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Cablegate: Ddr Reintegration Component Faces Usd 35 Million Shortfall

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DE RUEHKH #1086/01 2671359
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FM AMEMBASSY KHARTOUM
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 4462
INFO RUCNIAD/IGAD COLLECTIVE
RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE
RHMFISS/CJTF HOA

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 02 KHARTOUM 001086

NSC FOR MGAVIN, LETIM
DEPT PLS PASS USAID FOR AFR/SUDAN
ADDIS ABABA ALSO FOR USAU

SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PGOV PREL KPKO MOPS UNSC SU
SUBJECT: DDR Reintegration Component Faces USD 35 Million Shortfall

1. Summary: Basil Massey, UNDP Demobilization, Decommissioning and
Reintegration (DDR) Program Manager for Sudan told Charge on August
27 that Blue Nile State had completed disarmament, demobilization
and reintegration (DDR) for more than 5,000 Southern People's
Liberation Army (SPLA) soldiers. Ongoing DDR for the 4,000 SPLA
soldiers whose homes are in the Nuba Mountains will eliminate
ceasefire violations in that area. More weapons are being turned in
than anticipated, and 80 percent of these are in working order. The
Government of Southern Sudan must demobilize an additional 34,000
SPLA soldiers this year. However, meeting DDR challenges will be
difficult; the reintegration component of the DDR program for the
South faces a USD 35 million (approximately 87.5 million SDG)
shortfall. The Government of Southern Sudan's operational budget is
also insufficient. End Summary.

2. Although DDR, one of the main pillars of the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement (CPA), has suffered numerous delays, with the February
launch of the program in Blue Nile State, a renewed sense of
partnership among the GNU, the GOSS and the UN has emerged, Massey
said.

----------------------------
Blue Nile State Completed DDR
-----------------------------

3. It was a significant step forward when the GNU and GoSS agreed
on DDR modalities for the Three Areas, especially in light of
governance issues in those states, he said. The DDR process in Blue
Nile State is now completed, with more than 5,000 soldiers
demobilized. Governor Agar, at first skeptical, has been won over,
Massey said.

--------------------------------------------- --
DDR In Kordofan To Address Ceasefire Violations
--------------------------------------------- --

4. In South Kordofan, Governor Haroun is currently working to
demobilize both the SPLA and the SAF. However, South Kordofan
remains tense. The CPA calls for the SPLA forces to deploy south of
the provisional border set at the January 1, 1956 line of
demarcation. However, more than 4,000 SPLA troops in South Kordofan
are indigenously Nuban, and will continue to live in the area.
Therefore, the only way to reduce ceasefire violations is to
demobilize all the troops. Over 1,200 have already been
demobilized, and an additional 3,000 have been identified for
demobilization. Once demobilization occurs, the individual is no
longer part of the Southern People's Liberation Army (SPLA); any
violence that does occur, although regrettable, will not be a
violation of the ceasefire, Massey said.

------------------------------------
More Weapons Turned In Than Expected
------------------------------------

5. Massey said there is lots of enthusiasm on the ground for the
program. Many more Rocket-Propelled Grenades (RPG), machine guns,
mortars and small caliber guns are being brought in than were
anticipated. In southern Blue Nile province, for example, Massey
expected approximately 700 weapons to be turned in; instead, the
program received more than 1,300 weapons. In addition, 80 percent
of all the weapons turned in were functional. A survey done by
Human Rights Watch shows that the country is awash with weapons,
Massey said. Although the broader community security issues will
not be addressed until the police and courts function as they
should, the DDR program is making a major contribution to peace and
security in areas in which even women and children have been killed.
The DDR program does not deal directly with other armed groups,
Massey said in response to a question; only those militias that have
been incorporated into the SPLA will benefit.

----------------------------------
35 Million Needed for DDR in South
----------------------------------

6. Despite the recent positive developments, the DDR program faces
urgent challenges in the south. As a result of the drop in oil
prices and other fiscal pressures, the SPLA cannot pay salaries, and
has announced that it must demobilize 36,000 SPLA soldiers over the
course of the year. When all are demobilized, the South will save
approximately 18 million SDG per year as a result, Massey said.
However, only 2,000 soldiers have been demobilized to date, and
there is a shortfall in funding for the reintegration program of USD
35 million (approx SDG 87.5 million.) Without reintegration
support, there is a substantial risk that demobilized troops will
become a threat to the communities in which they live, Massey said,
because they will have no access to livelihood opportunities. Not
only will they suffer severe hardships, but also the impoverished

KHARTOUM 00001086 002 OF 002


soldiers could turn to violence and banditry. The resulting
instability may undermine the prospects for peaceful elections in
2010, he said. In addition, the GNU and GoSS are struggling to cover
the operational and staffing costs of the DDR program, which total
about USD 45 million (approximately SDG 1.1 billion.)

7. Charge told UNDP that neither the Department of Defense nor USAID
funds DDR programs here; the Department of State through the Pol-Mil
and geographic bureaus covers DDR via funding to international
organizations. As a matter of policy, the United States normally
does not contribute, as other countries do, to pooled trust funds.
And, because the Joint Integrated Units (JIUs) include soldiers from
the North as well as the SPLA, U.S. sanctions prevent the United
States from dealing with them. Massey noted that he understood that
the United States funded contractors and NGOs directly to provide
livelihood packages as part of the Afghanistan DDR program.

------------------------------------
DDR Roundtable To Be Held in October
------------------------------------

8. The North and the South are managing DDR as a partnership,
Massey said. A DDR roundtable is held every six months, with the
third scheduled for October, under the auspices of the National DDR
Coordinator General Balu. Second Vice President Taha will attend,
as will senior U.N. security staff.

WHITEHEAD

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