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Cablegate: Turkey: Inscr 2006-2007 Drugs and Chemical Control Report

VZCZCXRO3446
RR RUEHDA
DE RUEHAK #6373/01 3121512
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
R 081512Z NOV 06
FM AMEMBASSY ANKARA
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 9869
INFO RUEHIT/AMCONSUL ISTANBUL 1598
RUEHDA/AMCONSUL ADANA 1315
RUEABND/DEA HQS WASHDC
RUEHBUL/AMEMBASSY KABUL 0531
RUEHIL/AMEMBASSY ISLAMABAD 0938

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 ANKARA 006373

SIPDIS

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

DEPARTMENT FOR INL, EUR/SE, SA

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: SNAR PREL TU
SUBJECT: TURKEY: INSCR 2006-2007 DRUGS AND CHEMICAL CONTROL REPORT

REF: STATE 155088

1. (SBU) Summary: This cable details Embassy Ankara's assessment of
drugs and chemical controls in Turkey for inclusion in the 2006-2007
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INSCR). End
Summary.

-------
SUMMARY
-------

2. (SBU) Turkey is a major transit route for Southwest Asian opiates
to Europe and serves as a staging area for major narcotics
traffickers and brokers. Turkish law enforcement organizations
focus their efforts on stemming the traffic of drugs and
intercepting precursor chemicals. The Turkish National Police
(TNP), under the Interior Ministry control, is responsible for
security in large urban areas. The Jandarma, paramilitary forces
under joint Interior Ministry and military control, is responsible
for policing rural areas. The Jandarma is also responsible for
specific border sectors where smuggling is common; however, the
military has overall responsibility for border control. Turkish law
enforcement forces cooperate closely with European and U.S.
agencies. While most of the heroin traffickedvia Turkey is
marketed in Western Europe, som heroin and opium also is smuggled
from Turkey to the U.S., but not in quantities sufficient to have a
significant impact on the U.S. There is no appreciable cultivation
of illicit narcotics in Turkey other than marijuana grown primarily
for domestic consumption. There is no known diversion from Turkey's
licit opium poppy cultivation and pharmaceutical morphine production
program. Turkey is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

-----------------
STATUS OF COUNTRY
-----------------

3. (SBU) Turkey is a major transshipment point. Turkey is also a
base of operations for international narcotics traffickers and
associates trafficking in opium, morphine base, heroin, precursor
chemicals and other drugs. Opium, morphine base, and heroin are
smuggled from Afghanistan to Iran. Both morphine base and heroin are
then smuggled from Iran to Turkey and ultimately to Western Europe.
A small amount of opium and heroin is trafficked to the U.S. via
Turkey. Turkish law enforcement forces are strongly committed to
disrupting narcotics trafficking. The Turkish National Police (TNP)
remains Turkey's most proactive counter narcotics force, with the
Jandarma and Customs continuing to play a significant role. Turkish
authorities continue to seize large amounts of heroin and precursor
chemicals. It is estimated that multi-ton amounts of heroin are
smuggled through Turkey each month.

4. (SBU) Turkey is one of the two traditional licit opium-growing
countries recognized by the USG and the International Narcotics
Control Board. Opium for pharmaceuticals is cultivated and refined
in Turkey under strict domestic controls and in accordance with all
international treaty obligations. There is no appreciable illicit
drug cultivation in Turkey other than cannabis grown primarily for
domestic consumption. Turkish law enforcement authorities continue
to seize synthetic drugs that have been manufactured in Northern and
Eastern European countries. The majority of the synthetic drug
seizures have occurred as the drugs were being shipped through
Turkey to other countries in the Middle East.

-------------------------------------
COUNTRY ACTIONS AGAINST DRUGS IN 2006
-------------------------------------

5. (SBU) Policy Initiatives. The Government of Turkey devotes
significant financial and human resources to counter narcotics
activities. Turkey continues to play a key role in Operation
Containment (a DEA regional program to reduce the flow of Afghan
heroin to Western Europe), as well as in other regional efforts.
The Turkish International Academy against Drugs and Organized Crime
(TADOC), established under the Turkish National Police (TNP),
continues to be a key agency leading the fight against drug abuse in
Turkey. In 2004, TNP increased the number of drug training and
prevention units it previously established in various provinces to
cover most parts of Turkey. These units conducted intensive training
programs for parents, teachers and students in these provinces,
making a major contribution to the GOT's drug prevention efforts.

---------------
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
---------------

6. (SBU) TADOC organized 89 training programs for local and regional

ANKARA 00006373 002 OF 003


law enforcement officers in 2006. A total of 384 foreign officers
were trained at TADOC this year, including officers from the
Balkans, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Jordan, United Arab Emirates,
Montenegro, Kosovo, Azerbaijan, Macedonia, Malta, Germany, Gambia,
Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon, Sudan, Guinea, and Pakistan. These
training programs focused on drug law enforcement, intelligence
analysis, illegal immigration and human smuggling, interview
techniques, surveillance techniques, and anti-terrorism training for
judges and prosecutors. Additionally, TADOC conducted training in
several foreign countries, including Montenegro, Romania, Macedonia,
Syria, and Yemen.

7. (SBU) TADOC, with the assistance of DEA, also provided precursor
chemical interdiction training to approximately 67 law enforcement
representatives from Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and
Kyrgyzstan as part of a UNODC/INCB sponsored initiative, code named
Operation Transshipment.


-----------------------
LAW ENFORCEMENT EFFORTS
-----------------------

8. (SBU) Through October 5, 2006, Turkish law enforcement officers
have seized 7,039 kilograms of heroin, 529 kilograms of morphine
base, 304 kilograms of opium, 19,502,370 dosage units of synthetic
drugs, 17,353 kilograms of hashish and 5,698 liters of acetic
anhydride. In addition, GOT law enforcement authorities have
arrested 15,350 individuals.

9. (SBU) In December 2005, the Turkish National Police discovered an
ecstasy and captagon laboratory in Adana, Turkey. Turkish National
Police officers seized 300,000 ecstasy tablets and 1,080,000
captagon tablets from the laboratory.

----------
CORRUPTION
----------

10. (SBU) As a matter of government policy, Turkey does not
encourage or facilitate illicit production or distribution of
narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or
the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions.
Similarly, no senior level government official is alleged to have
participated in such activities. In December 2005, the General
Assembly's Foreign Affairs Committed adopted a law ratifying the UN
Convention against Corruption.

-----------------------
AGREEMENTS AND TREATIES
-----------------------

11. (SBU) Turkey is a part to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single
Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Turkey is also a party
to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its
protocols on migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons, and illegal
manufacturing and trafficking in firearms. The U.S. and Turkey
cooperate in law enforcement matters under a 1981 treaty on
extradition and mutual assistance in legal matters.

----------------------
CULTIVATION/PRODUCTION
----------------------

12. (SBU) Illicit drug cultivation, primarily cannabis, is minor and
has no impact on the United States. The Turkish Grain Board
strictly controls licit opium poppy cultivation quite successfully,
with no apparent diversion into the illicit market.

-----------------
DRUG FLOW/TRANSIT
-----------------

13. (SBU) Turkey remains a major route and staging area for the flow
of heroin to Europe. Turkish-based traffickers and brokers operate
in conjunction with narcotics smugglers, laboratory operators, and
money launderers in and outside Turkey, who finance and control the
smuggling of opiates to and from Turkey. Afghanistan is the source
of most of the opiates reaching Turkey. Morphine base and heroin
are smuggled overland from Afghanistan, sometimes through Pakistan,
to Iran and then to Turkey. Opiates and hashish are also smuggled
to Turkey overland from Afghanistan via Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan,
and Georgia.
Some criminal elements in Turkey reportedly have interests in heroin
laboratories operating in Iran near the Iranian-Turkish border.

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Turkish-based traffickers control much of the heroin marketed to
Western Europe.

14. (SBU) Turkish authorities reported an increase in synthetic drug
seizures throughout Turkey beginning in 2005. Turkish law
enforcement has seen an increase in synthetic drug production,
primarily amphetamines (captagon).

----------------
DEMAND REDUCTION
----------------

15. (SBU) While drug abuse remains modest in scale in Turkey
compared to other countries, the number of addicts reportedly is
increasing. Although the Turkish Government is increasingly aware
of the need to combat drug abuse, the agencies responsible for drug
awareness and treatment remain under-funded. Seven Alcohol and
Substance Abuse Treatment and Education Clinics (AMATEM), which
serve as regional and drug treatment centers, have been established.
Due to lack of funds, only one of the centers focuses on drug
prevention as well as treatment. The most recent clinic was opened
in Ankara in 2004 and will serve as the countrywide coordinating
center for drug and alcohol treatment and education. The Health
Ministry has not conducted a drug abuse survey since 1995 due to
lack of resources. The Ministry of Health is reportedly considering
conducting a survey in 2007.

----------------------------------
US POLICY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS
----------------------------------

16. (SBU) Through fiscal year 1999, the U.S. Government has extended
$500,000 annually in assistance. In January or February 2007, the
U.S. Government anticipates spending approximately $57,000 in
previously-obligated funds on bringing DEA trainers to Turkey to
conduct a course for counter narcotics commanders, with Turkish and
Afghan law enforcement officers. Trainees will likely consist of
between 15 Afghan law enforcement personnel and 5 Turkish police
officials. The goal of this project is to enhance the investigative
abilities of both Turkish and Afghan investigators, to increase
their willingness to cooperate internationally on joint cases, and
to build relationships between the two countries' law enforcement
agencies.

----------------------
BILATERAL COOPERATION
----------------------

17. (SBU) DEA reports excellent cooperation with Turkish officials.
Turkish counter narcotics forces are both professional and
technically developed.

----------------
CHEMICAL CONTROL
----------------

18. (SBU) Traffickers in Turkey illegally acquire the heroin
precursor chemical, acetic anhydride, from sources in Western
Europe, the Balkans and Russia. Turkey participates in a
multi-lateral chemical reporting agreement reached at an
international conference held in Lisbon, Portugal in October 1997.
The Ministry of Health issues permits for, and closely monitors all
shipments of precursor chemicals entering Turkey, including
ephedrine and psuedoephedrine which are used for licit purposes by
Turkey's pharmaceutical industry. Turkish authorities have not
reported any instances of diversion of legally imported shipments of
precursor chemicals. Illicit smuggling of precursor chemicals is
aggressively investigated by Turkish law enforcement authorities.

--------------
THE ROAD AHEAD
--------------

19. (SBU) U.S. policy remains to strengthen Turkey's ability to
combat narcotics trafficking, money-laundering and financial crimes.


#WILSON

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