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Cablegate: Momentum Building to Bolster Monuc's Mandate And

VZCZCXYZ0000
OO RUEHWEB

DE RUCNDT #0936/01 2951624
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
O 221624Z OCT 09
FM USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 7398
INFO RUEHGG/UN SECURITY COUNCIL COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEHLGB/AMEMBASSY KIGALI PRIORITY 0349
RUEHKI/AMEMBASSY KINSHASA PRIORITY 1978

UNCLAS USUN NEW YORK 000936

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PGOV PREL UNSC CG ZXA ZF RW
SUBJECT: MOMENTUM BUILDING TO BOLSTER MONUC'S MANDATE AND
STREAMLINE ITS TASKS

REF: STATE 107296

1. (SBU) SUMMARY. MONUC SRSG Doss told the Security
Council on October 16 that progress continued on
integrating the DRC army (FARDC), but noted that the FDLR
had not been neutralized and LRA remnants were still
active. In closed consultations with Council members, Doss
said that LRA elements had moved to the Central African
Republic, highlighting the need for a regional approach and
for MONUC to work with other UN operations in the region.
Ambassador Rice expressed concern about the effect the
FARDC's operations are having on the civilian population.
All Council members urged the continuation of "Kimia II."
France, the UK, and Uganda, as well as Doss, called for
security sector reform elements to be included in a revised
MONUC mandate later this year. DRC PermRep Ileta told the
Council that MONUC "must succeed" and suggested that the
UNSC, MONUC, and DRC work together to develop a roadmap to
transition the mission from peacekeeping to peacebuilding.
END SUMMARY.

PROGRESS AGAINST THE FDLR

2. (SBU) On October 16, UN Organization Mission in the
Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) Special Representative
of the Secretary General (SRSG) Alan Doss told the Security
Council in an open session that since his last report three
months ago, MONUC has helped return security to the DRC,
but cautioned against "resting on our laurels." Doss
reported that the Congolese Armed Forces' (FARDC) actions
to combat the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of
Rwanda (FDLR) had made progress. He said that more FDLR
combatants and their dependents were being repatriated to
Rwanda and refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)
were returning home. However, the FDLR had not been
neutralized and attacks continued in North and South Kivu
provinces, as well as in Orientale province where remnants
of the Lord's Resistance Army of Uganda (LRA) were still
active. Doss said more pressure needed to be put on FDLR
leaders who were outside of DRC through criminalizing the
militia under the Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime.

MONUC'S PROTECTION MANDATE

3. (SBU) Doss told the Council that since it had mandated
(in UNSCR 1856) MONUC to focus on civilian protection, the
mission had identified protection hotspots and established
mobile operating bases. More than 50 operations by joint
protection teams had been launched, guided by a Rapid
Response and Intelligence Cell. MONUC's troops have also
provided, according to Doss, protection against attacks by
armed elements to facilitate the safe delivery of
humanitarian assistance. In closed consultations following
the open session, Doss told Council members that additional
troops authorized by UNSCR 1843 were being placed in
eastern DRC as a reserve. He underlined that "presence
equals protection." He also noted that the "FDLR
insurgency" cannot be dealt with if the FARDC is not sound,
calling for continued joint planning, which he noted "does
not always work." He added that President Kabila is fully
committed to FARDC's improvement and reintegration.

PROGRESS ON MILITARY AND POLITICAL FRONTS

4. (SBU) To strengthen MONUC's operations, Doss told the
Council that the first elements of the additional 3,000
forces authorized last year had begun to arrive in the
east. Given the improved situation in western DRC, Doss
will leave only 500 military personnel in that portion of
the country. Overall, air assets were still lacking. Doss
said that implementation of the 23 March agreements on the
CNDP were also progressing but timetables for local
elections might be pushed back to late 2010, as the enabli
ng legislation was lagging. The justice sector, and
particularly the prison system, needed to be strengthened.
In closed consultations, Doss noted that "Kimia II" has
exposed joint planning (with the FARDC) problems. He added
that IDPs are returning to the areas they were leaving just
a year ago. Doss noted with concern that elements of the
LRA had moved to the Central African Republic, highlighting
the need for a regional approach and for MONUC to work with
other UN operations in the region, so that the LRA problem
is not just displaced, but solved.

PREPARING TO REVISE MONUC'S MANDATE...

5. (SBU) Doss pointed out that next month marks the 10-year
anniversary of MONUC, and asked Council members to remember
E


the many successes the mission has enjoyed over that time.
He said that MONUC's mandate, outlined in UNSCR 1856,
includes 41 tasks that allowed the mission a necessary
flexibility in carrying out its work. Nonetheless, Doss
urged the Council to help rationalize the demands and
expectations for the mission. As part of the process
related to forming MONUC's Integrated Strategic Framework,
the SYG's Policy Committee had recommended three areas to
consider when reworking the mission's mandate, including
evaluating the peace process; the status of DRC's
democratic process and elections; and security sector
reform (SSR). He warned against leaving prematurely as
doing so would provide the opportunity for rebel groups to
rearm themselves, undermining resolve and weakening efforts
for sustainable peace in the region.

...WHILE LOOKING TO TRANSITION TO PEACEBUILDING FUNCTIONS

6. (SBU) Doss led the charge for a potential drawdown of
MONUC's forces beginning in 2011 if all ongoing operations,
particularly in the east, prove successful and the
Congolese Government enjoys the necessary capacity to
assume its functions. In closed consultations with Council
members following the open meeting, Doss identified the
important areas for MONUC's mandate going forward as SSR
and rule of law.

DRC PERMREP OFFERS THOUGHTS ON MONUC AND A SOBERING TAKE ON
THE SITUATION

7. (SBU) DRC PermRep Atoki Ileta told Council members that
MONUC "must succeed" and must exit successfully; he added
that the Congolese people do not want a hasty withdrawal,
nor do they want the mission to stay forever. To
accomplish a drawdown, Ileta suggested the UNSC, MONUC, and
DRC work together to develop a roadmap to transition from
peacekeeping to peacebuilding. He suggested that a new UN
Office for Central Africa should be headquartered in DRC
to, inter alia, facilitate such a transition. (Note: Ileta
said he had an exchange of letters with SYG Ban on this
matter.) He also noted that there is an ongoing need to
significantly weaken or "annihilate" armed groups in his
country.

8. (SBU) Ileta reminded Council members of Foreign Minister
Thambwe's comments during the UNGA General Debate about
crimes of sexual violence, which he characterized as the
worst so far in the 21st century. He added that he was
personally shocked by the alleged gang rape by MONUC troops
of an 18 year old woman in Kinshasa airport in late July.
He requested information on who decided not to prosecute
the alleged perpetrators and questioned the validity of the
UN's "zero tolerance" for sexual abuse policy. (Note: Doss
in closed consultations said MONUC had fully investigated
the claim and found no evidence of rape.) He said the new
SRSG for Sexual Violence could play a role in such cases,
but that the new SRSG "must be a woman." He also raised
the issue of HIV/AIDS on the peace and security situation
in Africa, including in DRC. To demonstrate his point, he
said that Orientale province has an AIDS prevalence rate
four-times higher than the national average. He reflected
that if the UNSC had taken action in 1999 (when MONUC was
created) to address HIV/AIDS in DRC, he would not be
addressing the same issue today.

PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS A KEY, ONGOING CONCERN OF COUNCIL
MEMBERS

9. (SBU) As the meeting continued in closed consultations,
all Council members expressed their strong support for
MONUC's work, but noted concerns about the protection of
civilians. All members supported continuing the "Kimia II"
operation, but condemned human rights violations committed
in relation to that operation, and in all other aspects.
Most Council members reflected on the upcoming mandate
renewal, and expressed at least some level of support for a
drawdown plan as called for by SRSG Doss. A number of
Council members called for MONUC to play a role in
protecting natural resources, but did not offer specifics
on how the mission could do that.

10. (SBU) Ambassador Rice acknowledged progress against the
FDLR and LRA, but expressed concern about the effect the
FARDC's operations were having on the civilian population.
She urged the continuation of "Kimia II." She said MONUC's
highest priority should be the protection of civilians in
vulnerable areas. She also noted positive steps in the
protection of human rights throughout DRC, but said the
U.S. remains deeply concerned about the increase in


reported violations perpetrated by foreign armed groups and
Congolese security forces. She commended MONUC's work to
implement the Comprehensive Strategy on Combating Sexual
Violence in the DRC and the hiring of a Senior Advisor on
Sexual Violence. Ambassador Rice said that, with MONUC's
mandate coming up for renewal in December, Council members
need to ensure the mandate is both achievable and credible
in the short- and long-term.

11. (SBU) French PermRep Araud called for a global strategy
for the transition of MONUC to a mission with less of a
military focus. He said the European Union, in particular,
has a responsibility to "do more" in DRC. He also urged
Council members to look at how the situation on the ground
has changed over the last year when considering revising
MONUC's mandate. UK PermRep Sawers--in his last Council
meeting before heading back to London for his next
assignment--offered effusive praise for Doss. Echoing
Araud's comments, he recalled where things stood just one
year ago and attributed the improvement to the UN's
presence in DRC. Sawers called for a clearer role for
MONUC in SSR, noting how ill-equipped the mission was in
that area. On sexual violence, he said that "we have
changed the attitude and put the spotlight on the problem,"
but that we had not solved it.

12. (SBU) Russia said MONUC's mandate needed to be
realistic, effective, and focused on civilian protection,
and that neutralizing FDLR forces by only military means
would not be enough. Russia expressed serious concern over
the increased humanitarian problems caused by "Kimia II."
China said the Congolese Government should expedite
reintegration efforts and strongly condemned the FDLR and
LRA's incessant reprisals against civilians.

13. (SBU) Ugandan PermRep Rugunda praised MONUC's work
supporting the FARDC and said it should continue because
"we can see the results." He recalled the Council's trip
to Africa in May when PermReps visited a camp in Rwanda
where 500 former FDLR combatants had been repatriated. On
protection of civilians, Rugunda said that MONUC should
talk to rebels, but if they refuse to "talk peace," there
was no alternative but to neutralize them militarily (he
reflected on Uganda's own experience in this regard). He
called for including SSR in MONUC's mandate and a greater
role for institution building among the Congolese
Government.

DOSS TELLS RICE KABILA IS COMMITTED TO VETTING

14. (SBU) In a private meeting with Ambassador Rice before
the briefing, Doss said that it was necessary to cut off
the FDLR from its base of financial support, including its
illegal mining revenues. Rice reaffirmed the U.S.
commitment to pursue allegations against FDLR supporters in
the U.S., and stressed the need for credible information so
that the U.S. could take action. In response to Rice's
question, Doss said President Kabila was committed to
vetting the members of the FARDC and Doss suggested imple
menting the U.S. vetting standards for all FARDC members.
He noted the greatest problem in the FARDC was removing
command-level officers who had been integrated from
militias, but who stood accused of human rights
violations. On the "FARDC 5," Doss said all were removed
from command positions, two were in custody, two were under
a form of "house arrest," and one had absconded. Doss said
Rwanda needed to apply pressure on the ex-CNDP members to
ensure proper vetting. Doss said MONUC would agree to help
the Ugandans combat the LRA, but MONUC would need DRC
support and Security Council approval.

15. (U) Ambassador Rice has cleared this cable.
Wolff

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