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Cablegate: Unga: Unsc Reform: Third Round Of

VZCZCXYZ0002
OO RUEHWEB

DE RUCNDT #0828/01 2522228
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
O 092228Z SEP 09
FM USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 7165
INFO RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE IMMEDIATE
RUEHRL/AMEMBASSY BERLIN IMMEDIATE 1111
RUEHBR/AMEMBASSY BRASILIA IMMEDIATE 1162
RUEHIL/AMEMBASSY ISLAMABAD IMMEDIATE 2472
RUEHMD/AMEMBASSY MADRID IMMEDIATE 6429
RUEHNE/AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI IMMEDIATE 2781
RUEHRO/AMEMBASSY ROME IMMEDIATE 1137
RUEHUL/AMEMBASSY SEOUL IMMEDIATE 1184
RUEHKO/AMEMBASSY TOKYO IMMEDIATE 8777

UNCLAS USUN NEW YORK 000828

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

DEPARTMENT FOR USUN/W AND IO/UNP; NSC FOR POWER

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PREL KUNR UNGA UNSC GE JA BR IN
SUBJECT: UNGA: UNSC REFORM: THIRD ROUND OF
INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS - INTERMEDIATE MODEL

REF: A. USUN NEW YORK 827
B. USUN NEW YORK 634
C. USUN NE YORK 609
D. USUN NEW YORK 553
E. USUN NEW YORK 432
F. USUN NEW YORK 388
G. USUN NEW YORK 345
H. USUN NEW YORK 289
I. USUN NEW YORK 230

1. (SBU) Summary: The informal plenary of the General
Assembly met on September 3 for the third meeting of the
third round of intergovernmental negotiations (IGN) on
Security Council reform. 43 delegations, including all of
the P-5, spoke on the intermediate model. The UK and France
did not offer many details but did emphasize their version of
the model as a stepping stone to permanent seats after a
review. Other delegations offered variations on the
intermediate model - from two-year seats with the possibility
of re-election to three to 15-year seats with or without the
possibility of re-election. Some suggested that longer-term
seats could be assigned to regional groups and rotated
amongst regional members. Germany was the only Group of Four
(G4) member to speak in favor of the intermediate model,
albeit a variation which would lead to permanent seats after
a review. Other G4 and African Group members remained
unwilling to give up on the expansion in both categories
model, arguing that it enjoyed broader support, was more
responsive to the membership's core demands for reform, and
vigorous negotiations have not yet started so there is no
need yet for a compromise model (like the intermediate
model). G4 members called on the Chair to provide a
workplan/roadmap for negotiations during the next session,
including a clear timetable. The Chair announced that the
President of the General Assembly (PGA) will hold a meeting
of the Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) on September 9 to
present his report on the subject during the 63rd session and
that the Chair would also circulate another letter on the IGN
to the membership before the end of the 63rd session. End
summary.

2. (SBU) During the third scheduled meeting of the third
round of IGN on September 3, 43 delegations, including all of
the P-5, spoke on the second of two potential reform models
-- the intermediate option. The French Perm Rep said that
while the UK and France had proposed the intermediate model,
France preferred a permanent solution in the end. However,
if a permanent solution is not possible, he argued that the
intermediate model should be the focus of the membership's
work during the 64th session. Neither he nor the UK Deputy
Perm Rep offered any specifics on their version of the
intermediate option. The Russian Perm Rep said that the
intermediate model could be a platform upon which the
membership succeeds in reaching agreement. He called for a
maximum five-year term which would allow larger and more
influential states to participate more actively in the
Council. If there is to be a review mechanism, he called for
the removal from its agenda of the question of the veto and
Security Council working methods since, he said, both should
be handled only by the Council itself. He said that no one
should bank on rapid progress, and a final formula on
expansion should not lead to a split of the membership but
should meet with the approval of significantly more than
two-thirds of the membership.

U.S. remarks
------------

3. (SBU) In the U.S. statement, Ambassador Wolff called on
those states which have been the greatest proponents for the
intermediate option to offer more details, including how, by
whom, and on what basis intermediate members would be chosen,
for how long would they serve, and whether they would be
eligible for re-election. He also questioned how the
intermediate model differed in practice from an expansion of
non-permanent members. He reminded the membership that the
U.S. has voiced support to date only for a limited expansion
of both permanent and non-permanent members with any
expansion of permanent members being country-specific in
nature and new non-permanent members being subject to

election by a two-thirds majority of the entire membership as
stipulated in the UN Charter. He underscored that whatever
formula that emerges for an expansion must factor in Charter
requirements for ratification. As Charter amendments are not
easily achieved, he said that the U.S. believes it is
unlikely that we will have more than one opportunity to amend
the Charter on the issue of Security Council composition in
the foreseeable future, therefore, the strong preference of
the United States is to focus on a set of reforms that do not
depend on recourse to a future review. He stressed that
depending on a future review could raise unrealistic
expectations which could prove highly divisive if those
expectations were not met.

Proponents offer details
on intermediate option
------------------------

4. (SBU) The Netherlands Perm Rep sought to elaborate on the
intermediate option. He defined an expanded Council as in
the low 20s with additional elected seats and longer-term
seats of 3-15 years with a review after approximately two
terms of the longer-term seats. He said the central
questions for the review would be: (1) whether to continue on
with the longer-term seats or revert back to the original
arrangement and start the reform process anew; (2) whether to
extend the veto; and (3) should any of the Council seats
become regional seats. (Comment: USUN judges it difficult to
foresee a review process that reverts back to a previous
state. The reform that will precipitate the review will
involve a Charter amendment. A second Charter amendment will
be required to institute the results of the review.
Achieving two Charter amendments, fully ratified, in the
space of a 15-30 years is likely overly ambitious, given the
length of the reform debate to date. End comment.)

5. (SBU) The Swiss delegate suggested that the length of the
longer-term seats should be negotiated and there should be
objective criteria for longer-term candidates based on size
and contributions. The Pakistan Perm Rep suggested two-year
seats with the possibility of re-election or three to
five-year terms without the possibility of re-election. The
Indonesian Perm Rep said any future review should focus on
how the system is operating, not on a particular member
state's performance as a longer-term member. The Canadian
Perm Rep said that any addition of longer-term seats should
be great enough to allow for increased representation but not
too large as to jeopardize efficiency. The Turkish Perm Rep
suggested that longer-term seats be assigned to specific
regional groups so that the seats can be rotated amongst the
members of the group. The Liechtenstein delegate said
Liechtenstein envisages the creation of six new long-term
renewable seats with a strong review clause after the
expiration of two terms. He underlined that the intermediate
model offers the possibility of states serving as de facto
permanent members if (1) they so choose and (2) they are
elected for consecutive terms, which provides for an element
of accountability lacking in the expansion in both categories
model, or the possibility of regional rotation, if a region
so agrees.

Germany supports intermediate model
as bridge to new permanent seats
-----------------------------------

6. (SBU) The German Deputy Perm Rep voiced support for the
day's discussion which he hoped would "concretize" the
intermediate model. (Note: Germany is the only Group of Four
(G4) member that has voiced interest in discussing the
intermediate model. End note.) He said the while the
intermediate model will not make all delegations happy, it
would reform the Security Council until a future review when
it could be judged whether to make the intermediate model a
permanent solution. He argued against the re-election of
longer-term members, saying it would cause them to start
campaigning for re-election on day one of the term, instead
of focusing on the actual difficult challenges. He said that
longer-term members should serve continuously and only be
removed by a vote of the same magnitude that elected that to
the Council (i.e., two-thirds of the membership). The Costa


Rican delegate argued against an "interim solution" that is
just a postponement of the permanent seat expansion (the
UK/France/Germany proposal) but voiced support for
longer-terms seats with a single re-election and then a
mandatory sitting-out period of twice the length of time
served on the Council.

Other G4 members advocate
against intermediate model
--------------------------

7. (SBU) The Brazilian Vice Minister of External Relations
for Political Affairs underscored that the intermediate model
is not Brazil's preferred option and questioned how true
reform would come about if the core membership (P-5) remains
the same. The Indian Special Secretary for International
Organizations and Political Issues in the Ministry of
External Affairs questioned what the intermediate option was
"intermediate to" and said that the intermediate model does
not address the core demands of member states because it
limits expansion to the non-permanent category. He argued
for the membership to focus on an expansion in both
categories since India views that proposal as enjoying
broader support.

African states say it is premature to
negotiate intermediate model; call for
negotiations on expansion in both categories
--------------------------------------------

8. (SBU) The South African Legal Advisor said that the
intermediate model does not address Africa's
non-representation in the permanent member category. The
Kenyan delegate said that the intermediate model presumes
there are areas on which the membership cannot reach an
agreement regarding permanent seats. African delegations
argued that comprehensive reform should still be the
objective and since vigorous negotiations have not yet begun,
they stressed the need to first focus on expansion in both
categories and then see if there is deadlock. The delegate
from Swaziland noted that if African states accept the
intermediate option then they will be adding 50 more years to
Africa's wait for a permanent seat. The Zambian delegate
said that there would be no guarantee that the inadequacies
of the intermediate option would be rectified at a review
conference. The Egyptian Perm Rep called the intermediate
model an attempt to avoid a decision on a veto for Africa.

Next steps
----------

9. (SBU) Germany and India called on the Chair (the Afghan
Perm Rep) to draft a workplan/roadmap for negotiations during
the next session, including a clear timetable. South Africa
called on the Chair to draft a comprehensive document
containing the proposals before the membership and the levels
of support expressed for each of them. The Czech Republic
called for the Chair to prepare a document reflecting on the
negotiations and the way forward in the 64th session. Malta
called for a smooth transition to the 64th session with all
of the options on the table, including all of the five key
issues. The San Marino Perm Rep also called for a smooth
transition to the 64th session and said he hoped the
PGA-elect would ask the Chair to continue as Chair during the
next session.

10. (SBU) At the end of the meeting, the Chair briefly
summarized the three rounds of intergovernmental negotiations
held during the 63rd session (reftels), commenting that the
procedural hurdles were avoided on day one. He noted the
surge of interest from the membership on the subject with
two-thirds of the membership actively engaged in the IGN. He
said that the ground work has been set for "real give and
take" in the 64th session. He announced that he would brief
the President of the General Assembly (PGA) on the results of
the IGN. Then, after Labor Day, the Chair said the PGA would
circulate his report to the Open-ended Working Group, per
decision 62/557, and there will be a final meeting in the
63rd session of the OEWG on September 9. The Chair said he
would also send out another letter to the membership, as


outlined in his July 16 letter: "After these three exchanges,
Member states can expect to receive another letter from the
Chair outlining the Membership-driven remainder of the third
round, during which our lodestar 62/557 will continue to
shine brightly."
RICE

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