Cablegate: Brazil: Scenesetter - Dhs Deputy Secretary Lute Visit


DE RUEHBR #0016/01 0061357
O R 061355Z JAN 10



E.O. 12958: N/A
SUBJECT: Brazil: Scenesetter - DHS Deputy Secretary Lute visit
January 12-13



1.(SBU) SUMMARY: Your visit to Brazil provides an opportunity to
engage directly with the Government of Brazil (GOB) on aviation
security issues and to reinforce the importance the USG attaches to
deepening and expanding the positive security agenda between the
United States and Brazil. While first and foremost addressing the
immediate issue of enhancing security for flights going to the
United States, this visit also will permit us to advance a broader
partnership on security issues. While operational cooperation
between the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and the
Brazilian civil aviation authority (ANAC) and the airport authority
(INFRAERO) has been excellent, including numerous recent TSA
airport visits in Brazil, the Ministry of External Relations (MRE)
has resisted TSA's proposal to introduce a TSA attach???? at the
Embassy. GOB, while increasingly open to working with the United
States on bilateral, regional and global areas of mutual interest,
retains long-held sensitivities regarding both Brazilian
sovereignty and any reference to the possibility that "terrorism"
exists in Brazil. It is important to approach Brazil as an equal
partner, and not as either a junior partner or assistance
recipient, in designing joint cooperation. In the near-term, we
have found focusing on countering illicit activity, without
labeling the cause as "terrorism," and focusing on positive
concrete outcomes, such as enhanced security or trade facilitation,
as most productive in yielding effective cooperation. Regarding
the response to the current threat to aviation security, the
primary challenge in Brazil remains pat-down authority. Only the
Federal Police currently have this authority, and only in specific
cases of "suspicion." GOB approaches the issue of pat-down
authority extremely cautiously. The Brazilian Constitution is a
direct result of Brazil's recent history as a military dictatorship
(1964-1985), where there was substantial government disrespect and
abuse of civil liberties. The current government (many members of
which fought against the military dictatorship), while recognizing
that responding to global threats require a coordinated and
effective response, is inclined to tread carefully in this area.
While manpower to perform pat-downs is obviously a concern, the
Constitutional issue remains the fundamental circle the GOB is
seeking internally to square. Your visit provides an excellent
opportunity to approach the issue with sensitivity to this context
and to brainstorm workarounds within Brazilian law in order to find
a solution. END SUMMARY


2.(SBU) Brazil is a developing country moving onto the global
stage. The world's tenth largest economy, Brazil has evolved from
IMF creditor to donor, from development assistance recipient to
provider, and from a country that suffered extreme economic shocks
to a country emerging early from the global crisis and confident in
its macroeconomic policy. New offshore pre-salt finds could
eventually make Brazil a significant oil and gas exporter. The
Mission continues to seek opportunities to deepen investment and
trade ties with Brazil bilaterally in order to increase business
opportunities, job growth, and economic development. Economic
issues are proving to be the pathway to increasingly productive GOB
engagement - both because as a large emerging economy it is
beginning to have a natural seat at the table and because the GOB
most easily sees how global economic issues directly impact its own
well-being and national security. Brazil's interest in taking on
the leadership mantle economically offers numerous opportunities
for engagement, encouraging Brazil to take on increasingly
responsible roles globally. It is important to frame approaches to
GOB as an equal partner, and not a junior partner. GOB takes
particular pride that, having been through many developing country
experiences (previous financial crises, addressing GINI
inequalities, infrastructure impact on growth, etc), it is uniquely
placed to help developing countries tackle their own challenges,
drawing on Brazilian "lessons learned." GOB has been receptive to
partnering with the United States on development cooperation,
including a newly developing initiative in Mozambique and Haiti on
agriculture, health and infrastructure development. Cooperation

on political and security issues remains more difficult to
navigate, where GOB is less persuaded that playing an active role
on issues beyond its borders has implications for its own domestic
and global security and tends sometimes to stress a "no judgment"
approach on many issues that reflect in part its own sovereignty
sensitivities. This, too, is evolving, though more slowly than on
the economic side. Specifically, on aviation security, when TSA
Director of Operations Robert Rottman met in October with ANAC,
INFRAERO, and MRE, agencies expressed enthusiasm for a deeper
partnership that could enhance Brazil's role as a role model for
other countries in the region. Brazil will host the 2014 soccer
World Cup and 2016 Olympics, which may provide specific additional
cooperation opportunities in areas ranging from security issues to
infrastructure needs.


3.(SBU) The Brazilian political elite and media are already
focused on the October 2010 national elections for president,
governors of all 26 states and the federal district, two-thirds of
the senate, and all federal deputies. Ministers who intend to run
for any of these offices must, under Brazilian law, resign by early
April 2010 (six months before elections), and some will leave in
March or earlier. Although many Ministers are expected to leave,
External Affairs Minister Amorim is expected to remain in place for
the duration of the Lula Administration. Lula is constitutionally
barred from seeking a third term and has supported Civil Household
Minister (Prime Minister-equivalent) Dilma Rousseff as his party's
candidate. Rousseff is currently a distant second in the polls to
likely opposition candidate Sao Paulo Governor Jose Serra, but the
race remains unpredictable this early in the process. The terms of
ANAC President Solange Vieira and INFRAERO President Murilo Barboza
run past the end of the current Administration and both now are
expected to remain in place.

4.(SBU) The United States and Brazil share the basic goals of
fostering hemispheric stability and integration, promoting
democracy and human rights, and preventing transnational illicit
activity. The attainment of a permanent seat on the UN Security
Council has been a central goal of Brazil's foreign policy under
President Lula's government. Regionally, Lula has maintained
Brazil's historic focus on stability, seeing good relations with
all parties as the best way to achieve this goal. As a result,
Brazil maintains an active dialogue with Venezuela and Cuba, has
worked to foster good relations with Bolivia and Ecuador, and has
stood firmly on the principle of respect for sovereignty in the
region. In line with Lula's demonstrated interest in Brazil
playing a larger role in global issues, as well as expanding
Brazil's commercial ties, Lula hosted separate visits from Iranian
President Ahmadinejad, Israeli President Peres, and Palestinian
President Abbas, among others, in November.

5. (SBU) There have been impressive strides over the last 25 years
since the ending of the military dictatorship toward establishing
stable democratic institutions. Nonetheless, progress remains
constrained by an inefficient judicial system, lack of enforcement
capability, and persistent and widespread corruption. Though proud
of its status as a "melting pot" where different cultures and
ethnic backgrounds coexist, racism remains a real and largely
unacknowledged problem where prejudice, violence and
marginalization continue. Brazil continues to struggle with
unresolved military dictatorship-era human rights violations. It
nonetheless is moving successfully to integrate the military into
the mainstream of national policy making. Organized crime, urban
murder rates often ten times the average in U.S. cities, and the
second largest cocaine consumption in the world require urgent
attention. Brazil's professional, well-trained Federal Police work
as an effective partner with USG law enforcement agencies.


6.(SBU) Brazil's annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew 5.1

percent in 2008, and inflation was 5.8 percent. The global
economic crisis eroded predictions for annual GDP growth for 2009
to essentially flat or slightly negative. Despite this decline in
immediate prospects, Brazil has weathered the crisis better than
most major economies and shows signs of a recovery, led by strong
domestic demand and a growing middle class. Conservative
macroeconomic policies in the years prior to the crisis, and
targeted responses during the crisis, played a role in lessening
the impact of the global crisis on Brazil. Growth in 2010 is
expected to return to approximately 5%. Brazil is a leading
exporter of soybeans, beef, sugar, coffee, and orange juice.
Brazil also distinguishes itself as a major exporter of civilian
aircraft, steel, and petrochemicals. The United States is Brazil's
top trading partner overall, although in March China became
Brazil's primary export destination. In recent years, U.S. Foreign
Direct Investment (FDI) in Brazil has averaged around USD 4 billion
per year. In the second quarter of 2009 (the most recent available
data), the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported U.S. FDI into
Brazil of USD 1.2 billion. The Economist noted recently that FDI
into Brazil from all sources increased 30% last year, while overall
FDI worldwide contracted 14%. At the same time, Brazil has
significant offensive investment interests. Illustrating a trend
of increasing external investment, Brazilian Central Bank figures
show that the stock of Brazilian FDI in the United States increased
from USD 3.9 billion in 2006 to USD 6.025 billion in 2007 (the last
year for which figures are available). Brazil holds investment
grade status from the major rating entities. Reflecting growing
Brazil-United States ties, Brazil is now one of the four largest
U.S. visa adjudication and issuance missions worldwide.


7. (U) In 2009, according to ANAC statistics, the airline industry
in Brazil demonstrated significant growth and also increased
efficiency in providing services. ANAC's figures show more than
126 million passengers' departures and arrivals in 2009, which
represents almost 13 million more than in 2008 and 15.4 million
more than in 2007. Delays (defined as more than 30 minutes)
decreased from 2007, where the average yearly delays were 28.6%, to
17.5% in 2008, and down to 11% for 2009. ANAC coordinates with the
Ministry of Defense, the Brazilian Air Force, and INFRAERO to track
the movement of passengers at airports and follow all flights from
the Brazilian Air Force Control Flight Center in Rio. In Brazil,
multiple agencies have a role in civil aviation. These entities

ANAC (Brazilian National Civil Aviation Agency) - ANAC was created
by law # 11.182, dated Sep 27, 2005, with regulatory responsibility
for air safety and air security. According to this law, ANAC 1)
Represents Brazil in conventions, treaties, agreements and acts of
international air transportation with other countries or
international organizations of civil aviation, with the exception
of air traffic control and aircraft accident investigations; 2)
Establishes the model of concession for airport infrastructure, to
be submitted to the President of Brazil; 3) Provides concession of
aeronautical services; 4) Provides resources to airports on
strategic, economic, or tourist interest; 5) Provides grants or
permissions for commercial exploration of aeronautical services.
ANAC is under dotted line authority of the Ministry of Defense.

INFRAERO (Brazilian Company of Airport Infrastructure) - Airports
in Brazil are operated by a single state-owned company, the
Brazilian Airports Authority or INFRAERO. INFRAERO manages all of
the major airports (67 total). These airports handle the vast
majority of passengers and cargo traffic. INFRAERO is a
government-owned company under the Ministry of Defense.

DECEA (Department of Air Traffic Control, Brazilian Air Force) -
DECEA handles air traffic control operations and oversight,
including the necessary infrastructure, for all aircraft in
Brazilian airspace. DECEA is responsible for activities of air
traffic management, meteorology, communications, aeronautical
information, cartography, implementation and flight inspection of
navigational aids, and staff training for all ATC systems.

SAC (Civil Aviation Secretariat, Ministry of Defense) - SAC is
responsible for the coordination and supervision of the agencies
and other Brazilian civil aviation entities in charge of
management, regulation and inspection, airport infrastructure, and
infrastructure of air navigation. SAC prepares studies, forecasts,

and other information related to civil aviation, airport and air
navigation matters, ensuring guidelines to Brazilian civil aviation
policy. SAC is also the executive-secretariat of the Council of
Civil Aviation.

CONAC (Civil Aviation Council) - CONAC is the advisory council for
the President of Brazil in the elaboration of the national civil
aviation policy. CONAC establishes the guidelines for the
representation of Brazil in conventions, agreements, treats and
acts of international air transportation with other countries or
international organizations of civil aviation. Other attributions
are those related to airport infrastructure concession model; the
approval of resources guidelines for airlines and airports of
strategic, economic or tourist interest; the coordination of the
activities of air traffic control and air regulation; the approval
of the general plan of airline subsidies; and the establishment of
airlines concession policies. Members of CONAC include: Minister
of Defense (President); Minister of External Relations; Minister of
Treasury; Minister of Development, Commerce, and Industry; Minister
of Tourism; Chief of Staff of the Presidency; Minister of Planning
and Budget; Minister of Justice; Minister of Transport, and the
BRAF Commander.



8.(SBU) Beginning in November 2008, in cooperation with the U.S.
Embassy Brasilia, TSA began engaging in discussions with ANAC in an
effort to re-start Foreign Airport Assessment Program (FAAP) visits
to Brazil after an approximate 2.5 year hiatus. After arriving at
a mutually agreed upon diplomatic note format for the proposed FAAP
visits, visits began in August 2009. As of December 2009, all
eight international Last Point of Departure (LPD - direct to USA)
airports have been successfully assessed in cooperation with ANAC
personnel. In early August 2009, the Department of Homeland
Security (DHS) and TSA approved the commitment of resources for the
establishment of a new TSA Representative (TSAR) position in
Brazil. Embassy Brasilia approved the NSDD-38 on November 20, 2009
(ref A).

9. (SBU) Mr. Rob Rottman, TSA Office of Global Strategies, Director
for International Operations, visited Brazil October 5-8 in support
of the renewed working relationship with ANAC and the possible
establishment of a new TSA attache in Brasilia. He met with
officials at the Ministry of External Relations (MRE), the Civil
Aviation Authority (ANAC) and the airport authority (INFRAERO). As
reported ref B, MRE expressed interest in working with TSA to
establish Brazilian regional leadership in the area of civil
aviation security and was pleased to hear that TSA bilateral
engagement already included many developed nations. Both ANAC and
INFRAERO expressed satisfaction with the TSA airport visits,
welcomed the proposal to establish a TSA attach???? in Brasilia, and
were eager to explore enhanced technical exchanges and
collaboration. However, on December 18, MRE claimed that it had
convened a meeting with civil aviation officials including ANAC,
INFRAERO and Ministry of Defense (MOD) where the parties concluded
there was no compelling reason for TSA to establish an office in
Brazil and that any future cooperation could be accomplished
through an exchange of letters. We informed MRE this input
conflicted greatly with the feedback that we received from the
presidents of both INFRAERO and ANAC during TSA visits to Brazil.
We also mentioned that in subsequent meetings regarding this issue,
the MOD Director of Civil Aviation Policy also agreed with this
proposal. MRE promised to reengage with these agencies when all
officials return from vacation on Jan 11. COMMENT: Mission
believes this feedback represents a MRE viewpoint rather than views
of the relevant operational agencies and believes the importance of
a TSA attach???? at post will be an essential point to raise at your

10. (SBU) In responding to the current threat to aviation security,
as reported refs C and D, the issue of pat-downs has created a
challenge for GOB. The Brazilian Constitution restricts personal
searches to cases of "suspicion" and authority in the present case
does not appear to be as clear as in a case of a specific person's
clearly identified criminal intent. It appears that under current
rules, only the Federal Police has pat-down authority. A draft new

Security Policy, not yet signed or implemented, may expand
authority to INFRAERO and air carriers, but will not explicitly
expand conditions under which pat-downs may be performed. ANAC has
been charged with coordinating GOB response to the TDA Security
Directive/Emergency Amendment on this issue, but it will be
important to raise in all your meetings in Brazil and to discuss
how other countries have addressed this issue. GOB approaches the
issue of pat-down authority extremely cautiously. The Brazilian
Constitution (literally the size of a phonebook and extremely
detailed) is a direct result of Brazil's recent history as a
military dictatorship (1964-1985), where there was substantial
government disrespect and abuse of civil liberties. The current
government (many members of which fought against the military
dictatorship), while recognizing that responding to global threats
require a coordinated and effective response, is inclined to tread
carefully in this area. While manpower to perform pat-downs is
obviously a concern, the Constitutional issue remains the
fundamental circle the GOB is seeking internally to square.
Approaching the issue with sensitivity to this context and
brainstorming workarounds within Brazilian law will be important to
finding a solution.


11. (U) The Memorandum of Understanding on Narcotics Control and
Law Enforcement (MOU) between the USG and GOB was signed in August
2008. This bilateral agreement is designed to improve cooperation
between Brazilian and US law enforcement agencies and improve the
capacity of our Brazilian colleagues in confronting the threat of
drug trafficking and related crimes. The main partner for the GOB
is the Brazilian Federal Police (DPF). There are seven programs
under the MOU, four of which directly involve the DPF. They are
Law Enforcement Training, Special Investigation Units (SIU),
Airport Interdiction, and the Canine Program. The Narcotics
Affairs Section (NAS) (State Department) at the embassy is charged
with implementing and managing these programs. Programs relevant to
air security are described below.

12. (U) The DPF's Airport Interdiction Program: Under the MOU, NAS
has expanded an existing program to assist the DPF in the detection
of narcotics, narcotics-related products, and other types of
contraband, including explosives, moving through passenger
terminals as checked baggage, hand luggage, or concealed on
passengers. The DPF conducts traditional law enforcement
investigative methods to conduct their interdiction operations.
These include analyzing and profiling passenger lists, interviewing
select passengers, conducting baggage searches after check-in using
x-ray machines, researching DPF data bases containing foreign
passenger entry and scheduled departures, informant utilization
(such as taxi drivers, baggage handlers and others), and airline
employees cooperating with the DPF.

13. (U) The project encompasses the acquisition, with State
Department INL funds, of specialized equipment for drug and
explosive detection. The program was initially at the
international airports of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and has
expanded in 2009 to other Brazilian international airports,
including Manaus, Fortaleza and later to Natal, Recife, and
Salvador. The DPF has requested assistance in the acquisition of
additional resources, including specialized equipment. NAS has
ordered the following detection equipment:

Body-Scan - manufactured by Smiths Detection. A suspect steps onto
it and an image is taken of the person's body. The unit is
designed to detect drugs, explosives, knives, guns, diamonds,
precious metals, and electronic devices hidden under clothes or
inside the body. It emits a high resolution image within 5 to 7
seconds. Four units were purchased with State INL funds under the
MOU for a total cost of US$755,000. The DPF plans to install these
at the international airports in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Manaus,
and Recife. This product requires a license from Brazil's nuclear
energy agency (CNEN) before it can be imported. The company
applied for the license in mid-December.

Mobile Trace Instrument - manufactured by General Electric. This
is a seven pound portable simultaneous dual-mode handheld explosive
and narcotic detector. It detects trace samples or vapors for a
broad range of narcotics and explosives. Eight units were purchased
with State INL funds under the MOU for a total cost of US$228,000.
The DPF plans to place these items at the airports of Sao Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro, Manaus, Recife, Natal, Fortaleza, Salvador, and one
for their Mobile Interdiction Team. This equipment is in shipment
transit now.

14. (U) The Canine Program: The DPF's dog training facility is
located in Brasilia and is responsible for training and deploying
dog and handler teams for interdiction operations all over Brazil,
specifically to airports, seaports, river ports, and other border
locations. DPF currently has 55 dogs for detection work. The
majority of the dogs are used for drug detection, but the DPF
recently began training dogs for explosive detection as well. As
part of the MOU, dog purchases have been made with INL funds to
augment the dog population. In 2009, 12 Belgium Mallinois dogs
were purchased in Holland and brought to Brazil. Of these, two (2)
were trained for explosive detection. Counting one
explosives-trained dog DPF already had, DPF now has three (3) dogs
trained for explosives. One dog is deployed in Brasilia, including
at the airport. The two new dogs have not yet been deployed, but
will initially also be used in Brasilia. In 2010, an additional 20
dogs will be purchased with State INL funds under the MOU, with a
larger amount destined for explosive detection training.


15. (U) CBP posted a CBP Attach???? at the U.S. Embassy in Brasilia
February 2008. Cooperation with the government of Brazil (GOB) is
considered good, although some problems have arisen such as the
recent denials of visas for CBP personnel to conduct in-country
validations under the Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism
(C-TPAT). After a series of meetings, the GOB advised that CBP
visit to Brazil will be approved as long as there is no mention of
"visits to Brazil for anti-terrorism purposes." In 2008, the GOB
decided against the establishment of an Immigration Advisory
Program (IAP) that would have permanently stationed CBP Officers at
the airport in Sao Paulo to assist airlines and host nation
authorities on document fraud and passenger admissibility.
Despite numerous overtures and engagement with the GOB by the
Secretary of Homeland Security and CBP since 2007, the GOB decided
not to implement the IAP due to concerns over sovereignty. The GOB
had specific concerns about direct interactions between CBP
officials and air passengers at Sao Paulo Airport. Even thought
they were reassured of the advisory nature of CBP's role, with no
legal authority, they refused IAP in Brazil. Federal Police
staffing shortages led to the hiring of third-party subcontractors
to perform immigration/emigration checks at the country's principal
airport, Guarulhos Airport in Sao Paulo. Subcontractors have also
been hired to process passport applications. Training of these
subcontractors is minimal and salaries are very low. This causes a
significant weakness in the first line of defense at passport
primary, inbound and outbound as this position is not federalized.

16. (U) U.S. Embassy Law Enforcement agencies cooperates closely
with Brazilian Federal and Civil Police on individuals suspected of
human smuggling as well as visa, passport, or other document fraud.
ICE-CBP continues to work with appropriate police, prosecutors and
judges in furtherance of prosecution where possible under local
law. During 2008-09, Embassy and Consulate staff and CBP trained
over 1,200 Federal Police and airline employees at airports in Sao
Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Manaus, and Recife on air passenger
admissibility and document fraud. The airlines trained were
American Airlines, United, Delta, Continental, TAM, Varig, GOL,
Copa, South African, and JAL. In 2009, CBP hosted a delegation of
Federal Police Officers to an orientation to observe CBP's airport
passenger and air cargo operations at Miami International Airport.
In 2009, CBP hosted a delegation of Brazilian government officials
from Brasilia to briefings at CBP HQs, an orientation of CBP's

operation in Baltimore, and the National Targeting Center (NTC).
CBP Airport Interdiction Training was conducted in June 2009 at
Guarulhos International Airport in Sao Paulo on identifying and
interdicting suspicious air cargo and passengers utilizing
commercial air conveyances. The training was conducted over the
course of 5 days and was attended by members of the Federal Police,
Customs and INFRAERO. CBP enhanced the technical competencies of
Federal Police Immigration and Receita Federal at Brasilia Airport
through document fraud and passenger screening training in
preparation for the first U.S. - Brasilia air passenger route that
commenced in December 2009. CBP Carrier Liaison Program (CLP) is
scheduled to provide training on document fraud and admissibility
to carriers, host nation law enforcement and embassy staff during
the March-April 2010 timeframe in Brazil. CLP training was last
presented in 2006.

17. (U) The CBP Attach???? is discussing a series of additional
activities with the Federal Police Airport Security Working Group
involving visits to several U.S. airports to observe the inter
agency operability amongst the various U.S. law enforcement and
airport authorities. These visits are proposed for 2010 and will
most likely entail a visit to NY JFK and Miami International
Airport. CBP also proposes to support Brazil law enforcement
contingency planning for the World Cup Soccer Games in 2014 by
providing technical assistance and training in non-traditional
areas of Detection of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), Incident
Response, Cargo and Passenger Risk Management, Advance Passenger
Targeting/APHIS, and Business Continuity.


18. (U) From an investigative perspective, ICE uses its unified
immigration and customs authorities to collaborate with Brazilian
authorities on joint investigations to identify, disrupt and
dismantle criminal organizations and other threats, and deprive
transnational criminal groups from employing traditional smuggling
networks and methods to further their crimes. To this end, as part
of our objective, ICE has established and continues to maintain
enduring partnerships with customs, immigration and law enforcement
agencies in Brazil to conduct and enhance investigations in area of
human smuggling and trafficking connected with Brazilian
international airports.

19. (U) Most recently, the ICE Attach???? coordinated with Brazil
Authorities on investigative activities related to the Annita Devi
Gerald alien smuggling investigation. In December Gerald was
indicted on charges of conspiracy and alien smuggling in connection
with her role in the smuggling or attempted smuggling of
individuals to the United States. The joint ICE and Brazilian
Federal Police investigation discovered substantial evidence
associated to Gerald and her activities at Sao Paulo's
International airport.

20. (U) In March 2009, the ICE Attach???? reported the arrest of an
Extraterritorial Criminal Travel Strike Force Subject by local
authorities at S????o Paulo International Airport. ICE Attach????
extremely closely with Brazilian Federal Police on this human
smuggling investigation associated with the activities of an
Ethiopian citizen residing in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The organization
operated by this individual facilitated transportation services and
the issuance of fraudulent documents used by various East African
nationals transiting Brazil en route to the United States.

21. (U) U.S. Embassy reporting on Trafficking in Persons (TIP)
identifies Brazil as a country of origin, transit, and destination
for internationally trafficked men, women, and children. The ICE
Attach???? continuously strives to strengthen relationships with
Brazilian authorities and continues to provide outreach to local
authorities and NGOs in our efforts to investigate allegations of
sexual tourism, specifically by US citizens and/or Legal Permanent
Residents. TIP in Brazil primarily involves Brazilians trafficked

internally and to foreign locations for the purposes of commercial
sexual exploitation. In July 2009, John Heep, a U.S. citizen, was
arrested along with ten (10) Brazilian nationals by the Brazilian
Federal Police in Sao Paulo, Brazil for Conspiracy to Traffic in
Persons. The arrests were the result of a joint investigation
conducted by the Brazilian Federal Police, ICE Attach????, RAC/Las
Vegas and the officials of the U.S. Department of State. Heep was
charged by the Brazilian Federal Police under Brazilian law with
Trafficking in Persons and Conspiracy. The Brazilian Nationals
arrested are being charged with various Brazilian charges to
include Internal (Domestic) Trafficking in Persons, International
Trafficking of Persons (to participate in prostitution),
Exploitation of Prostitution, Conspiracy, and Facilitation of
Prostitution (for financial gain). Many of the victims trafficked
in this investigation were routed through Sao Paulo's International

22. (U) In May 2008, the ICE Attach???? co-hosted a week long
Fraudulent Document Analysis training course funded by the
Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE), Organization of
American States (OAS). Approximately thirty representatives to
include, but not limited to, members from the Brazilian Federal
Police, Brazilian Intelligence community officials and Document
Analysts from various cities throughout Brazil participated in this
training course. The purpose of the exercise was to help
strengthen the capacity of customs, immigrations, and law
enforcement personnel to improve their controls on travel and
identity documents, as well as their capability to detect
fraudulent documents in order to prevent their counterfeiting,
forgery, or fraudulent use. The workshop was aimed at midlevel to
senior personnel in the areas of customs, immigrations, police, and
passport issuance. In addition to hands-on technical training on
the latest techniques, there was ample opportunity for discussion
of best practices and a sharing of techniques among the


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