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Cablegate: Ireland - Tenth Annual Trafficking in Persons (Tip) Report

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FM AMEMBASSY DUBLIN
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 0468
INFO RUCNMEM/EU MEMBER STATES
RUEAWJA/DEPT OF JUSTICE WASHDC
RHMFIUU/DEPT OF HOMELAND SECURITY WASHINGTON DC
RUEHC/DEPT OF LABOR WASHDC
RUEATRS/DEPT OF TREASURY WASHDC
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RUEHBL/AMCONSUL BELFAST 1151
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UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 26 DUBLIN 000065

SENSITIVE
SIPDIS

STATE FOR G/TIP, G-Laura Pena, INL, DRL, PRM
STATE FOR EUR/PGI, EUR/WE
STATE FOR USAID

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: KTIP ELAB KMCA KCRM PHUM KWMN SMIG KFRD ASEC PREF
EI
SUBJECT: IRELAND - TENTH ANNUAL TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (TIP) REPORT

REF: STATE 2094

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1. (SBU) The Government of Ireland fully complies with the minimum
standards for the elimination of trafficking. The government
enacted legislation criminalizing human trafficking in 2008,
increased trafficking awareness efforts, and in 2009, investigated
nearly 70 cases of potential trafficking. Ireland has made
significant strides, prosecuting five individuals in Ireland and
providing all case evidence for a further three individuals in
Romania and three in Wales. An additional case is awaiting trial
before the Dublin Circuit Criminal Court. Ireland continues to
partner with NGOs and other nations in awareness raising and
prevention activities.

2. (SBU) The following items are keyed off reftel.

Overview of a country's activities to eliminate trafficking in
persons:

-- A. What is (are) the source(s) of available information on human
trafficking? What plans are in place (if any) to undertake further
documentation of human trafficking? How reliable are these
sources?

Information is obtained through the Department of Justice Anti-Human
Trafficking Unit (AHTU), Garda Siochana (police), various Government
agencies, NGOs, Interpol, Europol and Frontex. Other trans-national
lines of communication and bi-lateral co-operation with other law
enforcement agencies provide the Garda with data relating to
international trends/patterns in the area of human trafficking.
Ireland also participates at various levels (policy, prevention,
investigations, support) in relevant national and international fora
in the area of human trafficking. The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit
(AHTU) has implemented, with effect from January 1, 2009, a data
collection strategy which is closely modelled on data collection
systems being developed at the EU level. The goal of this strategy
is to collect information on cases of possible/suspected trafficking
by means of a standardised template from a variety of different
sources (including NGOs, Government Agencies, Garda, etc).
Reporting agencies are asked to report any cases of potential
trafficking they encounter to the AHTU. Sources are very reliable
and have undertaken extensive efforts in past year to document
activities.

-- B. Is the country a country of origin, transit, and/or
destination for men, women, or children subjected to conditions of
commercial sexual exploitation, forced or bonded labor, or other
slave-like conditions? Are citizens or residents of the country
subjected to such trafficking conditions within the country? If so,
does this internal trafficking occur in territory outside of the
government's control (e.g. in a civil war situation)? From where
are people recruited or from where do they migrate prior to being
subjected to these exploitative conditions? To what other countries
are people trafficked and for what purposes? Provide, where
possible, numbers or estimates for each group of trafficking
victims. Have there been any changes in the TIP situation since the
last TIP Report (e.g. changes in destinations)?

Ireland is, on a limited scale, a destination and transit country
for international trafficking victims. There is no accurate
estimate on the number of victims. Many NGOs make referrals among
themselves and with the police. Most victims are ultimately
referred to Ruhama, an NGO that aids prostitutes. A Ruhama
representative said that they encountered 30 new cases in the past
year, with victims almost entirely comprised of young women from
Nigeria Multiple NGOs have mentioned the increasing role of the
internet in creating virtual brothels.

-- C. To what kind of conditions are the trafficking victims
subjected?

NGO and Government contacts agreed that the majority of suspected
trafficking cases involved women who were brought into Ireland for
the sex industry. Garda believe that organized criminal gangs of
foreign nationals facilitated much of the suspected sex trade
trafficking and that these gangs also arranged for the victims'
employment and accommodation in brothels.

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The HSE have advised that some children who go missing and have been
retraced are found in brothels, restaurants and private households
where they may have been used as domestic slaves. Of the 47
children who went missing from care in 2009, nine were recovered.
Authorities determined that the possibility of trafficking exists in
one of these cases and it is currently under investigation.

-- D. Vulnerability to TIP: Are certain groups of persons more at
risk of human trafficking (e.g. women and children, boys versus
girls, certain ethnic groups, refugees, IDPs, etc.)? If so, please
specify the type of exploitation for which these groups are most at
risk

Most cases of sex trafficking involved Nigerian women.

-- E. Traffickers and Their Methods: Who are the
traffickers/exploiters? Are they independent business people?
Small or family-based crime groups? Large international organized
crime syndicates? What methods are used to gain direct access to
victims? For example, are the traffickers recruiting victims
through lucrative job offers? Are victims sold by their families,
or approached by friends of friends? Are victims "self-presenting"
(approaching the exploiter without the involvement of a recruiter or
transporter)? If recruitment or transportation is involved, what
methods are used to recruit or transport victims (e.g., are false
documents being used)? Are employment, travel, and tourism agencies
or marriage brokers involved with or fronting for traffickers or
crime groups to traffic individuals?

NGOs and Garda indicate that traffickers run the range from
organized crime to small operations. Intelligence available to the
Garda indicates that the bulk of the traffickers are a small group
of individuals, some of whom are also involved in other forms
criminality. Experience of interaction with suspected victims would
indicate that people/family known to them or their extended or
adoptive family offer better jobs or an improved standard of living
in Ireland or Western Europe. Many of the cases under investigation
in Ireland have involved the use of forged documents. However, this
is not always the case, as people travel on their own documents and
only realize what type of situation they will be in once they arrive
in Ireland. For example, it has been established in some instances
that women who believed they were coming to Ireland to work in
legitimate professions ended up working in exploitative situations,
including prostitution.

In terms of children, it is the experience of the HSE that alleged
traffickers are likely to be non-nationals and some are compatriots
of their victims.


SETTING THE SCENE FOR THE GOVERNMENT'S ANTI-TIP EFFORTS:

-- A. Does the government acknowledge that human trafficking is a
problem in the country? If not, why not?

The Irish Government acknowledges that Ireland is a destination
country for trafficking and that trafficking victims have been
identified. It actively investigates all credible allegations of
trafficking.

-- B. Which government agencies are involved in efforts to combat
sex and labor trafficking - including forced labor - and, which
agency, if any, has the lead in these efforts?

The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit in the Department of Justice has
overall administrative responsibility for policy development and
coordination of the Government's response to trafficking in persons.
In order to carry out that role effectively and to implement and
facilitate a multidisciplinary approach, the AHTU works in close
cooperation with a wide variety of relevant Government Agencies and
Departments, in addition to NGOs and International Organizations
(IOs) working in the anti-trafficking field. This inter-party
cooperation is chiefly conducted through a series of groups
consisting of a High Level Interdepartmental Group, which is
comprised of high level management from different Government
Departments and Agencies, a Roundtable Group consisting of members
of Government Departments and Agencies and members of NGOs and IOs,

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and a series of Working Groups made up of NGOs, IOs, Government
Agencies and Departments.

Furthermore, the Department of Justice has a significant role in
anti-trafficking efforts as it has the lead responsibility for
policy in relation to criminal law and law enforcement,
immigration/border control and gender equality. However, other
Government Departments and agencies also have an important role to
play reflecting their particular policy and/or operational
responsibilities.

The Garda, as the national police force, is responsible for the
prevention and investigation of criminal offences including human
trafficking. Within the Garda, the Garda National Immigration
Bureau (GNIB) and the Garda National Bureau of Criminal
Investigation (NBCI) have been assigned particular responsibilities
in this regard. The assets of all suspects are investigated and
where there is a possibility to seize assets, which are believed to
be the proceeds of crime, this is vigorously pursued by the Criminal
Assets Bureau.

The Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, the Department
of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Health and Children, the
Office for the Minister for Children and the Health Service
Executive all have statutory responsibilities in this area. The
Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment exercises vigilance
to ensure work permits are not issued to persons who are likely to
traffic persons. The Department of Foreign Affairs exercises
vigilance to ensure visas are not issued where trafficking may
occur. Finally the Department of Health and Children have statutory
obligations in relation to child protection and welfare.

-- C. What are the limitations on the government's ability to
address these problems in practice? For example, is funding for
police or other institutions inadequate? Is overall corruption a
problem? Does the government lack the resources to aid victims?

Until 2008, the Irish Government enjoyed a budget surplus, and there
are no unique limitations on resources to address trafficking. The
global recession has led to broad cuts in public spending, but
anti-trafficking efforts do not appear to be adversely impacted at
this time. Irish police and border authorities are competent and
well-run. On June 7, 2008 a new Criminal Law (Human Trafficking)
entered into force. This brings Ireland into conformity with UN, EU
and CoE anti-trafficking regulations and gives police more precise
legal tools. A limitation on the Government's ability to address
trafficking would be lack of experience, particularly in the
judiciary, with TIP issues.

In terms of children, funding has historically been a challenge.
There are considerable additional costs associated with bringing
accommodation and care provision to the required standards.
However, due to historical reasons and funding issues hostel
accommodation has been used to house a large cohort of unaccompanied
minors between 16 and 18 within the state. H.S.E. management
(responsible for the unaccompanied minors service) has been
increasingly concerned at the inappropriateness of this form of
placement for minors and also its potential contribution to the risk
of minors going missing.

However, considerable progress has been achieved in this area in the
last year. Three children's homes for unaccompanied minors under 16
were opened in 2009 and bring the total number of such homes to
four. There were originally six hostels and one mother and baby
home operating for unaccompanied minors. H.S.E. management decided
to close the hostels in early 2009 but waited until the autumn of
that year to begin in order to facilitate children completing the
academic year. Two hostels have already been closed. One closed in
early September 2009 and the other in October 2009. Three hostels
remain open and a mother and baby home accommodating in total 70
minors and 6 babies (with mothers). The H.S.E. intends to close all
remaining hostels in 2010, and to place children in a range of
appropriate placements based on their assessed need.

-- D. To what extent does the government systematically monitor its
anti-trafficking efforts (on all fronts -- prosecution, victim
protection, and prevention) and periodically make available,
publicly or privately and directly or through regional/international

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organizations, its assessments of these anti-trafficking efforts?

The Interdepartmental High Level Group is responsible for
development and monitoring of policy in this area. The Roundtable
Group and its five working groups are given updates of developments
at each meeting and have the opportunity to make recommendations and
input into policy formulation and development.

The AHTU, in conjunction with stakeholders, assesses the number of
possible cases of trafficking which are not subsequently deemed to
be suspected cases. The data gathered through this system is used
to establish the nature and extent of trafficking, any trends which
emerge in this regard, the impact of anti-trafficking activities and
service provided to victims and to direct policy in this regard.

All of the information is provided to the AHTU in an anonymous form
with the suspected person's details retained by the reporting
agency. Victims are given a unique ID code, which is used for
tracking purposes. This is to ensure that data protection
legislation is not violated. The database is also routinely
examined to ensure that any possible duplication is kept to a
minimum.

In relation to monitoring of prosecutions, arrangements are being
developed for GNIB to record relevant details in relation to
suspected traffickers' demographic characteristics, whether any
involvement with organized crime is suspected, the role of the
trafficker in the trafficking process and traffickers' relationship
with their victims. Suspected trafficker interaction with the
criminal justice system is also closely monitored.

The AHTU provides an analysis of the data collected by Government
agencies and NGOs on a regular basis throughout the year. These
results provide statistics regarding the number of possible victims
encountered, the number of victims formally identified and given
recovery and reflection periods and temporary residence permits,
information about services accessed by the victim and the number of
convictions and prosecutions.

Ireland is also part of a European G6 Initiative against human
trafficking. This initiative involves six European countries (UK,
Poland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Ireland) and includes sharing
best practices of anti-trafficking efforts. The GNIB works under
the Irish National Police but carries out its immigration functions
on behalf of the Minister of Justice. This system ensures a sharing
of information among immigration policy-makers, immigration
officers, and national police. A GNIB official represents Ireland
at the EU Border Agency in Warsaw.

-- E. What measures has the government taken to establish the
identity of local populations, including birth registration,
citizenship, and nationality?

N/A

--F. To what extent is the government capable of gathering the data
required for an in-depth assessment of law enforcement efforts?
Where are the gaps? Are there any ways to work around these gaps?

The police routinely provide relevant information to the AHTU and
are part of the round table meetings with government and NGOs.


INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS

-- A. Existing Laws against TIP: Does the country have a law or laws
specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons- both for sexual
exploitation and labor? If so, please specifically cite the name of
the law(s) and its date of enactment and provide the exact language
[actual copies preferable] of the TIP provisions. Please provide a
full inventory of trafficking laws, including non-criminal statutes
that allow for civil penalties against alleged trafficking crimes
(e.g., civil forfeiture laws and laws against illegal debt). Does
the law(s) cover both internal and transnational forms of
trafficking? If not, under what other laws can traffickers be
prosecuted? For example, are there laws against slavery or the
exploitation of prostitution by means of force, fraud, or coercion?
Are these other laws being used in trafficking cases?

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The Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act, 2008, became operational
on 7 June 2008 and creates offences of trafficking in children and
adults for the purposes of their sexual or labor exploitation or the
removal of their organs. It also makes it an offence to sell or
offer for sale or to purchase or offer to purchase any person for
any purpose. Penalties of up to life imprisonment apply in respect
of these offences. It is not a defense for the trafficker to argue
that the person consented to the commission of any of the acts.
Furthermore, under section 5 of the Act, any person who knowingly
solicits or importunes a trafficking victim for the purposes of
sexual exploitation shall be guilty of an offence and liable on
conviction on indictment to an unlimited fine or a term of
imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or both. On summary conviction a
fine not exceeding 5,000 or a term of imprisonment not exceeding 12
months or both apply.

Section 7 of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) 2008 Act provides
for extra territorial jurisdiction where an Irish citizen or
resident conspires, incites or commits acts which would be offences
under this Act if they were committed in Ireland and also where the
victim of such acts committed outside Ireland is an Irish citizen.
Penalties of up to life imprisonment and an unlimited fine apply in
respect of these offences.

As with other offences contained in the Act, the maximum penalty for
committing or attempting to commit any of the above offences is an
unlimited fine and/or life imprisonment.

The Act covers both internal and transnational forms of trafficking
and also provides for the prosecution of bodies corporate.

Prior to the enactment of the 2008 Act, the Garda utilized the
provisions of Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act, 2000 in cases
where human trafficking was suspected. Of particular relevance is
section 2 of the Act, which relates to the facilitation and
organization of the illegal entry of persons into the State for
gain. Penalties include:
-- On summary conviction, a fine not exceeding Euro 1,500 (USD 1950)
or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or both.

-- On conviction on indictment, to a fine or to imprisonment for a
term not exceeding 10 years or both.

Section 3 of the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998, as
amended by Section 3 of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act
2008 which increased the age by which a person can be regarded in
law as a child from 17 to 18 years old, created the offence of
Trafficking of Children for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation.
Section 3 (1) makes it an offence to organize or knowingly
facilitate child trafficking - that is, the entry into, transit
through or exit from the State of a child for the purpose of his or
her sexual exploitation. It is also an offence to provide
accommodation to a child for this purpose. The offence is
punishable on conviction by up to life imprisonment. Under Section
3(2) any person who detains or restricts the personal liberty of a
child for the purpose of the child's sexual exploitation is liable
on conviction to up to 14 years imprisonment. The same penalty
applies to persons who organize or knowingly facilitate such taking,
detaining or restricting of children's liberty for that purpose.

The Criminal Assets Bureau Act 1996 established the Criminal Assets
Bureau (CAB). The functions of CAB under section 4 of the Act are:


-- the identification of the assets, wherever situated, of persons
which derive or are suspected to derive, directly or indirectly,
from criminal activity,

-- the taking of appropriate action under the law to deprive or to
deny those persons of the assets or the benefit of such assets, in
whole or in part, as may be appropriate, and

-- the pursuit of any investigation or the doing of any other
preparatory work in relation to any proceedings arising from the
objectives mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b).

In addition, the Proceeds of Crime (Amendment) Act 2005 allows CAB

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to seize assets that were generated in foreign jurisdictions. The
Act allows CAB to cooperate fully with other international assets
recovery agencies.

False imprisonment is an offence under section 15 of the Non-Fatal
Offences against the Person Act 1998 and is punishable by up to life
imprisonment.

The Slave Trade Act 1824 renders all operations in connection with
the slave trade illegal and slavery or servitude is prohibited under
the Irish Constitution (Article 40).

-- B. Punishment of Sex Trafficking Offenses: What are the
prescribed and imposed penalties for the trafficking of persons for
commercial sexual exploitation, including for the forced
prostitution of adults and the prostitution of children?

Under the Human Trafficking Act, penalties of up to life
imprisonment apply in respect of these offences. It is also an
offence for a person to solicit for prostitution a person who he/she
knows or has reasonable grounds for believing is a trafficked
person. A person (other than the trafficked person) who accepts or
agrees to accept a payment, right, interest or other benefit from a
person for this purpose also commits an offence. The penalty is up
to five years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both on
conviction on indictment.

Under the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act 2000, the penalty can
include up to a Euro 1,500 (1,950 USD) fine and 12 months in jail.
If a case is appealed to the district court, then the penalty is a
maximum of ten years imprisonment. There is no cap on the fine.

Under the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 the penalty is
up to life imprisonment.

-- C. Punishment of Labor Trafficking Offenses: What are the
prescribed and imposed penalties for trafficking for labor
exploitation, including all forms of forced labor? If your country
is a source country for labor migrants, do the government's laws
provide for criminal punishment -- i.e. jail time -- for labor
recruiters who engage in recruitment of workers using knowingly
fraudulent or deceptive offers with the purpose of subjecting
workers to compelled service in the destination country? If your
country is a destination for labor migrants (legal/regular or
illegal/irregular), are there laws punishing employers or labor
agents who confiscate workers' passports or travel documents for the
purpose of labor trafficking, switch contracts without the worker's
consent as a means to keep the worker in a state of compelled
service, or withhold payment of salaries as means of keeping the
worker in a state of compelled service?

The Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 creates the offence of
trafficking for the purpose of labor exploitation: Section 1
defines labour exploitation as:
"labour exploitation" means, in relation to a person (including a
child):

(a) subjecting the person to forced labour,

(b) forcing him or her to render services to another, or

(c) enslavement of the person or subjecting him or her to servitude
or a similar condition or state.

Section 4, inter alia, creates the offence of trafficking in persons
other than children for the purpose of labor exploitation. (Section
2 deals with child trafficking.)

Section 4: (1)Trafficking of persons other than children:
(1) A person (in this section referred to as the "trafficker") who
trafficks another person (in this Act referred to as the "trafficked
person"), other than a child or a person to whom subsection (3)
applies, for the purposes of the exploitation of the trafficked
person shall be guilty of an offence if, in or for the purpose of
trafficking the trafficked person, the trafficker -

(a) coerced, threatened, abducted or otherwise used force against
the trafficked person,

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(b) deceived or committed a fraud against the trafficked person,

(c) abused his or her authority or took advantage of the
vulnerability of the trafficked person to such extent as to cause
the trafficked person to have had no real and acceptable
alternative but to submit to being trafficked,

(d) coerced, threatened or otherwise used force against any person
in whose care or charge, or under whose control, the trafficked
person was for the time being, in order to compel that person to
permit the trafficker to traffick the trafficked person, or

(e) made any payment to, or conferred any right, interest or other
benefit on, any person in whose care or charge, or under whose
control, the trafficked person was for the time being, in exchange
for that person permitting the trafficker to traffick the trafficked
person.

(2) In proceedings for an offence under this section it shall not be
a defense for the defendant to show that the person in respect of
whom the offence was committed consented to the commission of any of
the acts of which the offence consists.

(3) A person who traffics a person who is mentally impaired for the
purposes of the exploitation of the person shall be guilty of an
offence.

(4) A person who -

(a) sells another person, offers or exposes another person for sale
or invites the making of an offer to purchase another person, or

(b) purchases or makes an offer to purchase another person, shall
be guilty of an offence.

(5) A person who causes an offence under subsection (1), (3) or (4)
to be committed shall be guilty of an offence.

(6) A person who attempts to commit an offence under subsection (1),
(3), (4) or (5) shall be guilty of an offence.

(7) A person guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable
upon conviction on indictment -

(a) to imprisonment for life or a lesser term, and
(b) at the discretion of the court, to a fine.

(8) In this section "mentally impaired" has the same meaning as it
has in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences) Act 1993.

In addition to the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking Act) 2008, the
entire range of statutory employment rights and protections
available in Ireland are applicable equally to foreign nationals and
Irish workers. Persons who have been trafficked for the purposes of
labor exploitation can seek legal redress and compensation through a
number of State bodies that deal specifically with work related
rights and entitlements. These include the Employment Appeals
Tribunal (EAT), the Labour Relations Commission (LRC), the Labour
Court and the Equality Tribunal. There are no fees charged for
claims taken to these employment rights bodies nor is it necessary
to be legally represented at hearings.

Legislation of relevance to victims trafficked for the purposes of
forced labor include the following:

The Organisation and Working Time Act 1997 states that the maximum
average working week for many employees cannot exceed 48 hours.
This does not mean that a working week can never exceed 48 hours; it
is the average that is important. Disputes in relation to the Act
can be referred to a Rights Commissioner.

The National Minimum Wage Act 2000 provides that the minimum wage
rate for an experienced adult employee from July 1, 2007 is euro
8.65 (USD 11) an hour. An experienced adult employee for the
purposes of the National Minimum Wage Act is an employee over the
age of 18 who has an employment of any kind in any 2 years.
Disputes in relation to the Act can be referred to either an

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inspector from the National Employment Rights Authority to
investigate or to a Rights Commissioner, but not to both.

Under the Unfair Dismissals Acts 1977 to 2001 circumstances in which
unfair dismissal can occur are where:

-- An employer terminates an employee's contract of employment, with
or without notice, or

-- An employee terminates his/her contract of employment, with or
without notice, due to the conduct of his/her employer. This is
known as constructive dismissal.

If an employee is dismissed from his/her employment, he or she may,
under certain conditions, bring a claim for unfair dismissal against
the employer. The Unfair Dismissals legislation in Ireland does not
actually protect an employee from dismissal; rather it provides a
system of appeal whereby employees can question the fairness of
their dismissal after it has occurred. Disputes in relation to the
Act can be referred to a Rights Commissioner or to the Employment
Appeals Tribunal.

There are two distinct pieces of legislation in place in Ireland
which set out important rights for citizens and specifically outlaw
discrimination when it occurs. The Employment Equality Act 1998 and
the Equal Status Act 2000 as amended by the Equality Act 2004 outlaw
discrimination in employment, vocational training, advertising,
collective agreements, the provision of goods and services and other
opportunities to which the public generally have access.
Specifically, service providers, agencies and anyone providing
opportunities to which the public have access, cannot discriminate
against citizens on nine distinct grounds, as follows:

-- gender
-- marital status
-- family status
-- sexual orientation
-- religion
-- age (does not apply to a person under 16)
-- disability
-- race
-- membership of the Traveller community.

All claims must be referred to the Equality Tribunal with the
exception of claims about gender discrimination in employment which
can be referred to either the Circuit Court or the Equality
Tribunal, but not both.

The Employment Permits Act, 2003 introduced a revised legislative
basis for work permits, including penalties for employers for
illegal employment of non-nationals. This Act provides legislative
protection against the labour exploitation of non-nationals.

The Terms of Employment (Information) Acts, 1994 and 2001 require
employers to provide employees with a written statement of certain
particulars of their employees' terms of employment. The employer
must provide the written statement of particulars within 2 months of
the date of commencement of employment. The written statement must
include particulars of the terms of employment relating to the name
and address of the employer, the place of work, job title/nature of
the work, date of commencement of the employment, the expected
duration of contract, rate or method of calculation of pay, hours of
work, rest periods, paid leave, pensions and notice entitlements.
An employer is required to notify an employee of any changes to the
particulars contained in the statement within one month after the
change takes effect. Employees may make a complaint to a Rights
Commissioner where he/she believes that his/her employer has failed
to provide a written statement or to notify the employee of changes
to the particulars contained in the statement.

The Payment of Wages Act, 1991 provides a right of complaint to a
Rights Commissioner for any employee who has had an unlawful
deduction made from wages. Under this Act employers are obliged to
provide a statement of pay with every wage payment. A pay slip must
show gross wages and itemize all deductions. If the Rights
Commissioner decides that a complaint is well founded, he/she shall
order the employer to pay compensation to the employee.
Alternatively, the employee may sue for wages in the ordinary

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courts. Where the employee's wages are governed by an Employment
Regulation Order or Registered Employment Agreement, the employer
will be guilty of an offence under the Industrial Relations Acts if
they fail to pay wages or if they pay less than the statutory
prescribed rate. The Labour Inspectorate will seek to recover pay
arrears in any such instances and will, if necessary, initiate legal
proceedings.

Ireland's comprehensive body of employment rights legislation, which
protects employees against arbitrary behavior by employers, applies
to all workers employed on an employer-employee basis in Ireland.
The Protection of Employee's (Part-Time) Work Act, 2001 also
provides that all employee protection legislation applies to a
person, irrespective of his or her nationality or place of
residence, who has entered into a contract of employment that
provides for his or her being employed in the State or who works in
the State under a contract of employment.

Under this legislation, a person, irrespective of nationality or
place of residence, who works in the State under a contract of
employment, has the same rights under Irish employment rights
legislation as Irish employees.

Labour Inspectors pursue allegations of worker mistreatment and when
evidence of non-compliance with the relevant employment rights
legislation is found, the Inspectorate seeks redress for the
individual/s concerned and, if appropriate, a prosecution is
initiated. Employers are required to maintain records in respect of
such employees and these records, together with other substantiating
evidence, for example, a statement from an employee, provide the
essentials of a basis for legal proceedings. Failure to maintain
adequate records by an employer is an offence.

The Social Partnership Agreement "Towards 2016" sets out a number of
commitments with regard to employment standards and compliance,
including:

-- a trebling in the number of Labour Inspectors,

-- greater coordination among organizations concerned with
compliance,

-- provision for joint investigations between the Labour
Inspectorate, the Revenue Commissioners and the Department of Social
and Family Affairs,

-- new requirements in respect of record keeping by employers,

-- enhanced employment rights awareness activity,

-- the introduction of a new and more user-friendly system of
employment rights compliance, and

-- increased resourcing of the system and higher penalties for
non-compliance with employment law.

"Towards 2016" provides that the number of Labour Inspectors will be
progressively increased from 31 to 90 beyond 2007 as part of the
initiative to increase the staffing resources of the Employment
Rights Bodies generally.

"Towards 2016" is an active social partnership agreement with clear
deliverables agreed between the Government, employers bodies, trade
unions and the community and voluntary sector. Such agreements have
been part of economic and social policy in Ireland since the
"Programme for National Recovery" was agreed in 1987.

-- D. What are the prescribed penalties for rape or forcible sexual
assault?

Under Irish Law, the maximum sentence possible for rape is life
imprisonment (eight years is the average sentence), and the maximum
possible sentence for aggravated sexual assault is life
imprisonment.

-- E. Law Enforcement Statistics: Did the government take legal
action against human trafficking offenders during the reporting
period? If so, provide numbers of investigations, prosecutions,

DUBLIN 00000065 010.3 OF 026


convictions, and sentences imposed, including details on plea
bargains and fines, if relevant and available. Please note the
number of convicted trafficking offenders who received suspended
sentences and the number who received only a fine as punishment.
Please indicate which laws were used to investigate, prosecute,
convict, and sentence traffickers. Also, if possible, please
disaggregate numbers of cases by type of TIP (labor vs. commercial
sexual exploitation) and victims (children under 18 years of age vs.
adults). What were the actual punishments imposed on convicted
trafficking offenders? Are they serving the time sentenced? If not,
why not?

In 2009, the government initiated 68 investigations into alleged
human trafficking offenses. The government reported ten
prosecutions in 2009, including three in Romania and three in Wales.
One individual was convicted for three counts under the Child
Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 to a total of 6 years. Another
defendant was convicted and sentenced to six years' imprisonment in
2009 for crimes under the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act
1998. A third individual believed to be bringing a woman into
Ireland for the purpose of sexual exploitation was charged under the
Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act 2000 and sentenced under the
Probation Act (offense proved but no penalty applied). In November,
2009, police encountered a victim who alleged that one of her
traffickers was a member of the police force who at the time was on
long term suspension for another matter. This individual has been
arrested under the Human Trafficking Act and the investigation is
ongoing.

A further case is awaiting trial. The initial complaint was made in
July 2008 when the injured party was 15 years. Following an
investigation it was discovered that a female Nigerian national had
put the injured party into prostitution and was sexually exploiting
her. The case is currently before the Dublin Circuit Criminal Court
where the accused (female Nigerian National) is charged contrary to
Section 3 of the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 for
child trafficking and taking, etc. child for sexual exploitation (2
counts) and contrary to Section 3 of the Criminal Law (Human
Trafficking) Act 2008 for child trafficking and taking, etc. child
for sexual exploitation (1 count). The child has been rescued from
her trafficker and is State care.

-- F. Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in how to recognize, investigate, and prosecute
instances of trafficking? Or training on investigating and
prosecuting human trafficking crimes? Specify whether NGOs,
international organizations, and/or the USG provide specialized
training for host government officials.

The following occurred in 2009:

-Specialized training course in September, 2009 for staff of the
Legal Aid Board who are providing legal aid and advice to potential
and suspected victims of trafficking in human beings.

-Executive Director of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit addressed a
Seminar on Strategies for Tackling Forced Labor on 1 October 2009
organized by the Migrants Rights Council of Ireland (MRCI) and the
International Labour Organisation.

-Training courses entitled 'Tackling Trafficking in Human Beings:
Prevention, Protection and Prosecution' delivered to 100 members of
the Garda Sochna in November and December 2009.

-250 probationer members of the Garda Sochna received awareness
raising/victim identification training on human trafficking.

-3 members of the Garda Sochna from the Garda National Immigration
Bureau attended CEPOL Trafficking courses in Brussels, Vilnius and
Madrid.

-Attendance and participation in a Cross-Border Crime Conference
between the Garda Sochna, the Police Service of Northern Ireland
(PSNI) and other law enforcement agencies in both jurisdictions in
October 2009. Trafficking of human beings featured in a number of
presentations and was the subject of a specific workshop.

-Development, design and delivery of a 'Train the Trainer' course

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for staff of Government and Public Sector organizations to enable
training on human trafficking to be rolled out to all staff in these
organizations. Courses took place in November and December, 2009.
A total of 23 people were trained from 9 different organizations -
Department of Agriculture, RIA, Prison Service, Department of
Enterprise, Trade & Employment, Legal Aid Board, FAS, Department of
Social & Family Affairs, NERA and the HSE. A third course will take
place in 2010. Presentations were made by the Anti-Human
Trafficking Unit, the Garda National Immigration Bureau and the
Health Service Executive.

--G. Does the government cooperate with other governments in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases? If possible,
provide the number of cooperative international investigations on
trafficking during the reporting period?

Yes. Examples of international police cooperation include:

-- Exchange of liaison officers between GNIB and United Kingdom
Border Agency (UKBA).

-- Sharing immigration related information between the GNIB and the
UKBA.

-- Continuous liaison with the UK trafficking initiative Operation
'Pentameter I' and 'Pentameter II' - a GNIB Liaison Officer was
appointed to ensure full coordination.

-- Appointment of a GNIB Liaison Officer to deal with Europol and
Interpol to specifically deal with requests from both organizations.


-- Appointment of GNIB personnel as Airline Liaison officers who are
intermittently based at hub-airports in other EU Member States.

-- Provision of access to Interpol's I-24/7 global police
communications system at all Ports of Entry in the State thereby
enabling immediate access to information held by Interpol relating
to immigration matters.

-- Participation by representatives of the Garda in the Interpol
Working Group on trafficking in human beings.

-- Regular liaison between the Irish and French immigration
personnel.

-- The secondment of a UK Immigration Service Officer to the British
Embassy in Dublin to liaise with GNIB.

-- Appointment of GNIB officers to liaise with the UK Immigration
Service and the Police Service of Northern Ireland (in relation to
the land border between Ireland and Northern Ireland).

-- International Investigations with other States on an ongoing
basis.

-- Frontex sharing of information and regular attendance at
meetings.

-- OSCE (Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Central
Europe), attendance at meetings on Trafficking in Human Beings.

-- Council of Europe.

-- UN and UNGIFT.

The government reported that it cooperated with other countries on
international anti-trafficking investigations. In December 2009,
three persons were sentenced in Romania for a range of offences,
which included trafficking of persons to Ireland for the purposes of
labor exploitation, largely on the basis of evidence gathered by the
Irish police. One was sentenced to seven years imprisonment and his
two co-accused were each sentenced to five years imprisonment. As a
result of a joint operation between the police forces in Ireland and
the UK, three persons have pleaded guilty to offences of
prostitution and money laundering, but not to human trafficking. In
February, Cardiff Crown Court senenced one individual to a total of
seven years imprisonment (five years for controlling prostitution

DUBLIN 00000065 012.3 OF 026


and two for money laundering), another to three years and six
months (two years and six months for prostitution and one year for
money laundering), and a third to two years.

-- H. Does the government extradite persons who are charged with
trafficking in other countries? If so, please provide the number of
traffickers extradited during the reporting period, and the number
of trafficking extraditions pending. In particular, please report on
any pending or concluded extraditions of trafficking offenders to
the United States.

Ireland extradites persons in certain circumstances with those
countries with which it has extradition agreements in place.
However, Irish courts take a very exacting approach toward such
requests. Requests that do not fully comply with the standards set
by the courts are often delayed or denied, as the legal presumption
is against extradition. In addition, Irish courts will deny an
extradition request if they feel that the defendant will not be
given the same guarantees available under the Irish constitution in
the requesting jurisdiction.

As of February 2008, the Irish Parliament had enacted four
agreements - the U.S.-EU Extradition Agreement, the U.S.-Ireland
Extradition Agreement, the U.S.-EU Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty,
and the U.S.-Ireland Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty. The Department
of Foreign Affairs had drawn up a diplomatic note to be exchanged
with the U.S. stating that Ireland has completed its internal
procedures for the entry into force of the U.S./Ireland Extradition
and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreements. The Department of State was
prepared to exchange instruments of ratification and was developing
a draft protocol of exchange to be exchanged with the Irish
bilaterally.

Within the European Union, persons can also be returned to their own
jurisdiction under the provisions of the European Arrest Warrant Act
2004. Extradition in Ireland is governed by the Extradition Act
1965 as amended and the European Arrest Warrant Act 2003 as amended.
Part II of the Extradition Act 1965 applies to non EU countries
including the U.S. and the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) Act 2003
governs extradition arrangements with Member States of the EU.

In 2008 there were no requests under Part II of the Extradition Act
1965 as amended in relation to trafficking offenders.

There is currently one European Arrest Warrant Requests which
relates to a Polish national who is currently in custody pending his
extradition to Poland. Further, in March 2009, a male was
extradited to Germany and in July 2009, a Moldovan male was
extradited to France.

-- I. Is there evidence of government involvement in or tolerance of
trafficking, on a local or institutional level? If so, please
explain in detail.

There is no evidence of Government involvement in or tolerance of
trafficking, on a local or institutional level.

-- J. If government officials are involved in trafficking, what
steps has the government taken to end such participation? Please
indicate the number of government officials investigated and
prosecuted for involvement in trafficking or trafficking-related
corruption during the reporting period. Have any been convicted?
What sentence(s) was imposed? Please specify if officials received
suspended sentences, or were given a fine, fired, or reassigned to
another position within the government as punishment. Please
indicate the number of convicted officials that received suspended
sentences or received only a fine as punishment.

There is no evidence of Government involvement in or tolerance of
trafficking, on a local or institutional level. However, following
a November raid, a female alleged that she was a victim of human
trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and she nominated
a number of persons as having an active role in the commission of
this offence. One of the persons nominated was a serving member of
the Garda Sochna, currently on long term suspension from duty for
other matters. This individual has been arrested on suspicion of
offences under the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008. The
case is currently under investigation.

DUBLIN 00000065 013.3 OF 026

-- K. For countries that contribute troops to international
peacekeeping efforts, please indicate whether the government
vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced
nationals of the country deployed abroad as part of a peacekeeping
or other similar mission who engage in or facilitate severe forms of
trafficking or who exploit victims of such trafficking.

Ireland's military is small. Nonetheless, ten percent of the force
- about 800 troops - is dedicated to peacekeeping duties, most
prominently in Chad and Kosovo. The Department of Defence ensures
that commanding officers and military police personnel on
international peacekeeping missions abroad are constantly vigilant
in the area of Human Trafficking. In the past, one reported case
involving as Irish soldier on an overseas mission was fully
investigated by military police but turned out not to constitute
human trafficking.

Pursuant to section 169 of the Defence Act 1954 it is possible to
prosecute offences under the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act
2008, where an investigation discloses evidence to support such
offences. No offenses have been detected and no prosecutions
against a member of the Permanent Defence Force have taken place to
date.

-- L. If the country has an identified problem of child sex tourists
coming to the country, what are the countries of origin for sex
tourists? How many foreign pedophiles did the government prosecute
or deport/extradite to their country of origin? If your host
country's nationals are perpetrators of child sex tourism, do the
country's child sexual abuse laws have extraterritorial coverage
(similar to the U.S. PROTECT Act) to allow the prosecution of
suspected sex tourists for crimes committed abroad? If so, how many
of the country's nationals were prosecuted and/or convicted during
the reporting period under the extraterritorial provision(s) for
traveling to other countries to engage in child sex tourism?

Ireland does not have an identified child sex tourism problem. The
Government has authority to deport non-national pedophiles according
to the strictures of its extradition treaty with the country of
origin of the arrested individual. In addition, the Child
Trafficking and Pornography Act has extraterritorial coverage.


PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS

-- A. What kind of protection is the government able under existing
law to provide for victims and witnesses? Does it provide these
protections in practice?

Witness protection for victims of trafficking: Under the Criminal
Justice (Human Trafficking) Act 2008, specific measures are
legislated in order to provide greater protection to those
participating in court proceedings involving cases of human
trafficking.

Section 10 (1) provides:

-- In proceedings for an offence under section 2 or 4, or section 3
(other than subsections (2A) and (2B)) of the Act of 1998, or
incitement or conspiracy to commit any such offence, all persons,
other than officers of the court, persons directly concerned in the
proceedings and such other persons (if any) as the judge of the
court may determine, shall be excluded from the court during the
proceedings.

Provisions are also contained within the Act to protect the identity
of the victim from being publicized in the media. Section 11 (1)
provides:

-- "Where a person is charged with an offence under section 2 or 4,
or section 3 (other than subsections (2A) and (2B)) of the Act of
1998, any person who publishes or broadcasts any information,
including-

(a) any photograph of, or that includes a depiction of, the alleged
victim of the offence, or


DUBLIN 00000065 014.3 OF 026


(b) any other representation of the physical likeness, or any
representation that includes a depiction of the physical likeness,
of the alleged victim of the offence, that is likely to enable the
identification of the alleged victim of the offence, shall, subject
to any direction under subsection (2), be guilty of an offence and
shall be liable upon conviction on indictment to a fine, or
imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, or both."

The Criminal Evidence Act 1992, is amended under section 12 Criminal
Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 to include reference to trafficking
in human beings in terms of section 2, 4 and 7. This means that it
will be possible for an alleged victim of trafficking to give
evidence through a live television link, with the leave of the court
in the case of adults, from either within the State or abroad.

-- B. Does the country have victim care facilities (shelters or
drop-in centers) which are accessible to trafficking victims? Do
foreign victims have the same access to care as domestic trafficking
victims? Where are child victims placed (e.g., in shelters, foster
care, or juvenile justice detention centers)? Does the country have
specialized care for adults in addition to children?
Does the country have specialized care for male victims as well as
female? Does the country have specialized facilities dedicated to
helping victims of trafficking?
Are these facilities operated by the government or by NGOs? What is
the funding source of these facilities? Please estimate the amount
the government spent (in U.S. dollar equivalent) on these
specialized facilities dedicated to helping trafficking victims
during the reporting period.

The Reception and Integration Agency (RIA), a Government Agency,
provides accommodation, as an interim measure, to all potential or
suspected adult victims of trafficking referred to RIA by the Garda
National Immigration Bureau (GNIB). This arrangement has operated
satisfactorily to date.

Potential and suspected victims of trafficking are given the same
accommodation as that provided to any newly arrived asylum seekers
in direct provision, i.e., accommodation in a reception centre. The
reception centers at which victims are accommodated include a
medical center on-site, managed by the Health Service Executive
(HSE).

Accommodation for suspected victims of sexual exploitation is also
provided by the NGO Ruhama. This accommodation is provided for the
duration of a period of recovery and reflection and for the duration
of the temporary residence permit.

The Health Service Executive (HSE) has responsibility for children
under legislation as set out in Section 5 of the Child Care Act
1991. Section 5 provides: "Where it appears to a health board that
a child in its area is homeless, the board shall enquire into the
child's circumstances, and if the board is satisfied that there is
no accommodation available to him which he can reasonably occupy,
then, unless the child is received into the care of the board under
the provisions of this Act, the board shall take such steps as are
reasonable to make available suitable accommodation for him."

There is no specific funding set aside for support services provided
to victims of trafficking as this in not the norm in the Irish
context. Instead funding for victims of trafficking is provided
from overall Departmental/Organizational budgets. Similarly,
funding to organizations is not specifically for the provision of
assistance to suspected victims of trafficking. Rather, it is a
matter for such organizations to determine how funding is spent.
Therefore it is not possible to provide a financial estimate of the
precise amount of funding allocated to the services to victims of
trafficking.

Ruhama has been allocated euro 250,000 (USD 340,000) in 2009 from
the Probation Service from their budget allocation for "Assistance
to Voluntary Bodies," part of which relates to its work for dealing
with trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation.
This funding amounts to approximately half of Ruhama's budget.
Ruhama has also been allocated euro 62,000 (USD 84,320) in 2009 from
the Commission for the Support of Victims of Crime for the purposes
of accompanying women who appear before a court. It received a
further euro 144,000 (USD 197,280) from the Health Service

DUBLIN 00000065 015.3 OF 026


Executive.

Victims of Human Trafficking would generally receive the following
additional financial supports:

-Those granted temporary residency all receive jobseekers allowance
at a personal rate of euro 196 and an additional euro 29 for each
additional child.

-Those granted temporary residency also receive rent allowance at a
minimum rate of euro 390 per month for a single person and up to
euro 930 per month for a mother and child. Deposits for securing
accommodation have also been paid for these individuals that equate
to a month's rent.

-Most of the victims granted temporary residency who are on low
incomes are entitled to the General Medical Scheme which entitles
them to free visits to a General Practitioner (i.e. euro 55 per
visit) and free medicines on prescription.

-Those who are repatriated receive travel warrants equating to the
full cost of the airline travel.

-- C. Does the government provide trafficking victims with access
to legal, medical and psychological services? If so, please specify
the kind of assistance provided. Does the government provide funding
or other forms of support to foreign or domestic NGOs and/or
international organizations for providing these services to
trafficking victims? Please explain and provide any funding amounts
in U.S. dollar equivalent. If assistance provided was in-kind,
please specify exact assistance. Please specify if funding for
assistance comes from a federal budget or from regional or local
governments.

Legal Services

Arrangements are being finalised for the provision of legal advice
and legal aid by the Legal Aid Board in civil and criminal cases.
Legal advice will be provided in the context of civil actions in
relation to relevant judicial and administrative proceedings. Legal
Aid means representation by a solicitor or barrister in civil
proceedings in the District, Circuit, High and Supreme Courts.
Legal Aid is available also for representation before the Refugee
Appeals Tribunal. Persons who are granted legal advice and/or legal
aid must pay a contribution to the Board. However, the intention is
this will be waived in the case of potential or suspected victims of
trafficking.

The Legal Aid Board also provides legal advice and legal aid, i.e.
representation in court, to complainants in certain cases of sexual
assault in circumstances where the defendant wishes to question a
witness in relation to their sexual history. However, in terms of
its mandate under legislation, the Legal Aid Board cannot provide
legal aid in criminal cases to victims of trafficking.
Consequently, approval has been sought to provide legal services of
this nature on an administrative basis until the necessary
legislative amendments can be made.

Medical and Psychological Services

These services are provided to all victims of trafficking in health
centres managed by the HSE at the reception centres of the Reception
and Integration Agency at which they are accommodated.

Ruhama has been allocated euro 250,000 (USD 340,000) in 2009 from
the Probation Service from their budget allocation for "Assistance
to Voluntary Bodies," part of which relates to its work for dealing
with trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation.
This funding amounts to approximately half of Ruhama's budget.
Ruhama has also been allocated euro 62,000 (USD 84,320) in 2009 from
the Commission for the Support of Victims of Crime for the purposes
of accompanying women who appear before a court. It received a
further euro 144,000 (USD 197,280) from the Health Service
Executive.

Victims of Human Trafficking would generally receive the following
additional financial supports:


DUBLIN 00000065 016.3 OF 026


-Those granted temporary residency all receive jobseekers allowance
at a personal rate of euro 196 and an additional euro 29 for each
additional child.

-Those granted temporary residency also receive rent allowance at a
minimum rate of euro 390 per month for a single person and up to
euro 930 per month for a mother and child. Deposits for securing
accommodation have also been paid for these individuals that equate
to a month's rent.

-Most of the victims granted temporary residency who are on low
incomes are entitled to the General Medical Scheme which entitles
them to free visits to a General Practitioner (i.e. euro 55 per
visit) and free medicines on prescription.

-Those who are repatriated receive travel warrants equating to the
full cost of the airline travel.

-- D. Does the government assist foreign trafficking victims, for
example, by providing temporary to permanent residency status, or
other relief from deportation? If so, please explain.

The Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill, which is currently
before the Irish Parliament, provides for certain immigration
protections relating to periods of recovery and reflection and
temporary residence. Section 127 of the Bill provides for a
recovery and reflection period of 45 days and, in circumstances
where the victim wishes to assist the authorities in any
investigation or prosecution arising, the possibility of a renewable
temporary permission of 6 months to enable him or her to do so.

Following the enactment of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act
2008 in June 2008, the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform
put in place an administrative framework providing for periods of
recovery and reflection and temporary residence. That framework,
introduced in accordance with the Minister's executive power to
manage migration, broadly reflects the provisions in the
Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill and will operate until
such time as the Bill comes into effect. During debate before the
Irish Parliament, the Minister indicated an intention to increase
the period of recovery and reflection to be afforded a suspected
victim from 45 days to 60 days. A legislative amendment to give
effect to this proposal is to be brought forward. In the interim
period, the current administrative arrangements provide for the 60
days recovery and reflection period.

These measures are intended to address the immediate and medium term
concerns of a trafficking victim with regard to their permission to
remain in the State. The granting of a period of recovery and
reflection is not dependent on the suspected victim's cooperation in
any investigation or prosecution. The period of temporary residence
is to allow the victim to assist the Garda or other relevant
authorities in any investigation or prosecution arising. These
provisions are in line with the Council of Europe Convention in
Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, the United Nations
Protocol (2000) and the European Union Directive (Directive
2004/81/EC) on the residence permit issued to victims of
trafficking.

With regard to any longer term prospect of a victim of human
trafficking being allowed to remain in the State, it may be possible
for a victim to seek to regularize his or her residence in the State
through the making of an application for permission to remain in
accordance with existing immigration schemes. Also, where there are
compelling circumstances of a humanitarian nature the Minister for
Justice, Equality and Law Reform may, at his or her discretion,
grant permission to remain. While it is rcognized that victims of
human trafficking often seek to return to their home country, it is
open to victims to seek to resolve their longer term status in this
way.

-- E. Does the government provide longer-term shelter or housing
benefits to victims or other resources to aid the victims in
rebuilding their lives?

Victims of trafficking have the same rights as any Irish citizen in
relation to access to social services, which includes access to
health care, accommodation, education and material assistance.

DUBLIN 00000065 017.3 OF 026

In terms of access to the labor market, Ireland also provides
victims of trafficking with an immigration stamp 3 during the course
of the 60 day recovery and reflection period. An immigration stamp
3 does not provide access to the labor market and is normally
provided to visitors to Ireland or to dependent spouses.

Should a temporary residence permit be granted to a victim of
trafficking, an immigration stamp 4 can be issued. An immigration
stamp 4 entitles victims to unrestricted access to the labor
market.

-- F. Does the government have a referral process to transfer
victims detained, arrested or placed in protective custody by law
enforcement authorities to institutions that provide short- or
long-term care (either government or NGO-run)?

In the event that a Superintendent of GNIB deems that a person who
has been placed in custody for other offences is a potential
suspected victim of trafficking, then he/she can refer that person
to the appropriate accommodation which is provided by RIA or to an
NGO. The 2009 National Action Plan provides a detailed procedure
for all victims assistance processes.

-- G. What is the total number of trafficking victims identified
during the reporting period? Of these, how many victims were
referred to care facilities for assistance by law enforcement
authorities during the reporting period? By social services
officials? What is the number of victims assisted by
government-funded assistance programs and those not funded by the
government during the reporting period?

During 2009, NGOs encountered 30 new victims of trafficking. All
received accommodation and additional services provided by the
State. Ten individuals were granted a 60-day recovery and
reflection period. A further person - an EU national - chose to
co-operate with the authorities from the outset and was granted a
certificate of registration. Six month temporary residence permits
were given to ten persons of whom four are in their second period of
six months temporary residency.

-- H. Do the government's law enforcement, immigration, and social
services personnel have a formal system of proactively identifying
victims of trafficking among high-risk persons with whom they come
in contact (e.g., foreign persons arrested for prostitution or
immigration violations)? For countries with legalized prostitution,
does the government have a mechanism for screening for trafficking
victims among persons involved in the legal/regulated commercial sex
trade?

Through the provision of training, designed to assist in identifying
such criminal activity where it is taking place, members of the
Garda are empowered to efficiently and effectively investigate
criminal acts involved in human trafficking, while treating victims
with the utmost sensitivity. GNIB has developed appropriate
communications channels with the Health Service Executive and RIA to
ensure the welfare of suspected victims of human trafficking is
provided for while an investigation into the alleged criminality is
completed.

Staff in child detention schools all receive extensive child
protection training which includes training in identifying and
dealing with children who are suspected of having been trafficked.
There are standard procedures in place to respond to suspicions of
any child protection issues, including trafficking, which involve
reporting the matter to both the Garda and the Health Service
Executive.

The Garda, in particular GNIB, has built up links/relationships with
all recognized State agencies, NGOs and other voluntary
organizations operating in this area. The various Working Groups
established by the AHTU provide a forum to further develop Ireland's
responses to all of the issues of human trafficking. The Garda
plays an active part in each of the Working Groups and is
represented at a senior level on each group.

Insofar as child victims of trafficking are concerned the HSE
assesses each child's case independently and places them in

DUBLIN 00000065 018.3 OF 026


accommodation that it deems would provide the safest and most
appropriate placement. The option considered to be safest to date
in the majority of cases has been foster placement. However, the
HSE recognizes that as tracking and monitoring processes are refined
and improved, the number of identified victims may increase and in
preparation for this eventuality a policy and operational plan is
currently being completed by the HSE. The Dublin based Service for
Separated Children Seeking Asylum (S.C.S.A.) will take
responsibility for providing the full range of supports including
placement/accommodation to child victims of trafficking.

-- I. Are the rights of victims respected? Are trafficking victims
detained or jailed? If so, for how long? Are victims fined? Are
victims prosecuted for violations of other laws, such as those
governing immigration or prostitution?

The rights of victims are respected and it is not the State's policy
to detain or imprison persons whom are known to be victims of
trafficking. NGOs confirm that in 2009 no victims of trafficking
were imprisoned at any point. Victims are not prosecuted for
breaches of immigration or other laws in circumstances where they
are suspected to be victims of human trafficking. If a prosecution
has commenced or is being considered, the facts of each case are
relayed to the Director of Public Prosecutions, who has the
discretion to terminate a prosecution or not commence a prosecution
if the person is a suspected victim of human trafficking.

-- J. Does the government encourage victims to assist in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking? How many victims
assisted in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers during
the reporting period? May victims file civil suits or seek legal
action against traffickers? Does anyone impede victim access to
such legal redress? If a victim is a material witness in a court
case against a former employer, is the victim permitted to obtain
other employment or to leave the country pending trial proceedings?
Are there means by which a victim may obtain restitution?

The Government encourages victims of trafficking to assist the Garda
with investigations and prosecutions by offering them a temporary
residence permit. The temporary residence permit is granted
following the expiry of a recovery and reflection period on the
condition that the victim cooperates with the Garda with
investigation and prosecutions. The permit lasts for a period of
six months and can be renewed thereafter for as long as an
investigation or prosecution is on-going.

During this time, victims have access to legal aid and advice which
is to be provided by the Legal Aid Board. These arrangements are
currently being finalized. Victims are entitled to the same access
to legal redress as Irish citizens and are not impeded in any way in
this regard. If victims wish to take a civil case against a
trafficker for the purposes of obtaining compensation, they can be
assisted in taking such a case by the Legal Aid Board. Victims may
also receive compensation in a criminal case under the Criminal
Justice Act 1993 on the basis of personal injury or loss resulting
from the offence or through applying to the Criminal Injuries
Compensation Tribunal which compensates victims of crime for out of
pocket expenses.

If a victim is a material witness in a court case against a former
employer and has been working in the State for more than 12 months,
there is no restriction on him/her changing employment. Situations
where a person has been in the State for less than 12 months are
dealt with on a case by case basis and proof would be required that
they are taking a case against a former employer. Decisions as to
whether a person can enter, remain or leave the State are made by
the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. It should also
be noted, that on being granted a temporary residence permit, a
victim is issued with a stamp 4 which allows him/her unrestricted
access to the labor market.

Several victims in Ireland actively assisted police and prosecutors
with the Wales case and a number of others continue to assist with
investigations.

-- K. Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in identifying trafficking victims and in the
provision of assistance to trafficked victims, including the special

DUBLIN 00000065 019.3 OF 026


needs of trafficked children? Does the government provide training
on protections and assistance to its embassies and consulates in
foreign countries that are destination or transit countries? What
is the number of trafficking victims assisted by the host country's
embassies or consulates abroad during the reporting period? Please
explain the type of assistance provided (travel documents, referrals
to assistance, payment for transportation home).

The Garda has placed particular importance on ensuring that its
members receive training which will equip them to tackle the
phenomenon of human trafficking. A continuous professional
development training course entitled 'Tackling Trafficking in Human
Beings: Prevent, Protection and Prosecution' has been designed by
the Garda, assisted by the International Organisation for Migration
(IOM) and the UK Human Trafficking Centre. The aim of the course is
to alert operational personnel within the Garda to the existence of
the phenomenon of trafficking and to empower them to identify
victims so as to provide for their wellbeing and to ensure
initiation of criminal investigations, where appropriate. Members
of the PSNI have also attended this training. In 2009, 350 members
of the Garda have participated in training and all Probationer Garda
officers have received awareness training as part of their final
phase of training.

Awareness Raising Training has been provided, since July 2008, as an
introduction to human trafficking and setting out the indicators of
human trafficking. The training has been provided by the
International Organisation for Migration (IOM) with input from NGOs,
the HSE, the Garda National Immigration Bureau and the Anti-Human
Trafficking Unit. Among those provided with the training include
staff from the following organisations:

-- Labour Inspectors from the National Employment Rights Authority
-- Health Services Executive
-- Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service (INIS)
-- Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner (ORAC)
-- the Victim's Support Helpline
-- the Victim of Crime Office
-- the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment
-- Youth Detention Schools
-- the Probation Service
-- the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit
-- Inspectors from the Private Security Authority
-- Social Welfare Inspectors from the Department of Social and
Family Affairs

The Department of Education and Science has agreed to involve
teachers and students in raising awareness of trafficking in human
beings. Sample case studies supplied by the International
Organisation for Migration (IOM), UNHCR and the Migrants Rights
Centre of Ireland have been made available to the Coordinator of the
Civil, Social and Political Education (CSPE) course in Secondary
schools. These materials will be distributed to teachers in
selected schools on a trial basis with a view to having the topic of
human trafficking addressed as part of the 'Human Rights' module of
the CSPE program.

Staff of public service organizations participated in a 'Train the
Trainer' course to enable training on human trafficking to be rolled
out to relevant staff in these organizations.

-- L. Does the government provide assistance, such as medical aid,
shelter, or financial help, to its nationals who are repatriated as
victims of trafficking?

There is no evidence to date that an Irish national has been
trafficked abroad.

-- M. Which international organizations or NGOs, if any, work with
trafficking victims? What type of services do they provide? What
sort of cooperation do they receive from local authorities?

Established in 1989, Ruhama is a Dublin-based NGO that works with
women involved in prostitution. As part of its overall work, Ruhama
also provides assistance to women who have been trafficked into
Ireland for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Ruhama regards
prostitution and commercial sexual exploitation as violence against
women and violations of women's human rights. Services offered by

DUBLIN 00000065 020.3 OF 026


Ruhama include accommodation, outreach, advocacy, befriending,
counseling and development.

The Sexual Violence Centre in Cork provides counseling and support
to teenagers, women and men who have been raped or are survivors of
child sexual abuse. The organization is recognized as a center of
expertise in this area and provides training and education for a
range of organizations and agencies. The Centre is also involved in
research, is on a number of committees and aims to influence social
policy and improve legislation for victims of sexual violence. In
addition, the Centre is also involved in developing awareness
raising through its work with high school students in the tenth
grade.

The Migrant Rights Centre of Ireland (MRCI) is a national
organization concerned with the rights of migrant workers and their
families. The organization was set up in 2001 to bridge a gap in
support structures and information provision for migrant workers and
their families. Since then MRCI has evolved to become a national
organization. Its primary aims are the provision of supports to
migrant workers and their families, empowering migrant workers
through community work practice and achieving policy change.

The Immigrant Council of Ireland (ICI) is a national, independent
non-governmental organization that promotes the rights of migrants
through information, legal advice, advocacy, lobbying, research and
training work. The ICI is also an Independent Law Centre.

Established in 1951, the International Oraganisation for Migration
(IOM) in Ireland is the leading inter-governmental organization in
the field of migration and works closely with governmental,
intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. Ireland has been
an IOM Member State since 2002. Since then, it has become actively
engaged in a number of thematic areas which all seek to positively
contribute to facilitating and managing migration. IOM Dublin
currently runs assisted voluntary return and reintegration programs
funded by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform that
are open to asylum seekers and irregular migrants from non-EEA
(European Economic Area) countries who wish to return home
voluntarily but do not have the means, including the necessary
documentation, to do so.

In Ireland, the Representation of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) works with government as well as
civil society partners to support the building of the asylum system.
The organization carries out the mandate of UNHCR to safeguard the
rights and well-being of refugees in cooperation with the
authorities. UNHCR activities aim to ensure that everyone can
exercise the right to seek asylum in Ireland and find safety if they
are in need of protection. In terms of involvement in
anti-trafficking activities the UNHCR are represented on a number of
the working groups who are responsible for examining various
trafficking issues.


PREVENTION

-- A. Did the government conduct anti-trafficking information or
education campaigns during the reporting period? If so, briefly
describe the campaign(s), including their objectives and
effectiveness. Please provide the number of people reached by such
awareness efforts, if available. Do these campaigns target
potential trafficking victims and/or the demand for trafficking
(e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or beneficiaries of forced labor)?
(Note: This can be an especially noteworthy effort where
prostitution is legal. End Note.)

Ireland undertook the following prevention activities in 2009:

-Published the National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat
Trafficking of Human Beings in Ireland 2009-2012 in June 2009. The
Plan sets out the structures as well as measures already undertaken
and to be undertaken to bring Ireland in line with its international
obligations.

-Development, design and delivery of a 'Train the Trainer' course
for staff of Government and Public Sector organizations to enable
training on human trafficking to be rolled out to all staff in these

DUBLIN 00000065 021.3 OF 026


organizations. Courses took place in November and December, 2009.
A total of 23 people were trained from 9 different organizations -
Department of Agriculture, RIA, Prison Service, Department of
Enterprise, Trade & Employment, Legal Aid Board, FAS, Department of
Social & Family Affairs, NERA and the HSE. A third course will take
place in 2010. Presentations were made by the Anti-Human
Trafficking Unit, the Garda National Immigration Bureau and the
Health Service Executive.

-Advertisement in national newspapers to increase awareness of the
3rd EU Anti-Trafficking Day in October, 2009.

-Specialized training course in September, 2009 for staff of the
Legal Aid Board who are providing legal aid and advice to potential
and suspected victims of trafficking in human beings.

-Executive Director of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit addressed a
Seminar on Strategies for Tackling Forced Labour on 1 October 2009
organized by the Migrants Rights Council of Ireland (MRCI) and the
International Labour Organisation.

-Training courses entitled 'Tackling Trafficking in Human Beings:
Prevention, Protection and Prosecution' delivered to 100 members of
the Garda Sochna in November and December 2009.


-250 probationer members of the Garda Sochna received awareness
raising/victim identification training on human trafficking.

-Publication of an Article on Human Trafficking in the Judicial
Studies Journal in October, 2009. The target audience for this
publication is the judiciary.

-Publication of an Article on Human Trafficking in a number of
editions of a Romanian newsletter entitled 'Informatia' - the
article was published in both Romanian and English.

-A meeting was held with representatives from the Irish College of
General Practitioners in December 2009 with a view to creating
awareness of human trafficking in this sector.

-Blue blindfold images used by the United Nations Interregional
Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in an on-line gallery
exhibition entitled 'Art to Fight Crime'.

-Blue blindfold images were used by 'Doras Luimni' a Limerick based
NGO for an awareness raising campaign on human trafficking during
the global campaign '16 days of Action against Violence against
Women' from 25 November to 10 December, 2009.

-There has been a total of 4,846 visits (as at 27 January 2010) to
the blue blindfold website since its establishment in October,
2008.

-An AHTU page on the social networking site 'Facebook' has been
established with an increasing number of persons joining the group.

-Attendance at a conference on Human Trafficking entitled 'Human
Trafficking: Psychologically shattered and caught in a legal
quagmire' organized by a non-government organization.

-On-going design and development of a module on human trafficking as
part of the Civil, Social and Political Education program for the
junior cycle in post primary schools throughout the country.

-An editorial on the issue of Human Trafficking and Poster
advertisement was placed in the magazine of Emergency Services
Ireland. This is a bi-monthly publication which issues to Local
Authorities and Emergency Services in both the Republic and Northern
Ireland.

-A full page advertisement was placed in the 2010 Official Yearbook
of the Irish Road Haulage Association. The yearbook is sent to all
members of the association, to key management persons in the top
1,000 transport companies in Ireland and the UK, to the management
of the Road Haulage Associations across Europe, to the top 2,000
European Transport Companies Source (Kompass), to truck distributors
and manufacturers in Europe, to freight forwarders and fleet

DUBLIN 00000065 022.3 OF 026


managers and to Insurance and Legal consultants associated with the
Transport Industry.

-A full page advertisement was placed in the Irish Taxi Drivers
Federation Yearbook 2010. This will ensure Taxi Drivers nationwide
are aware of the Human Trafficking problem and can immediately
contact the appropriate authorities should they become suspicious of
any activity they witness. Taxi News Yearbook is distributed to all
22,000 taxi drivers throughout Ireland and to 12,500 in the greater
Dublin area.

-A notice on human trafficking has been made available to Marine
Services Personnel (covering areas from merchant to fishing and
leisure, ports, harbors, offshore energy, marine engineering
companies, etc). The notice issued electronically via email and was
posted on the Department of Transport's website.

-- B. Does the government monitor immigration and emigration
patterns for evidence of trafficking?

Prior to 2001, information recorded by the Garda relating to
non-nationals was held by use of a paper based system which, as the
numbers of immigrants increase, quickly became inadequate. In 2001
a computer-based Garda National Immigration Bureau Information
System (GNIB IS) was designed, developed and implemented by the
Garda in order to:

-- Streamline the registration and renewal of registrations of
non-nationals.

-- Strengthen security at the frontiers of the State.

-- Effectively manage and monitor the execution of deportation
orders.

-- Facilitate the availability of immigration related information to
those tasked with implementing immigration related legislation.

The information held on the GNIB-IS, is utilized for the following
purposes:

-- Preventing entry into the state of persons who possess an adverse
immigration history.

-- Establishing if non-nationals have fulfilled their obligation to
register.

-- Ensuring non-nationals do not remain in the State beyond the
period allowed.

-- Locating persons avoiding deportation.

-- Processing applications for naturalization.

-- Establishing if non-nationals are complying with their conditions
for entry into the State.

-- Providing information to immigration/police authorities in other
states.

-- Preventing the illegal movement of persons within the UK/Ireland
Common Travel Area.

Through a range of management reports, immigration-related issues
are monitored on a daily basis enabling identification of patterns,
trends, and modus operandi with regard to a wide range of
immigration related criminal activity. Detection and investigation
of potential incidents of human trafficking is facilitated by the
GNIB IS.

-- C. Is there a mechanism for coordination and communication
between various agencies, internal, international, and multilateral
on trafficking-related matters, such as a multi-agency working group
or a task force?

The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit has overall administrative
responsibility for coordinating the Government's response to
trafficking in persons. In order to carry out that role effectively

DUBLIN 00000065 023.3 OF 026


and to implement and facilitate a multidisciplinary approach, the
AHTU works in close cooperation with a wide variety of relevant
Government Agencies and Departments in addition to NGOs and
International Organizations (IOs) working in the anti-trafficking
field.

The Garda has, over a number of years, established key strategic
relationships and alliances with all relevant stakeholders and
partners involved in the immigration process. There are regular
exchange fora to ensure information sharing and a holistic
Governmental approach to the phenomenon of trafficking in human
beings.

-- D. Does the government have a national plan of action to address
trafficking in persons? If the plan was developed during the
reporting period, which agencies were involved in developing it?
Were NGOs consulted in the process? What steps has the government
taken to implement the action plan?

The National Action Plan (NAP) to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in
Human Beings was released on June 10, 2009. The NAP has a strong
focus on preventing trafficking in human beings becoming a major
issue in Ireland. The NAP is includes four main headings:

-- Prevention and Awareness Raising,
-- Prosecution of Traffickers,
-- Protection of Victims, and
-- Child Trafficking.

The Plan sets out the structures to facilitate Ireland's compliance
with all of the relevant international instruments and will
therefore allow for ratification of the Council of Europe Convention
on "Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings and the UN Protocol
to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially
Women and Children" when the structures have been put in place.

The National Action Plan was developed by the Anti-Human Trafficking
Unit with input provided from a number of other Government
Departments and State agencies as necessary. Those asked to provide
input include:

-- Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service
-- Garda
-- Health Service Executive
-- Department of Foreign Affairs
-- Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment
-- Department of Education & Science
-- Office of the Minister for Children
-- Director of Public Prosecutions
-- National Employment Rights Authority

A public consultation was held at the formulation of the National
Action Plan. Interested groups or individuals were asked to make
submissions under four different headings, which included Prevention
and Awareness Raising, Prosecution of Traffickers, Protection of
Victims and Child Trafficking.

This allowed for the views of the public and relevant governmental
and non-governmental stakeholders engaged in the fight against human
trafficking to be taken into account. Those organizations that
provided input via the consultation process included:

-- The Immigrant Council of Ireland
-- The Human Rights Committee of the Law Society
-- Daughters of Charity - Vincentian Refugee Centre
-- HSE - Balseskin Refugee Health Screening Team
-- Irish Human Rights Commission
-- Dept. of Political Science and Sociology, NUIG & Irish School of
Ecumenics, TCD
-- Barnardos
-- Amnesty International - Irish Section
-- Ruhama
-- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
-- Irish Women Lawyers Association
-- MRCI - Migrant Rights Centre Ireland
-- Irish Refugee Council
-- IOM - International Organisation for Migration
-- Integrating Ireland

DUBLIN 00000065 024.3 OF 026


-- Dominican Justice Office
-- One in Four
-- Irish Federation of University of Women
-- Stop Sex Trafficking
-- International Human Rights Network
-- APT - Act to Prevent Trafficking
-- UNICEF
-- Curam.

The Interdepartmental High Level Group will be responsible for
monitoring the implementation of the National Action Plan. The High
Level Group will be complemented by the Non-Governmental and
Governmental Roundtable Forum on Combating Human Trafficking and the
working groups will also be involved in the implementation of the
Plan.

In addition, a consultation will be held mid-way through the
implementation of the Plan to take into account the views of
relevant governmental and non-governmental stakeholders engaged in
the fight against human trafficking having regard to the
developments in the period following the publication of the plan.
Views will be collated centrally by the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit
and circulated to the High Level Group, Roundtable Forum, and other
relevant stakeholders.

-- E: What measures has the government taken during the reporting
period to reduce the demand for commercial sex acts? (see ref B,
para. 9(3) for examples)

Television Advertisements Targeted at Purchasers of Sexual Services

The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit arranged funding, under the National
Women's Strategy, for Ruhama (an NGO which provides support services
to women involved in prostitution and other forms of commercial
sexual exploitation) for the making of a short three-minute film and
a 50-second advertisement designed to educate both purchasers and
potential purchasers of sexual services to the exploitation
underpinning the commercial sex industry and to address the demand
side of sex trafficking. The 50-second advertisement was launched
on November 10, 2008 and has since been aired regularly on the
national television station, RTE, and the sports television station,
Setanta.

-A full page advertisement was placed in the 2010 Official Yearbook
of the Irish Road Haulage Association. The yearbook is sent to all
members of the association, to key management persons in the top
1,000 transport companies in Ireland and the UK, to the management
of the Road Haulage Associations across Europe, to the top 2,000
European Transport Companies Source (Kompass), to truck distributors
and manufacturers in Europe, to freight forwarders and fleet
managers and to Insurance and Legal consultants associated with the
Transport Industry.

-A full page advertisement was placed in the Irish Taxi Drivers
Federation Yearbook 2010. This will ensure Taxi Drivers nationwide
are aware of the Human Trafficking problem and can immediately
contact the appropriate authorities should they become suspicious of
any activity they witness. Taxi News Yearbook is distributed to all
22,000 taxi drivers throughout Ireland and to 12,500 in the greater
Dublin area.

-A notice on human trafficking has been made available to Marine
Services Personnel (covering areas from merchant to fishing and
leisure, ports, harbors, offshore energy, marine engineering
companies, etc). The notice issued electronically via e-mail and
was posted on the Department of Transport's website.

-- F. Required of all Posts: What measures has the government taken
during the reporting period to reduce the participation in
international child sex tourism by nationals of the country?

Section 7 of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) 2008 Act provides
for extra territorial jurisdiction where an Irish citizen or
resident conspires, incites or commits acts which would be offences
under this Act if they were committed in Ireland and also where the
victim of such acts committed outside Ireland is an Irish citizen.
Penalties of up to life imprisonment and an unlimited fine apply in
respect of these offences.

DUBLIN 00000065 025.3 OF 026

Blue blindfold literature has been distributed to travel agents in
the hope of raising awareness amongst travelers.

--G. What measures has the government adopted to ensure that its
nationals who are deployed abroad as part of a peacekeeping or other
similar mission do not engage in or facilitate severe forms of
trafficking or exploit victims of such trafficking?

The Department of Defence ensures that commanding officers and
military police personnel on international peacekeeping missions
abroad are constantly vigilant in the area of Human Trafficking. In
the past, one reported case involving as Irish soldier on an
overseas mission was fully investigated by military police but
turned out not to constitute human trafficking.

Pursuant to section 169 of the Defence Act 1954 it is possible to
prosecute offences under the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act
2008, where an investigation discloses evidence to support such
offences. No offenses have been detected and no prosecutions
against a member of the Permanent Defence Force have taken place to
date.


PARTNERSHIPS

-- A. Does the government engage with other governments, civil
society, and/or multilateral organizations to focus attention and
devote resources to addressing human trafficking? If so, please
provide details.

Ireland is also part of a European G6 Initiative against human
trafficking. This initiative involves six European countries (UK,
Poland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Ireland) and includes sharing
best practices of anti-trafficking efforts. The GNIB works under
the Irish National Police but carries out its immigration functions
on behalf of the Minister of Justice. This system ensures a sharing
of information among immigration policy-makers, immigration
officers, and national police. A GNIB official represents Ireland
at the EU Border Agency in Warsaw.

Examples of international police cooperation include:

-- Exchange of liaison officers between GNIB and United Kingdom
Border Agency (UKBA).

-- Sharing immigration related information between the GNIB and the
UKBA.

-- Continuous liaison with the UK trafficking initiative Operation
'Pentameter I' and 'Pentameter II' - a GNIB Liaison Officer was
appointed to ensure full coordination.

-- Appointment of a GNIB Liaison Officer to deal with Europol and
Interpol to specifically deal with requests from both organizations.


-- Appointment of GNIB personnel as Airline Liaison officers who are
intermittently based at hub-airports in other EU Member States.

-- Provision of access to Interpol's I-24/7 global police
communications system at all Ports of Entry in the State thereby
enabling immediate access to information held by Interpol relating
to immigration matters.

-- Participation by representatives of the Garda in the Interpol
Working Group on trafficking in human beings.

-- Regular liaison between the Irish and French immigration
personnel.

-- The secondment of a UK Immigration Service Officer to the British
Embassy in Dublin to liaise with GNIB.

-- Appointment of GNIB officers to liaise with the UK Immigration
Service and the Police Service of Northern Ireland (in relation to
the land border between Ireland and Northern Ireland).


DUBLIN 00000065 026.3 OF 026


-- International Investigations with other States on an ongoing
basis.

-- Frontex sharing of information and regular attendance at
meetings.

-- OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Central
Europe), attendance at meetings on Trafficking in Human Beings.

-- Council of Europe.

-- UN and UNGIFT.

The government reported that it cooperated with other countries on
international anti-trafficking investigations. In December 2009,
three persons were sentenced in Romania for a range of offences,
which included trafficking of persons to Ireland for the purposes of
labor exploitation, largely on the basis of evidence gathered by the
Irish police. One was sentenced to seven years imprisonment and his
two co-accused were each sentenced to five years imprisonment. As a
result of a joint operation between the police forces in Ireland and
the UK, three persons have pleaded guilty to offences of
prostitution and money laundering, but not to human trafficking. In
February, Cardiff Crown Court sentenced one individual to a total of
seven years imprisonment (five years for controlling prostitution
and two for money laundering), another to three years and six
months (two years and six months for prostitution and one year for
money laundering), and a third to two years.

The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit in the Department of Justice has
overall administrative responsibility for policy development and
coordination of the Government's response to trafficking in persons.
In order to carry out that role effectively and to implement and
facilitate a multidisciplinary approach, the AHTU works in close
cooperation with a wide variety of relevant Government Agencies and
Departments, in addition to NGOs and International Organizations
(IOs) working in the anti-trafficking field. This inter-party
cooperation is chiefly conducted through a series of groups
consisting of a High Level Interdepartmental Group, which is
comprised of high level management from different Government
Departments and Agencies, a Roundtable Group consisting of members
of Government Departments and Agencies and members of NGOs and IOs,
and a series of Working Groups made up of NGOs, IOs, Government
Agencies and Departments.

-- B. What sort of international assistance does the government
provide to other countries to address TIP?

The government reported that it cooperated with other countries on
international anti-trafficking investigations. In December 2009,
three persons were sentenced in Romania for a range of offences,
which included trafficking of persons to Ireland for the purposes of
labor exploitation, largely on the basis of evidence gathered by the
Irish police. One was sentenced to seven years imprisonment and his
two co-accused were each sentenced to five years imprisonment. As a
result of a joint operation between the police forces in Ireland and
the UK, three persons have pleaded guilty to offences of
prostitution and money laundering, but not to human trafficking. In
February, Cardiff Crown Court sentenced one individual to a total of
seven years imprisonment (five years for controlling prostitution
and two for money laundering), another to three years and six
months (two years and six months for prostitution and one year for
money laundering), and a third to two years.

3. (U) Point of Contact for this report is Political Officer Jami
Papa, Office Tel: 353-1-630-6275, Fax: 353-1-667-0056, E-mail:
PapaJL@state.gov.

ROONEY

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