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Cablegate: "Intra-Chadian Diplomacy" and "Chadian National

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OO RUEHBC RUEHBZ RUEHDE RUEHDH RUEHDU RUEHGI RUEHJO RUEHKUK RUEHMA
RUEHMR RUEHPA RUEHRN RUEHROV RUEHTRO
DE RUEHNJ #0602/01 3501318
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
O 161318Z DEC 09
FM AMEMBASSY NDJAMENA
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 7515
INFO RUCNFUR/DARFUR COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEHEE/ARAB LEAGUE COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEHZO/AFRICAN UNION COLLECTIVE PRIORITY
RUEKJCS/SECDEF WASHDC PRIORITY
RHEHNSC/NSC WASHDC PRIORITY
RHMFISS/HQ USAFRICOM STUTTGART GE PRIORITY

UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 03 NDJAMENA 000602

SIPDIS
SENSITIVE

STATE FOR AF/C
STATE FOR S/USSES
DOD FOR DASD HUDDLESTON
NSC FOR GAVIN
LONDON FOR POL - LORD
PARIS FOR POL - BAIN AND KANEDA
ADDIS ABABA ALSO FOR AU

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PREL PGOV PREF MARR PHUM ECON EFIN PINR SU
LY, CD
SUBJECT: "INTRA-CHADIAN DIPLOMACY" AND "CHADIAN NATIONAL
RECONCILIATION" CONTINUE TO MAKE SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS

REF: A. NDJAMENA 591
B. NDJAMENA 507
C. NDJAMENA 457

------------------
SUMMARY AND COMMENT
-------------------

1. (SBU) National Mediator Abderamane Moussa told the
Ambassador December 14 that the GOC's "national
reconciliation" efforts continued to claim success, with the
return of former armed rebels and former regime opponents to
Chad. Moussa cited three recent events: the return to Chad
this week by former regime opponent Dr. Mahamout Nahor
Ngawara, head of the dissident Democratic Popular Front
party, after 12 years in self-imposed exile in France; the
defection and return to Chad from Sudan of some 100-odd
fighters and other dissidents from Adouma Hassaballah's UFCD
armed rebel group; and the elevation of his own position by
law to a constitutional level, following a National Assembly
vote November 26 to institutionalize the office of "Mediator
of the Republic," with powers broadened to include "domestic"
as well as "foreign" responsibilities in conflict resolution
and mitigation.

2. (SBU) The creation of the office of "Mediator of the
Republic" with expanded powers and responsibilities
recognizes the incumbent's successful tenure and demonstrates
the GOC's commitment to resolving internal as well as
external conflicts among Chadians. The return of Nahor's DPF
and part of Hassaballah's UFCD group from the rebellion is in
itself good news. The amnesty of Soubiane and others shows
the GOC's willingness and ability to reconcile with all but
the most intransigent and hardline of Chad's armed rebels and
regime opponents.

3. (SBU) Despite evident success, including responsiveness
to USG policy demarches to the GOC since February 2008 (and
before), "intra-Chadian diplomacy" has its critics, who
allege various deficiencies. We disagree and these most
recent examples of the effectiveness of the GOC's strategy
bear us out. We continue to believe that intra-Chadian
diplomacy has its own rules and protocols, rooted in Chad's
distinct, indigenous political culture, whose dynamics are
different from classic Western-style diplomacy. The notion
that intra-Chadian diplomacy as practiced by the National
Mediator and others in the Deby regime is not a valid method
for reaching out to armed rebels and regime opponents ignores
the dynamics of Chadian political culture and the realities
of the GOC's success in reducing the virulence of the Chad
rebellion over the past 18 months. END SUMMARY AND COMMENT

-----------------
DR. NAHOR RETURNS
-----------------

4. (SBU) National Mediator Abderamane Moussa told the
Ambassador December 14 about the return the previous day of
former regime opponent Dr. Mahamout Nahor Ngawara, head of
the dissident (and sometimes armed) Democratic Popular Front
party to Chad. Nahor, reconciled with the GOC after 12 years
in self-imposed exile in France, crossed into Chad from
Cameroon December 13 along with a dozen or so of his senior
staff. He was welcomed by Saleh Maki, the number two of the
National Mediator's office. Dr. Nahor, a prominent physician
and former political ally of President Deby, met with Deby in
Paris in July.

-------------------------
SOUBIANE ET AL. AMNESTIED
-------------------------

5. (SBU) The National Mediator also called the Ambassador's
attention to the recent decree granting amnesty to former
armed rebel chief Ahmat Soubiane and other former rebels and
regime opponents, citing it as an example of the effective

NDJAMENA 00000602 002 OF 003


functioning of the GOC's efforts toward complete "National
Reconciliation," including legal guarantees for reconciled
groups and individuals.

--------------------
UFCD FIGHTERS DEFECT
--------------------

6. (SBU) The National Mediator described as well how on
December 13, in Abeche, some 104 fighters and other
dissidents from Adouma Hassaballah's UFCD armed rebel group
defected and returned to Chad to be integrated into the
Chadian Armed Forces. The ex-UFCD fighter were led back to
Chad by former Hassaballah lieutenant Abderahim Ibrahim
Bachar and welcomed by Ouaddai Region Governor Kedellah
Younous Hamid. The defection was negotiated by the local
"Reconciliation and Awareness Commission," headed by the
regional leader of President Deby's MPS majority party
coalition and by the Sultan of Dar Ouaddai.

----------------------------------
"MEDIATOR OF THE REPUBLIC" CREATED
----------------------------------

7. (SBU) Finally, the National Mediator (rather proudly)
recounted how on 26 November the National Assembly had passed
into law the elevation of the office of the National Mediator
to a constitutional level by creating the office of "Mediator
of the Republic," with powers broadened to include a wide
range of "domestic" as well as "foreign" responsibilities.
The constitutionally-reinforced office will continue to be
occupied by Abderahmane himself. The new Mediator of the
Republic is charged "to respond to the need for dialogue and
understanding" by "receiving complaints regarding the
functioning of state administrations, decentralized
territorial collectivities public establishments and any
other organ of public service." The National Mediator can
"assist citizens regarding their civic rights and civic
responsibilities; help to resolve disputes between state
agencies and the citizens they serve; advise the Prime
Minister regarding legislative, regulatory, and
administrative measures; and participate in efforts to
improve public services and all efforts toward reconciliation
between the state and professional and social forces."

-----------------------
INTRA-CHADIAN DIPLOMACY
AND ITS CRITICS
-----------------------

8. (SBU) "No good deed goes unpunished," as the saying has
it. Despite evident success and despite responsiveness to
USG policy demarches to the GOC since February 2008 (and
before), "intra-Chadian diplomacy" has its critics, who
allege that deficiencies undercut its effectiveness and
legitimacy as a tool of statecraft. Some object to the cost.
If the money runs out, gains made by intra-Chadian diplomacy
may be put at risk, the reasoning goes. And even if the
money does not run out, spending on "buying rebels back"
forms part of Chad's "security budget" and could be better
saved or spent on other things. Others object on broader
grounds, charging that "intra-Chadian diplomacy" is
inefficient, because in practice it can be abused, both by
authentic rebels and by non-rebels. Authentic rebels can
exploit the revolving-door nature of the process by returning
to Chad for one pay-offs, then going back to Sudan and
returning again for more, and so on. Non-rebels can become
"rebels for day" to cash in on the financial benefits rebels
are offered. Others focus on Chad's precarious
public-finances and worry that "buying back" rebels will have
a negative impact on the GOC's relations with the IFIs.

-------
COMMENT
-------


NDJAMENA 00000602 003 OF 003


9. (SBU) The creation of the office of "Mediator of the
Republic" with expanded powers and responsibilities
recognizes the incumbent's successful tenure and demonstrates
the GOC's commitment to resolving internal as well as
external conflicts among Chadians. The return of Nahor's DPF
and part of Hassaballah's UFCD group from the rebellion is in
itself good news. The amnesty of Soubiane and others shows
the GOC's willingness and ability to reconcile with all but
the most intransigent and hardline of Chad's armed rebels and
regime opponents.

10. (SBU) Despite evident success, including responsiveness
to USG policy demarches to the GOC since February 2008 (and
before), "intra-Chadian diplomacy" has its critics, who
allege various deficiencies. We disagree and these most
recent examples of the effectiveness of the GOC strategy bear
us out. We continue to believe that intra-Chadian diplomacy
has its own rules and protocols, rooted in Chad's distinct,
indigenous political culture, whose dynamics are different
from classic Western-style diplomacy. The notion that
intra-Chadian diplomacy as practiced by the National Mediator
and others in the Deby regime is not a valid method for
reaching out to armed rebels and regime opponents ignores the
dynamics of Chadian political culture and the realities of
the GOC's success in reducing the virulence of the Chad
rebellion over the past 18 months. END COMMENT.

11. (U) Minimize considered.

NIGRO

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