER PUNISHMENT
STIPULATED BY CRIMINAL LAW AND LAWS IN EFFECT, VIOLATION OF
THE ORDERS, STATEMENTS, DECLARATIONS OR DECISIONS ISSUED BY
THE PRIME MINISTER OR HIS DESIGNATE, SHALL BE PUNISHABLE BY
IMPRISONMENT FOR A PERIOD NOT EXCEEDING THREE YEARS AND A
FINE NOT EXCEEDING ONE MILLION DINARS OR ONE OF EITHER OF
THESE PUNISHMENTS.

ARTICLE SIX

THE ARMED FORCES, EMERGENCY FORCES, SPECIAL FORCES, CIVIL
DEFENSE FORCES, INTERNAL SECURITY FORCES, AND THE SECURITY,
INTELLIGENCE AND MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SERVICES IN THE AREA
WHERE A STATE OF EMERGENCY IS DECLARED, SHALL REPORT
DIRECTLY TO THE PRIME MINISTER, DURING THE PERIOD OF THE
DECLARED STATE OF EMERGENCY, AND IN COORDINATION WITH THE
COMMANDERS OF SUCH FORCES AND SERVICES, THE PRIME MINISTER
MAY TASK ANY OF THEM WITH TASKS APPROPRIATE IN NATURE AND
JURISDICTION AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE EMERGENCY
CIRCUMSTANCES.

ARTICLE SEVEN
...

DURING THE PERIOD OF
THE STATE OF EMERGENCY, AND WHICH ARE REFERRED BY A JUDGE
OF JURISDICTION INCLUDING CRIMES OF MURDER, ROBBERY, RAPE,
KIDNAPPING, DESTRUCTION, BOMBING OR BURNING OR DAMAGING OF
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY AND POSSESSION OF MILITARY
WEAPONS AND THEIR AMMUNITION, OR THE MANUFACTURING,
TRANSPORTATION, SMUGGLING OR TRADING OF SUCH WEAPONS.

SECOND: OTHER CRIMES NOT SPECIFIED IN THE ABOVE PARAGRAPH,
OR CRIMES REFERRED BY A JUDGE OF JURISDICTION, SHALL BE THE
SPECIALTY OF THE CRIMINAL COURTS, WITHIN THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL
JURISDICTIONS.

THIRD: INVESTIGATIVE JUDGES, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEIR
GEOGRAPHICAL AND QUALITATIVE JURISDICTIONS, SHALL
IMMEDIATELY COMMENCE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED
CRIMES, AND THE CHIEF OF THE JUDICIAL COUNCIL OR THE CHIEF
JUDGE OF THE SUPREME FEDERAL COURT, ONCE IT IS ESTABLISHED,
MAY DELEGATE, WHENEVER IT IS DEEMED NECESSARY, OTHER
APPROPRIATE JUDGES AND INVESTIGATORS INSTEAD OF THE
INVESTIGATIVE JUDGES, OR IN ADDITION TO THEM TO INVESTIGATE
A CRIME OR A PARTICULAR VARIETY OF CRIMES.

FOURTH: THE PROVISIONS OF THE CRIMINAL CODE AND THE CODE OF
CRIMINAL PROCEDURES, SHALL APPLY TO THE CRIMES REFERRED TO
IN THE FIRST AND SECOND PARAGRAPHS OF THIS ARTICLE.

ARTICLE EIGHT

THE PRIME MINISTER, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENCY
COUNCIL, CAN ORDER THE WITHDRAW OF A COURT CASE AND THE
RELEASE OF THE ACCUSED BEFORE THEIR JUDGMENT PRIOR TO THE
CASE BEING SUBMITTED TO THE RELEVANT TRIBUNAL OR DURING THE
PROCEEDINGS FOR REASONS RELATED TO A HIGHER INTEREST OR TO
SECURITY AND STABILITY.

ARTICLE NINE

FIRST: THE PRESIDENCY COUNCIL SHALL APPROVE UNANIMOUSLY THE
EMERGENCY DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES. THE INTERIM NATIONAL
CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY HAS THE RIGHT TO MONITOR THE
EXECUTION OF SUCH PROCEDURES.

SECOND: THE PRIME MINISTER'S DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES ARE
SUBJECT TO REVIEW BY THE COURT OF CASSATION AND THE TWO
COURTS OF CASSATION IN THE PROVINCE OF KURDISTAN REGARDING
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN ITS AREAS. THE SUPREME FEDERAL
COURT WHICH HAS THE RIGHT TO ABROGATE SUCH DECISIONS AND
PROCEDURES AND TO RENDER THEM INVALID OR ILLEGAL OR TO
APPROVE SUCH DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES TAKING INTO
CONSIDERATION THE EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH
THESE DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES WERE ISSUED.

ARTICLE TEN

THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL DECLARE, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, THE END OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY AND
THE RETURN OF MATTERS TO THEIR NORMAL STATE BY AN ORDER
APPROVED UNANIMOUSLY BY THE PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL, AND HIS
AUTHORITY TO ISSUE EMERGENCY DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES AND
APPEARANCES SHALL COME TO AN END.

ARTICLE ELEVEN

THE PRIME MINISTER CANNOT ABROGATE THE TRANSITIONAL
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN WHOLE OR IN PART, OR IMPOSE PUNITIVE
ACTIONS.

ARTICLE TWELVE

NO ARTICLE IN THIS ORDER CAN BE USED TO DELAY ELECTIONS
ACCORDING TO THE TIMETABLE SPECIFIED IN THE TRANSITIONAL
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. THE IRAQI INTERIM GOVERNMENT MUST
FULFILL ITS PRINCIPAL OBLIGATION OF PROVIDING THE
APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT FOR HOLDING ELECTIONS ON TIME.

ARTICLE THIRTEEN

THIS LAW BECOMES EFFECTIVE ON THE DATE IT IS ISSUED, AND
WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE.

THE JUSTIFYING CAUSES:

IN VIEW OF THE CRITICAL SECURITY CONDITIONS AND THE SERIOUS
CONSEQUENCES THAT ARE STILL BESIEGING IRAQ DURING THIS
PERIOD AND THE FIRM NECESSITY TO COUNTER TERRORISTS AND LAW
BREAKERS, AND PURSUANT TO THE COMMITMENT OF THE IRAQI
INTERIM GOVERNMENT TO PROTECT THE RIGHT OF THE CITIZENS TO
A DIGNIFIED FREE EXISTENCE, TO GUARANTEE THEIR POLITICAL
...
O HOLD FREE DEMOCRATIC
ELECTIONS AS PRESCRIBED IN THE TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE
LAW, AND IN SUPPORT OF THE RULE OF LAW, AND THE
INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY, ITS EFFECTIVENESS AND ITS
MONITORING, AND TO PREVENT THE EXCESSIVE USE OF FORCE AND
THE ABUSE OF AUTHORITY UNDER EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES, AND
FOR OTHER KNOWN REASONS, WE ISSUED THIS ORDER.

END TEXT OF EMERGENCY LAW.

NEGROPONTE

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