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Cablegate: Usaid Acting Administrator Meeting with Un Dsrsg to Sudan

VZCZCXRO3108
OO RUEHROV RUEHTRO
DE RUEHKH #1215/01 3020725
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
O 290725Z OCT 09
FM AMEMBASSY KHARTOUM
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 4647
INFO RUCNIAD/IGAD COLLECTIVE
RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE
RHMFISS/CJTF HOA

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 02 KHARTOUM 001215

NSC FOR MGAVIN, LETIM
DEPT PLS PASS USAID FOR AFR/SUDAN
ADDIS ABABA ALSO FOR USAU
GENEVA FOR NKYLOH
UN ROME FOR HSPANOS
NEW YORK FOR DMERCADO

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: EAID PREF PGOV PHUM SMIG UN SU
SUBJECT: USAID Acting Administrator Meeting with UN DSRSG to Sudan

1. (SBU) Summary: On October 24, USAID Acting Administrator Alonzo
Fulgham and Acting Assistant Administrator for USAID's Bureau for
Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (USAID/DCHA) Susan
Reichle met with Deputy Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary
General (DSRSG) and Humanitarian/Resident Coordinator for Sudan
Ameerah Haq as part of the delegation's October 24 to 27 visit to
Sudan. In a "tour d'horizon" that encompassed the political scene
and humanitarian challenges, Ms. Haq and her chief of political
affairs described the worrying state of election and referendum
preparations, as well as the difficulties of managing an
increasingly complex humanitarian response. End summary.
------------------------------------------
LACK OF PREPARATION, CONSENSUS ON ELECTION
------------------------------------------

2. (SBU) DSRSG Haq's political advisor began the briefing by
stressing that the lack of trust between the Sudan People's
Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the National Congress Party (NCP)
regarding the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement
(CPA) remains a significant risk to the peace process as elections
and the referendum approach. At this late date in the process, the
parties should be reaching consensus; however, the opposite appears
to be the case. The National Election Commission is weak, perhaps
even by design, impeding implementation of the various stages of
election preparation. If federal-level preparation is weak, state
level organization is even weaker. While the mechanics of the
election may be moving forward, the NCP and SPLM have not agreed
upon critical issues that will impact the conduct of elections, such
as the border demarcation and the census.

3. (SBU) Regarding the referendum scheduled for January 2011 on
potential Southern Sudan independence, Haq and her advisor expressed
hope that the meeting between Riek Machar and Ali Osman Taha, the
vice presidents of Government of Southern Sudan and Sudan's
Government of National Unity, respectively, had resolved the voting
formula. However, she noted that recent information indicates that
the deal may not be 'sealed.' The parties agree that southerners in
the north, as well as the diaspora, will be permitted to vote.
However, outstanding issues remain regarding the number of votes
required for the referendum to be considered valid. Currently, the
parties are discussing a formula that will require that 66 percent
of registered voters participate, of which a simple majority would
be sufficient to determine separation. The parties view the
election and referendum as a package deal, and both are needed to
move the CPA process forward.

--------------------------------
DARFUR SECURITY, RETURNS COMPLEX
--------------------------------

4. (U) Turning to the humanitarian situation, Ms. Haq informed the
delegation that gap-filling by UN agencies and NGOs averted a
humanitarian crisis following the early March NGO expulsions. In
addition, the U.S. Special Envoy (SE) to Sudan General Scott Gration
has opened humanitarian space through his initiatives.

5. (SBU) In Darfur at present, most assistance is flowing to
internally displaced persons (IDPs) in camps, as areas outside camps
are increasingly unsafe for humanitarians. In addition, due to the
prevailing insecurity outside of camps, IDPs are not returning to
pre-crisis homes. At the same time, Haq stated that the
humanitarian community must avoid creating a situation of dependency
through protracted relief to camps, particularly while camps become
increasingly political entities where IDPs who might want to return
home are held back by their leaders. The international community
has clearly expressed to the GOS that returns must be voluntary and
verifiable. DCHA Acting USAID/DCHA Assistant Administrator Reichle
asked Haq about returns-related land issues. The UN DSRSG replied
that Darfuri civil society must be involved in any land reform
discussions and in resolving land disputes. Through the Doha
process, the U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan (USSES) and others have
encouraged civil society representatives to conduct the proper
surveys to analyze the land issue. The UN DSRSG said land will be
critical in the upcoming negotiations between the government and
rebel groups.

6. (SBU) Security remains a primary concern for humanitarian
operations. Haq noted the October 22 kidnapping of an International
Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) staff member near El Geneina, West
Darfur, and underscored her intention to persuade the High Level
Committee (HLC) to make the planned HLC trip to El Geneina, despite
the incident, as a show of solidarity with ICRC and the humanitarian
community more generally. The DSRSG opined that abduction of

KHARTOUM 00001215 002 OF 002


international staff was increasing in frequency due to the culture
of impunity that prevails in Darfur and the feeling of
marginalization by Arab groups who are receiving little humanitarian
assistance. The U.S. delegation promised to raise this as a matter
of urgency at the meeting with the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs
scheduled for later in the day.

7. (SBU) Haq noted that the multiple entry visa initiative of SE
Gration was a success, but that implementation has encountered
obstacles, since the visas are attached to other agreements and
bureaucratic procedures in place between the NGOs and the
government. On the "Sudanization" of humanitarian assistance, as
announced by Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir in March, Haq
observed that this was a Presidential directive and would be
implemented. Humanitarian agencies do not disagree with the
principle of partnership, but a line needed to be drawn if the GOS
arbitrarily assigned inappropriate national NGOs to the
international agencies, compromising the latter's neutrality.

-------------------------------------
WORRYING HUMANITARIAN TRENDS IN SUDAN
-------------------------------------

8. (SBU) The UN representatives noted that the situation in Southern
Sudan has become equally worrying. Haq stated that the international
community had hoped by this time to be shifting from humanitarian
work to development, but instead "we are moving backward" with
insecurity in Jonglei State and other areas, as well as a food
security crisis necessitating airdrops in multiple Southern Sudan
locations. The UN is addressing this through a 'stabilization' plan
that involves capacity building in governors' offices throughout the
South, but focusing first on Jonglei. The UN plans to mobilize 150
UN Volunteers (UNVs) with expertise in information technology,
planning, surveying, engineering, and medicine. To date, the UN has
recruited 55 UNVs. These efforts are in preparation for a 'soft
landing' the day after the 2011 referendum.

9. (SBU) In a quick review of other geographical problem areas, Haq
highlighted Abyei as a "tinderbox," with the decision on the border
still contested by some parties, as well as early Misseriya
migration, which more immediately could lead to an outbreak of
violence in the area. In the East, despite the Eastern Sudan Peace
Agreement (ESPA), little assistance has been provided to reverse the
chronic situation of poverty and malnutrition. (Note: While the
ESPA provided for the establishment of an Eastern Sudan
Reconstruction and Development Fund (ESRDF), with an initial GOS
deposit of USD100 million and annual allocations of at least USD125
million for four years, the ESRDF remains underfunded, with only
USD53 million allocated as of July 2009. End note). Haq stated
that indicators in the East and South are far worse than Darfur.

10. (U) The delegation cleared this cable prior to departure.

WHITEHEAD

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