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Cablegate: Unga: Unsc Reform: Third Round Of

VZCZCXYZ0001
OO RUEHWEB

DE RUCNDT #0827/01 2522221
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
O 092221Z SEP 09
FM USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 7162
INFO RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE IMMEDIATE
RUEHRL/AMEMBASSY BERLIN IMMEDIATE 1108
RUEHBR/AMEMBASSY BRASILIA IMMEDIATE 1159
RUEHIL/AMEMBASSY ISLAMABAD IMMEDIATE 2469
RUEHMD/AMEMBASSY MADRID IMMEDIATE 6426
RUEHNE/AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI IMMEDIATE 2778
RUEHRO/AMEMBASSY ROME IMMEDIATE 1134
RUEHUL/AMEMBASSY SEOUL IMMEDIATE 1181
RUEHKO/AMEMBASSY TOKYO IMMEDIATE 8774

UNCLAS USUN NEW YORK 000827

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

DEPARTMENT FOR USUN/W AND IO/UNP; NSC FOR POWER

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PREL KUNR UNGA UNSC GE JA BR IN
SUBJECT: UNGA: UNSC REFORM: THIRD ROUND OF
INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS -- FIVE KEY ISSUES AND
EXPANSION IN BOTH CATEGORIES

REF: A. USUN NEW YORK 634
B. USUN NE YORK 609
C. USUN NEW YORK 553
D. USUN NEW YORK 432
E. USUN NEW YORK 388
F. USUN NEW YORK 345
G. USUN NEW YORK 289
H. USUN NEW YORK 230

1. (SBU) Summary: The informal plenary of the General
Assembly met on September 1 and 2 for the first two of three
meetings in the third round of intergovernmental negotiations
(IGN) on Security Council reform. 38 delegations spoke on
September 1 during the discussion on all of the five key
issues, as defined in GA Decision 62/557. Almost without
exception, delegations reiterated their previous positions
from the first two rounds when the five key issues had been
explored in more depth (see reftels). On September 2, 51
delegations spoke either in favor or against an expansion in
both categories of membership (permanent and non-permanent).
The Uniting for Consensus (UFC) bloc rejected any expansion
that includes additional permanent members and questioned the
Group of Four (G4)'s assertions that expansion in both
categories has majority support. Most G4 members and their
supporters, including the African Group, argued for an
expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members and an
extension of the veto to new permanent members. In the U.S.
statement, Ambassador Wolff expressed support for a limited
expansion in both categories in a way that diminishes neither
the Council's effectiveness nor its efficiency. He
underscored that the United States is not open to an
enlargement of the Council with a change to the current
configuration of the veto and that any expansion of permanent
members must be country-specific. End summary.

Sept. 1: Five key issues
------------------------

2. (SBU) The first session of the third round of IGN on
September 1 focused on all five key issues: categories of
membership; the question of the veto; regional
representation; size of an enlarged Council and working
methods of the Security Council; and the relationship between
the Council and the General Assembly. While only 38
delegations spoke, the chamber was more than half filled,
demonstrating renewed interest in the negotiations after the
two-month summer hiatus. Nearly all of the 38 delegations
who spoke, including members of the Group of Four (G4), the
Uniting for Consensus (UFC) bloc, and the African Group,
reiterated their previous positions from rounds one and two
(see reftels). Estonia and Lithuania spoke for the first
time in favor of an additional elected seat for the Eastern
European Group. The Estonian delegate voiced support for a
"small enlargement" to 22-25 members and voiced willingness
to consider the interim approach. The Lithuanian delegate
called for expansion in both categories in order to achieve
equitable geographical distribution.

3. (SBU) After U.S.-Russian coordination, the Russian Deputy
Perm Rep responded to some delegates' remarks and a comment
in the Chair's opening remarks which called into question the
Council's current legitimacy because of its current
composition. The Russian Deputy Perm Rep underscored that
the Security Council does not lack legitimacy. While some
may use the phrase as a figure of speech, he said, using it
for political ends does not contribute positively to the
serious work of these negotiations. (Note: Ambassador Wolff
followed up on the legitimacy point in U.S. remarks on
September 2. He said, "We have heard a couple of references
yesterday and today to the issue of the Security Council's
legitimacy. This issue is settled by the UN Charter to which
everyone here has voluntarily adhered. The Council's
legitimacy is solely derived from the UN Charter, not from
its composition." End note.)

Sept. 2: Expansion in both categories
-------------------------------------

4. (SBU) During the second session of the third round on

September 2, the discussion focused on the first of two
potential reform models -- expansion in both categories. 51
delegations took the floor and three delegations (Italy,
Pakistan, and Jamaica) took the floor for a second
intervention at the end of the day. Russia was the only P-5
member who did not speak. The Chinese Deputy Perm Rep
neither directly addressed nor rejected an expansion of
permanent members, thereby continuing China's evasive
position on the subject. He called for an "appropriate
expansion" of the Council based on equitable geographical
distribution and said that small and medium-sized states
should have greater access to the Council. The UK and France
referred to their support of the G4 for permanent seats and
of the intermediate option as a way around the impasse on
reform, noting that those intermediate seats could be
converted to permanent seats after a review. France again
voiced support for permanent seats for an African state and
an Arab state.

U.S. remarks
------------

5. (SBU) Ambassador Wolff said that the United States
supports expansion of the Security Council in a way that will
neither diminish its effectiveness nor its efficiency. He
said the United States is open in principle to a limited
expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members but
that the numbers proposed by many delegations -- such as in
the mid-twenties -- would, given our long experience on the
Council, result in an unwieldy body that would compromise
effectiveness and efficiency. He said that any consideration
of an expansion of permanent members must be country-specific
in nature. The United States would not be able to support an
amendment to the UN Charter where new permanent members are
not specifically identified by name. In determining which
countries merit permanent membership, he said the United
States would take into account the ability of countries to
contribute to the maintenance of international peace and
security and the other purposes of the United Nations.

6. (SBU) Ambassador Wolff reiterated that any expansion of
non-permanent members to reflect better equitable
geographical distribution should be done in a manner that
does not diminish the Council's effectiveness and efficiency.
Election of non-permanent members should remain defined by
Article 18 as an important question and require for election
a two-thirds majority of the membership present and voting.
He underscored that the United States is not open to an
enlargement of the Council with a change to the current veto
structure but we remain prepared to discuss this point for as
long as members would like; but we see it only leading to
impasse at the expense of progress on expansion. He also
stressed that whatever formula emerges for an expansion of
Council membership must factor in Charter requirements for
ratification.

UFC bloc against expansion
of permanent members
--------------------------

7. (SBU) UFC bloc members called into question holding a
meeting on a specific model, though they did voice moderate
support for the next day's discussion of the intermediate
option. Most reaffirmed the need to focus on all five key
issues. Pakistan called expansion in both categories, or the
G4 model, a "model of exclusion." A number of UFC states
said that proposal does not enjoy a majority of support,
noting that a large number of states have yet to voice a
position in IGN. The Italian Perm Rep asked what model was
really being discussed - additional permanent seats with or
without the veto - and then said only elected seats offer
genuine accountability. He also noted that aspirants to
permanent seats will change in 10-15 years because of
political and economic factors and then the membership would
be faced with different aspirants for more permanent seats.
The Mexican Perm Rep specifically spoke against an organ
which would include 11 veto-wielding parties and doubted this
would lead to an increase in the Council's effectiveness.
The Costa Rican delegate said it would be circulating a

revised version of its 2005 document (A/49/856) describing
the "cascade effects" more permanent members will have on
other aspects of the UN system and argued for a moderate
increase in elected members. UFC states continued to call
only for an expansion of non-permanent members, saying this
was the most democratic and representative solution, and that
an addition of permanent seats would not make the Council
more open, transparent, or accountable.

G4 argue that expansion in both
categories has majority support
-------------------------------

8. (SBU) G4 members and their supporters throughout the
session emphasized that a majority of states are in favor of
an expansion in both categories and this should be the basis
for negotiations. They argued that those specifically
against an expansion of permanent members only number around
12-15 states. The Indian PR asked rhetorically if the UFC
wanted India to schedule a straw poll to scientifically test
the numbers in favor of an expansion in both categories. He
said that they likely do not want such a straw poll because
it would just highlight their isolation. The Italian Perm
Rep responded to the challenge on September 3, saying that
there are no provisions for a straw poll in the informal
plenary, just general discussion. He said that if a model is
to be put to a vote, then a formal plenary should be convened
and a resolution put to a vote.

G4 offer more details on selection
of new permanent members
----------------------------------

9. (SBU) Both the Brazilian and German statements, for the
first time, specifically referred to the General Assembly
voting on specific permanent members after they are nominated
by their regional group. The German Deputy Perm Rep said
that Article 23 would be the yardstick for permanent
membership: "due regard ...to the contribution of Members of
the UN to the maintenance of international peace and security
and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to
equitable geographical distribution." The G4 continued to
argue that the veto should be extended to new permanent
members but its use postponed until a future review.
(Comment: The G4 has not offered details on how a veto
postponement mechanism would be drafted in a UN Charter
amendment. USUN views such an arrangement as technically
non-feasible. End Comment.) The Brazilian delegate, the
Vice Minister of External Relations for Political Affairs,
said that Brazil had served nine times as an elected member
and understood the limitations of non-permanent membership
and the only way to effect the desired shift in the balance
of power within the Council was to add permanent members.

African Group still behind
Ezulwini Consensus
--------------------------

10. (SBU) The African Group echoed, in its nine statements,
the Ezulwini Consensus and called for two permanent seats for
Africa and five total elected seats (including their current
seats). They also rejected the intermediate proposal as not
properly righting the historical injustice of Africa's
non-representation in the permanent member category.

11. (SBU) The Ghanaian delegate recalled that Afghanistan
had chaired the 1963 General Assembly conference to expand
the Security Council. He suggested the formation of a
mechanism, as in 1963, for a smaller but representative group
of member states to engage with the P-5 in order to move the
process forward and draft language which would meet with the
widest possible agreement. (Comment: No other delegations
reacted to this proposal during the session. End comment.)
RICE

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