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Cablegate: Libyan Officials Indicted for Bombing Pan 103

O R 141804Z NOV 91
FM SECSTATE WASHDC
TO ALL DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR POSTS IMMEDIATE
USDEL SECRETARY IMMEDIATE 0000
SPECIAL EMBASSY PROGRAM IMMEDIAT
AMEMBASSY KINSHASA IMMEDIATE
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S E C R E T STATE 374256

E.O. 12356: DECL: OADR
TAGS: PTER LY
SUBJECT: LIBYAN OFFICIALS INDICTED FOR BOMBING PAN 103

1. S - ENTIRE TEXT. THE PAPER IS EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE
AND IS CLASSIFIED SECRET UNTIL THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 14 AT
1530 (GMT). AFTER THAT POINT THE WHITE PAPER IS
DECLASSIFIED AND SHOULD BE SHARED WIDELY WITH HOST
GOVERNMENT.

2. AS DISCUSSED IN SEPTEL (MESSAGE REFERENCE NUMBER NOT
YET AVAILABLE) THE DEPARTMENT HAS PREPARED A WHITE PAPER
ENTITLED QUOTE LIBYA'S CONTINUING SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM
UNQUOTE. THE TEXT OF THAT PAPER BEGINS WITH PARAGRAPH
THREE.

3. TITLE: LIBYA'S CONTINUING RESPONSIBILITY FOR
TERRORISM

BEGIN TEXT. INTRODUCTION

THIS WHITE PAPER IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE CONTEXT FOR THE
ALLEGATIONS IN THE US AND SCOTTISH INDICTMENTS OF LIBYAN

NATIONALS FOR THE BOMBING OF PAN AM FLIGHT 103 IN
DECEMBER 1988. TO THIS END, THE PAPER DISCUSSES THE
ATTITUDE OF THE QADHAFI GOVERNMENT TOWARD TERRORISM AND
OUTLINES LIBYAN OFFICIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR TERRORIST
ACTS.

BASED ON ANALYSIS OF LIBYAN BEHAVIOR OVER MANY YEARS, ON
THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATING THE BOMBING OF PAN AM 103
SINCE 1988, AND ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE LIBYAN REGIME
AND THE RELATIONS AMONG LEADING OFFICIALS IN THAT
REGIME, WE CONCLUDE THAT THE BOMBING OF PAN AM 103 WAS
NOT AN ABERRATION AND WAS AN ACTION AUTHORIZED BY THE
LIBYAN GOVERNMENT. LIBYA'S SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM BEGAN
IN THE EARLIEST DAYS OF THE QADHAFI REGIME. AS EARLY AS
1972, LIBYAN LEADER MU'AMMAR QADHAFI PUBLICLY OFFERED TO
HELP EXTREMIST MOVEMENTS -- INCLUDING THE PROVISIONAL
IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY AND THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT IN
THE UNITED STATES -- AND TO SUPPORT ANY GROUP IN THE
MIDDLE EAST WILLING TO ATTACK ISRAEL. QADHAFI
DISPATCHED TERRORISTS TO ITALY IN 1973 TO SHOOT DOWN AN
ISRAELI AIRLINER, AND AT LEAST AS EARLY AS 1975 ORDERED
THE MURDER OF LIBYAN DISSIDENTS LIVING ABROAD. ALTHOUGH
DISSIDENTS HISTORICALLY HAVE POSED LITTLE -- IF ANY --
THREAT TO QADHAFI'S RULE, THE LIBYAN LEADER HAS
CONCENTRATED ON ELIMINATING THEM. ASSASSINATIONS TOOK
PLACE IN THE EARLY AND MID-1980S AND INCLUDED TWO
ATTEMPTS (ONE OF THEM SUCCESSFUL) AGAINST LIBYAN
STUDENTS IN THE U.S.

LIBYAN INVOLVEMENT IN AND SUPPORT OF TERRORISM EXPANDED
THROUGHOUT THE EARLY 1980S. TRIPOLI PROVIDED PASSPORTS
TO ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION MEMBERS WHO ATTACKED THE EL AL
TICKET COUNTER AT THE VIENNA AIRPORT IN DECEMBER, 1985.
LIBYA ALSO SPONSORED THE BOMBING OF THE LA BELLE DISCO
IN BERLIN IN APRIL 1986 THAT KILLED THREE PEOPLE,
INCLUDING TWO US SERVICEMEN.

OVER THE YEARS EVEN AS LIBYAN AGENTS AND THEIR PROXIES
PLANNED AND CARRIED OUT TERRORIST ATTACKS, QADHAFI
REGULARLY SOUGHT TO CALM INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS THROUGH
PUBLIC DENUNCIATIONS OF TERRORISM. FOR EXAMPLE, IN 1977
QADHAFI PLOTTED TO ASSASSINATE A US AMBASSADOR, JUST
AFTER ASSURING PRESIDENT CARTER THAT HE SOUGHT GOOD
RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. MOVEOVER, QADHAFI
PERIODICALLY HAS ISSUED PUBLIC DENIALS OF HIS
INVOLVEMENT IN TERRORISM WHILE HIS INTELLIGENCE
APPARATUS WAS PREPARING FOR ACTS OF TERRORISM. LIBYAN
ACTION HAS NOT BEEN LIMITED TO ISRAELI AND WESTERN
TARGETS. IN THE MID-1980'S LIBYA BACKED PLOTS AGAINST

PRESIDENT MUBARAK OF EGYPT, FORMER PRESIDENT NIMEIRI OF
SUDAN, PRESIDENT MOBUTU OF ZAIRE' FORMER TUNISIAN
PRESIDENT BOURGUIBA, AND FORMER PRESIDENT HABRE OF
CHAD. IN ADDITION TO USING AND SUPPORTING TERRORISM,
QADHAFI ALSO HAS A LONG HISTORY OF TRYING TO SUBVERT
GOVERNMENTS IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA.


THE RECORD OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS
-----------------------------------

THE 1986 AIRSTRIKE ON LIBYA BY THE UNITED STATES,
COMBINED WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL PRESSURES, DID NOT END
TRIPOLI'S SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM. FOLLOWING THE AIR
ATTACK, QADHAFI BEGAN TO USE FRONT COMPANIES AND OTHER
ORGANIZATIONS TO HIDE LIBYA'S HAND. IN ADDITION,
QADHAFI HAS PLACED A PREMIUM ON MASKING LIBYA'S SUPPORT
FOR TERRORISM IN AN ATTEMPT TO AVOID JEOPARDIZING
LIBYA'S ECONOMIC LINKS TO HIS AFRICAN NEIGHBORS AND
MAJOR EUROPEAN TRADING PARTNERS.

THE LIBYANS SPONSORED A SERIES OF ANTI-US OPERATIONS
IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE US AIRSTRIKES IN APRIL, 1986.
TRIPOLI WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SHOOTING OF A US EMBASSY
COMMUNICATOR IN SUDAN ON 15 APRIL 1986 AND FOR THE
SHOOTING OF ANOTHER EMBASSY COMMUNICATOR IN SANAA, NORTH
YEMEN, ON 25 APRIL 1986. IN ADDITION, TWO LIBYANS WERE
APPREHENDED ON 18 APRIL 1986 AS THEY ATTEMPTED TO ATTACK
THE US OFFICERS CLUB IN ANKARA WITH GRENADES OBTAINED
FROM THE LIBYAN PEOPLE'S BUREAU THERE. THE LIBYANS
CONFESSED THAT THEY WERE ORDERED TO CAUSE THE MAXIMUM
NUMBER OF CASUALITIES, PARTICULARLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN.

WE BELIEVE THAT LIBYA WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
DESTRUCTION OF PAN AM FLIGHT 103 OVER LOCKERBIE.
SCOTLAND, ON 21 DECEMBER 1988, AND THAT SENIOR
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS INVOLVED IN PREVIOUS TERRORIST
ATTACKS AROUND THE WORLD ORCHESTRATED THE OPERATION.
FORENSIC EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT THE BOMB'S TIMER WAS
UNIQUE TO LIBYAN INVENTORIES, AND AN OFFICIAL OF THE
LIBYAN NATIONAL CARRIER, LIBYAN ARAB AIRLINES, USED HIS
CREDENTIALS TO CIRCUMVENT SECURITY PROCEDURES IN MALTA
TO ASSIST IN THE OPERATION.

OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS, LIBYA HAS PROVIDED
ASSISTANCE TO PALESTINIAN TERRORISTS, ENABLING THEM TO
LAUNCH ATTACKS AGAINST ISRAEL AND WESTERN TARGETS:

-- IN MAY 1990, PALESTINE LIBERATION FRONT MEMBERS
ATTEMPTED A SEABORNE RAID ON ISRAEL; THE OPERATION
FAILED, AND FOUR TERRORISTS WERE KILLED AND 12
CAPTURED. LIBYA PROVIDED THE GROUP WITH TRAINING,
SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENT, WEAPONRY, AND THE MOTHERSHIP
USED IN THE OPERATION.

-IN JULY 1988, ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION (ANO) OPERATIVES
ATTACKED THE GREEK CRUISE SHIP THE CITY OF POROS,
KILLING NINE AND WOUNDING OVER 100 PEOPLE. LIBYA
PROVIDED THE WEAPONS USED IN THIS OPERATION.

LIBYA HAS REGARDED AFRICA AS AN ATTRACTIVE ENVIRONMENT
FOR ITS OPERATIONS AND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SEVERAL
ATTACKS THERE:

--ON 30 OCTOBER 1991, A FRENCH JUDGE ISSUED
INTERNATIONAL ARREST WARRANTS, CHARGING FOUR LIBYAN
OFFICIALS WITH INVOLVEMENT IN THE BOMBING OF UTA FLIGHT
772 IN SEPTEMBER 1989.

--IN MARCH 1990, LIBYAN DIPLOMATS WERE EXPELLED FROM
ETHIOPIA AFTER A BOMB EXPLODED IN THE HILTON HOTEL IN
ADDIS ABABA, IN AN APPARENT ATTEMPT TO KILL THE ISRAELI
AMBASSADOR WHO WAS STAYING THERE.

--IN FEBRUARY 1988, TWO KNOWN LIBYAN TERRORISTS WERE
ARRESTED IN DAKAR, SENEGAL, IN POSSESSION OF EXPLOSIVES
AND WEAPONS.

--IN OCTOBER 1987, A BOMB EXPLODED IN THE OFFICE OF
WORLD VISION, A PRIVATE RELIEF ORGANIZATION OPERATING IN
MOUDOU, CHAD. LIBYAN DIPLOMATS BASED IN COTONOU, BENIN,
ASSISTED THE TERRORISTS WHO CARRIED OUT THE ATTACK.

--IN MARCH 1987, A BOMB EXPLODED AT THE CAFE
"L'HISTORIL" IN DJIBOUTI, KILLING 11 AND WOUNDING 50.
THE LIBYANS ORDERED A PALESTINIAN GROUP, THE POPULAR
STRUGGLE FRONT, TO CONDUCT THE ATTACK OR RISK LOSING
TRIPOLI'S FINANCIAL SUPPORT.

THE LIBYANS HAVE SUPPORTED TERRORIST GROUPS IN EUROPE,
PARTICULARLY THE PROVISIONAL IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY
(PIRA), WHICH COLONEL QADHAFI HAS CALLED A "POPULAR"
NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT. THROUGHOUT THE MID-1980S
LIBYA PROVIDED THE GROUP WITH ARMS. LIBYA'S HAND WAS
OPENLY REVEALED IN OCTOBER 1987, WHEN FRENCH AUTHORITIES
INTERCEPTED A FREIGHTER, THE EKSUND, OFF THE COAST OF
FRANCE AND SEIZED 150 TONS OF WEAPONS AND EXPLOSIVES
DESTINED FOR THE PIRA. LIBYA HAS ALSO PROVIDED
FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO THE PIRA.

SINCE APRIL 1986, LIBYAN ASSASSINS HAVE MURDERED THREE
ANTI-QADHAFI LIBYAN DISSIDENTS RESIDING IN GREECE,
ITALY, AND FRANCE. TRIPOLI HAS CONTINUED TO TARGET
OTHER EXILES DEEMED "OPPONENTS" OF THE LIBYAN
GOVERNMENT.


CURRENT SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM
-----------------------------

DESPITE THE EFFORTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY,
LIBYAN INVOLVEMENT IN TERRORISM TODAY REMAINS
EXTENSIVE. TRIPOLI IS ONE OF THE LARGEST FINANCIERS OF
TERRORISTS WORLDWIDE, AND IT CONTINUES TO PERMIT
TERRORIST GROUPS TO OPERATE AT CAMPS THROUGHOUT LIBYA.

IN THE MIDDLE EAST THE LIBYANS CONTINUE TO SUPPORT A
WIDE RANGE OF TERRORIST GROUPS:

--THE ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION (ANO) -- WHICH HAS
CONDUCTED OVER 100 TERRORIST ATTACKS RESULTING IN THE
DEATHS OF MORE THAN 280 PEOPLE AND THE WOUNDING OF OVER
650 SINCE ITS FOUNDING -- CONTINUES TO RECEIVE
SIGNIFICANT LIBYAN SUPPORT. THE GROUP IS HEADQUARTERED
IN TRIPOLI, AND LIBYA PROVIDES THE ANO WITH MAJOR
TRAINING FACILITIES AND SEVERAL MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY.

--QADHAFI PROVIDED WELL OVER 1 MILLION DOLLARS TO AHMED
JABRIL'S POPULAR FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF
PALESTINE-GENERAL COMMAND IN 1990. THE GROUP WAS
RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BOMBINGS OF TWO US MILITARY TRAINS
IN GERMANY IN 1987 AND 1988.

--ELEMENTS OF THE PALESTINE LIBERATION FRONT (PLF)
REMAIN BASED IN LIBYA AND RECEIVE FINANCIAL AND LOGISTIC
SUPPORT FROM THE LIBYAN GOVERNMENT. THE GROUP HAS A
LONG HISTORY OF TERRORIST ATTACKS, INCLUDING THE
HIJACKING OF THE CRUISE SHIP ACHILLE LAURO IN OCTOBER
1985, WHICH RESULTED IN THE MURDER OF A WHEELCHAIR-BOUND
AMERICAN TOURIST ON BOARD, AND THE PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED
ATTACK ON A TEL AVIV BEACH.

--LIBYA ALSO FUNDS SA'IQA AND ELEMENTS OF THE PALESTINE
ISLAMIC JIHAD.

LIBYAN SUPPORT FOR NON-PALESTINIAN GROUPS HAS BECOME
INCREASINGLY SELECTIVE. THE MAIN CRITERION APPEARS TO
BE THE DEGREE TO WHICH A GROUP DEMONSTRATES A CAPABILITY
AND WILLINGNESS TO ATTACK LIBYA'S ENEMIES WORLDWIDE,
INCLUDING US AND OTHER WESTERN TARGETS.

IN EUROPE, LIBYA MAINTAINS TIES TO THE PROVISIONAL IRISH
REPUBLICAN ARMY (PIRA) DESPITE QADHAFI'S CLAIM EARLIER
THIS YEAR TO HAVE ENDED SUPPORT FOR THE GROUP. THE
LIBYANS HAVE CONTACT WITH THE KURDISH SEPARATIST GROUP,
THE PKK, WHICH HAS CONDUCTED NUMEROUS TERRORIST ATTACKS
AGAINST TURKISH TARGETS.

A PRINCIPAL RECIPIENT OF LIBYAN FINANCING IN ASIA IS THE
COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE PHILIPPINES (CPP) AND ITS
MILITARY WING, THE NEW PEOPLE'S ARMY (NPA) WHICH HAS
KILLED 10 AMERICANS SINCE 1987. THE LIBYANS HAVE
PROVIDED AT LEAST 7 MILLION DOLLARS TO THE CPP/NPA SINCE
1987.

IN LATIN AMERICA, THE LIBYANS CONTINUE TO SEARCH OUT
GROUPS WILLING TO KILL AMERICANS. FOR EXAMPLE, LAST
YEAR TRIPOLI PAID THE HAITIAN LIBERATION ORGANIZATION
OVER 20,000 DOLLARS TO CARRY OUT AN ATTACK AGAINST THE
US EMBASSY IN PORT-AU-PRINCE; THE GROUP, HOWEVER FAILED
TO ACCOMPLISH ITS MISSION. LIBYA HAS UNSUCCESSFULLY
TRIED TO RECRUIT THE FARABUNDO MARTI NATIONAL LIBERATION
FRONT IN EL SALVADOR TO CONDUCT ANTI-WESTERN ATTACKS IN
RETURN FOR MONEY.

THE LIBYANS ALSO MAINTAIN CONTACT WITH OTHER TERRORIST
GROUPS IN THE REGION, INCLUDING THE COSTA RICAN JUAN
SANTA MARIA PATRIOTIC ORGANIZATION, TUPAC AMARU
REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT IN PERU, AND THE MANUEL RODRIGUEZ
PATRIOTIC FRONT IN CHILE.

THE ANTI-IMPERIALISM CENTER (AIC) -- ALSO KNOWN AS
MATHABA -- IS USED BY THE LIBYAN GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT
TERRORIST NETWORKS AND THUS PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN
QADHAFI'S TERRORISM STRATEGY. ESTABLISHED IN 1982 TO
SUPPORT "LIBERATION AND REVOLUTIONARY GROUPS," THE AIC
HAS SPONSORED A NUMBER OF STRIDENTLY ANTI-WESTERN
CONFERENCES IN TRIPOLI. AT THE SAME TIME, THE AIC'S
MISSION IS TO IDENTIFY AND RECRUIT REVOLUTIONARIES FOR
IDEOLOGICAL AND MILITARY TRAINING IN LIBYA. DURING
THEIR TRAINING AT AIC CAMPS, INDIVIDUALS ARE SELECTED
FOR ADVANCED TRAINING, INCLUDING WEAPONS AND EXPLOSIVES,
AND INDOCTRINATION.

THE AIC IS HEADED BY MUSA KUSA, A QADHAFI CONFIDANT WHO
IS ALSO LIBYA'S DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER. WITH
REPRESENTATIVES IN MANY LIBYAN EMBASSIES WORLDWIDE, THE
AIC RUNS ITS OWN INDEPENDENT CLANDESTINE OPERATIONS AND
DISBURSES PAYMENTS TO TERRORIST, INSURGENT, AND
SUBVERSIVE GROUPS.


TRAINING
--------

COLONEL QADHAFI CONTINUES TO TRAIN MIDDLE EASTERN,
AFRICAN, ASIAN, AND LATIN AMERICAN TERRORIST AND
DISSIDENT ORGANIZATIONS AT CAMPS IN LIBYA, INCLUDING
TRIPOLI. THE LARGEST TRAINING CAMPS INCLUDE:

--AL QALAH. ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS SOUTHWEST OF TRIPOLI,
IT IS THE PRINCIPAL ANO FACILITY IN LIBYA. OVER THE
PAST YEAR THE ANO HAS SIGNIFICANTLY EXPANDED THE SIZE OF
THE CAMP.

--SEVEN APRIL TRAINING CAMP. LOCATED ABOUT NINE
KILOMETERS FROM TRIPOLI THE FACILITY PROVIDES TRAINING
IN TERRORISM AND SUBVERSION TO AFRICANS AND LATIN
AMERICANS, AS WELL AS TO LIBYAN MILITARY PERSONNEL.

--SIDI BILAL PORT FACILITY. TERRORISTS WHO CARRIED OUT
THE MAY 1990 SEABORNE ATTACK AGAINST ISRAEL WERE TRAINED
HERE.

-BIN GHASHIR. JUST SOUTH OF TRIPOLI, IT HAS BEEN USED
TO TRAIN DISSIDENTS FROM AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA
IN TERRORIST/GUERRILLA TACTICS.

--RAS AL HILAL. PALESTINIAN TERRORIST GROUPS HAVE
TRAINED AT THIS FACILITY.


OUTLOOK FOR INVOLVEMENT IN TERRORISM
-------------------------------------

TERRORISM IS AN IMPORTANT INSTRUMENT OF LIBYAN FOREIGN
POLICY. LIBYA WILL USE TERRORISM TO FURTHER ITS AGENDA,
PARTICULARLY WHEN COLONEL QADHAFI BELIEVES HE CAN
PLAUSIBLY DENY INVOLVEMENT. QADHAFI'S USE AND SUPPORT
OF TERRORISM AS AN INSTRUMENT OF POLICY BELIE EFFORTS TO
PERSUADE THE WORLD THAT HE DOES NOT SPONSOR TERRORIST
ACTS. LIBYAN OFFICIALS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACTS OF
TERRORISM REMAIN IN SENIOR GOVERNMENT POSITIONS. LAST
YEAR QADHAFI APPOINTED IBRAHIM BISHARI, THE HEAD OF THE
LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE AND A KEY PLAYER IN LIBYAN
TERRORIST ATTACKS IN THE 1980S. AS LIBYA'S FOREIGN
MINISTER.


THE CASE OF UTA 772
-------------------

ON 30 OCTOBER 1991, A FRENCH MAGISTRATE ISSUED
INTERNATIONAL ARREST WARRANTS AGAINST FOUR LIBYAN
OFFICIALS FOR THEIR ROLE IN THE BOMBING OF UTA FLIGHT
772 IN SEPTEMBER 1989. THE FLIGHT, WHICH WAS BOUND FROM
BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO TO PARIS VIA NDJAMENA, CHAD EXPLODED
OVER THE DESERT IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGER, KILLING ALL 171
PASSENGERS AND CREW MEMBERS. SEVEN AMERICANS, INCLUDING
THE WIFE OF THE US AMBASSADOR TO CHAD, WERE AMONG THE
PASSENGERS. IN ADDITION TO THE WARRANTS AGAINST
ABADALLAH SANUSSI (A RELATIVE OF QADHAFI AND
SECOND-IN-COMMAND OF LIBYA'S INTELLIGENCE SERVICES),
NAYLI IBRAHIM (ONE OF SANUSSI'S SUBORDINATES), ABD
AL-AZRAGH, AND ABBAS MUSBAH (A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE
LIBYAN SERVICES IN BRAZZAVILLE), THE JUDGE ISSUED
INTERNATIONAL LOOKOUT NOTICES AGAINST MUSA KUSA (HEAD OF
THE AIC AND DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER) AND ABD AL-SALAM
ZADMA. ACCORDING TO THE CHARGES, AL-AZRAGH, FIRST
SECRETARY AT THE LIBYAN PEOPLE'S BUREAU IN BRAZZAVILLE,
CONGO, RECRUITED THREE CONGOLESE TO PLANT A SUITCASE
BOMB ON THE FLIGHT AND PROVIDED THEM WITH THE DEVICE.
TWO OF THE THREE ARE NOW IN JAIL, ONE IN THE CONGO AND
ONE IN ZAIRE.


THE LIBYAN USE OF TERRORIST FRONTS
----------------------------------

BECAUSE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE OF THE ROLE OF LIBYAN
PEOPLE'S BUREAUS (LPBS) IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN
THE EARLY 1980S, LIBYA HAS OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS
SHIFTED SOME OF ITS TERRORIST SUPPORT OPERATIONS TO
OTHER INSTITUTIONS. THESE INSTITUTIONS INCLUDE THE
ISLAMIC CALL SOCIETY, STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS AND
FRIENDSHIP SOCIETIES, AND LIBYAN FRONT COMPANIES. BY
USING MULTIPLE ORGANIZATIONS, LIBYA IS ABLE TO CONTINUE
ITS ACTIVITIES EVEN IF ONE GROUP IS EXPOSED.

FRONT COMPANIES PROVIDE LIBYAN OPERATIVES WITH COVER AND
DECEPTION CAPABILITIES. SOME OF THESE COMPANIES
PROBABLY WERE ESTABLISHED AS LEGITIMATE CORPORATIONS,
BUT THEY HAVE BEEN BLACKMAILED INTO COOPERATING WITH THE
LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES. THE FRONT COMPANIES
TYPICALLY ESTABLISH A PARTNERSHIP WITH LOCAL NATIONALS
TO ENHANCE THEIR COVER. THE COMPANIES' PARTNERS RARELY
KNOW THAT THEY ARE DEALING WITH LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE
OFFICERS OR LIBYAN BUSINESSMEN TAKING ORDERS FROM THE
LIBYAN GOVERNMENT.

LIBYAN FRONT COMPANIES KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN DIRECTLY OR
INDIRECTLY INVOLVED IN TERRORIST OPERATIONS OVER THE
PAST DECADE INCLUDE EXO-COMMERCE AND SARRA OR SARRAH.
FOR EXAMPLE, UNDER THE GUISE OF A "LEGITIMATE" BUSINESS,
THE BENIN-BASED SARRAH COMPANY INFILTRATED ARMS AND
EXPLOSIVES INTO NEIGHBORING AFRICAN COUNTRIES FOR

TERRORIST ACTS IN THE LATE 1980S. ANOTHER FRONT
COMPANY, THE GREEK-BASED GERMA SHIPPING AND STEVEDORING
COMPANY, OWNED THE TINY STAR, THE MOTHERSHIP USED IN THE
30 MAY 1990 PLF ATTACK ON ISRAEL, LAUNCHED FROM A LIBYAN
PORT.

IN ADDITION, OTHER BUSINESSES ARE SURROGATES OF THE
LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE. NEUTRON INTERNATIONAL IS
RUN BY MUSBAH WARFALLI, AN ARCHITECT OF LIBYAN ATTACKS
AGAINST LIBYAN DISSIDENTS IN THE EARLY 1980S. THE
LIBYAN ARAB FOREIGN INVESTMENT COMPANY, OR LAFICO, IS
WHOLLY OWNED BY THE LIBYAN GOVERNMENT AND IS SOMETIMES
USED BY THE LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE FOR COVER
PURPOSES. THE GENERAL ARAB AFRICAN COMPANY IS A MAJOR
TRADING COMPANY SERVING AS A FRONT FOR LIBYAN
INTELLIGENCE THROUGHOUT SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

EVEN LIBYAN BUSINESSMEN NOT READILY IDENTIFIED WITH THE
LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE OR A FRONT COMPANY HAVE BEEN
USED IN OPERATIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, IN JANUARY 1991, THE
CHADIAN GOVERNMENT ARRESTED TWO LIBYAN AGENTS POSING AS
BUSINESSMEN WHO WERE APPARENTLY ATTEMPTING TO SMUGGLE
EXPLOSIVES INTO NDJAMENA. WE HAVE REASON TO BELIEVE
THAT MANY OTHER LIBYAN BUSINESSMEN AND BUSINESSES
WORLDWIDE ARE LINKED TO THE LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE.

LIBYAN ARAB AIRLINES (LAA) IS THE GOVERNMENT-OWNED
NATIONAL FLAG CARRIER, PROVIDING SCHEDULED PASSENGER AND
CARGO SERVICE TO EUROPE, AFRICA, AND THE MIDDLE EAST.
ALTHOUGH IT CONDUCTS LEGITIMATE ACTIVITIES, LAA HAS BEEN
USED TO TRANSPORT ARMS, EXPLOSIVES, AND TERRORISTS.
AMONG THE LIBYANS IMPLICATED IN SUPPLYING ARMS TO THE
PIRA FROM 1985 TO 1987 WAS AN LAA EMPLOYEE. AN LAA
FLIGHT WAS USED IN THE AUGUST 1986 ESCAPE OF SIX
TERRORISTS BELIEVED TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE 3 AUGUST
ATTACK ON THE BRITISH BASE AT AKROTIRI, CYPRUS. THE SIX
WERE DISGUISED AS AIRLINE CREW MEMBERS, AND THE CAPTAIN
MADE FALSE STATEMENTS TO AIRPORT AUTHORITIES ABOUT THE
CREW'S SIZE TO DISGUISE THEIR PRESENCE. THE AIRLINE
REMAINS WELL POSITIONED TO ASSIST IN AN ATTACK,
PARTICULARLY SINCE AT LEAST 30 PERCENT OF LAA EMPLOYEES
POSTED ABROAD ARE LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS.

THE ISLAMIC CALL SOCIETY (ICS), CREATED BY THE LIBYANS
TO PROPAGATE ISLAM, IS USED FOR LEGITIMATE RELIGIOUS
PURPOSES, BUT QADHAFI ALSO EXPLOITS THE ORGANIZATION'S
PHILANTHROPIC REPUTATION TO ADVANCE HIS TERRORIST
AGENDA. THE ICS OFFICE IN CURACAO ASSISTED SEPARATISTS
WHO BOMBED A GOVERNMENT OFFICE IN CAYENNE, FRENCH

GUYANA, IN JANUARY, 1987. FOR MUCH OF THE 1980S TRIPOLI
USED ITS CALL SOCIETY OFFICE IN CONTONOU, BENIN, TO
RECRUIT AND FUND TERRORISTS IN THE REGION.

THE LIBYANS ALSO USE TRAVEL AGENCIES AROUND THE WORLD TO
FACILITATE THE MOVEMENT OF LOCAL TERRORISTS TO LIBYA FOR
ADVANCED TRAINING. THE AGENCY NORMALLY BOOKS
DISSIDENTS/TERRORISTS FOR TRAVEL THROUGH THIRD COUNTRIES
SO THEIR ULTIMATE DESTINATION -- LIBYAN TERRORIST
TRAINING CAMPS -- GOES UNDETECTED.


COMPARING QADHAFI'S PUBLIC STATEMENTS ON TERRORISM WITH
THE FACTS
--------------------------------------------- -----------

THE FICTION: LIBYA DENOUNCES THE PROVISIONAL IRISH
REPUBLICAN ARMY (PIRA) BOMBING IN ENNISKILLEN, NORTHERN
IRELAND, IN WHICH 11 DIED AND 65 WERE INJURED. JANA 10
NOVEMBER 1987.

THE FACT: FRENCH AUTHORITIES INTERCEPTED A SHIP
CARRYING 150 TONS OF ARMS AND EXPLOSIVES PROVIDED BY THE
GOVERNMENT OF LIBYA AND DESTINED FOR PIRA IN IRELAND, 31
OCTOBER 1987. FOUR EARLIER SHIPMENTS SUCCESSFULLY
ARRIVED AT THEIR DESTINATION.

THE FICTION: "THE GREAT JAMAHIRIYAH DOES NOT PRACTICE
TERRORISM, NOR DOES IT SUPPORT IT." COLONEL QADHAFI, 11
FEBRUARY 1988.

THE FACT: PAN AM 103 EXPLODED OVER SCOTLAND KILLING
259 PERSONS ON BOARD, AND 11 CITIZENS OF LOCKERBIE ON
THE GROUND. LIBYAN INVOLVEMENT IS CERTAIN. 21 DECEMBER
1988.

THE FICTION: LIBYA "HAS AFFIRMED AND CONTINUES TO
AFFIRM THAT IT DENOUNCES AND OPPOSES TERRORISM." JANA,
9 APRIL 1989.

THE FACT: LIBYAN AGENTS, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF SENIOR
OFFICIALS IN TRIPOLI, SABOTAGED UTA FLIGHT 772 WHICH
EXPLODED OVER NIGER, KILLING ALL 171 PEOPLE ABOARD. 19
SEPTEMBER 1989.

THE FICTION: REFERRING TO THE PLF RAID ON ISRAEL, LIBYA
SAID THAT IT "HAS NO CONNECTION AND NO RELATION WITH
THAT OPERATION." (JANA, 6 JUNE 1990)

THE FACT: LIBYA MATERIALLY ASSISTED THE 30 MAY 1990
RAID BY THE PLF ON ISRAEL, WHICH WAS LAUNCHED FROM THE
LIBYAN COAST, BY PROVIDING THE OPERATIVES WITH EXTENSIVE
TRAINING, MILITARY HARDWARE, AND NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT.

THE FICTION: QADHAFI TOLD THE EGYPTIAN PRESS IN JUNE
1991 THAT "ABU NIDAL IS NOT OPERATING AT ALL. THE WORLD
HASN'T HEARD ANYTHING ABOUT HIM FOR YEARS...ABU NIDAL IS
NOT IN LIBYA."

THE FACT: THE ANO REMAINS HEADQUARTERED IN TRIPOLI, AND
ABU NIDAL HIMSELF IS KNOWN TO MEET WITH COLONEL
QADHAFI. NOVEMBER 1991.


HOW LIBYA FUNDS TERRORISTS
--------------------------

THE LIBYANS USE A VARIETY OF MECHANISMS TO FINANCE
TERRORIST GROUPS:

-- TRIPOLI FREQUENTLY PASSES MONEY TO TERRORISTS WHO
TRAIN IN COUNTRY. VIRTUALLY ALL TERRORIST
OPERATIVES WHO ARE TRAINED IN LIBYA RECEIVE, AT A
MINIMUM, TRAVEL MONEY AND A SMALL STIPEND FOR
PERSONAL EXPENSES.

-- LIBYAN PEOPLE'S BUREAUS AND THE ANTI-IMPERIALISM
CENTERS ARE USED TO TRANSFER FUNDS TO TERRORISTS.

-- RADICAL PALESTINIAN GROUPS OFTEN RECEIVE LIBYAN
FUNDING THROUGH BANK ACCOUNTS, PARTICULARLY IN THE
MIDDLE EAST.

-- ON RARE OCCASIONS THE LIBYANS HAVE USED COURIERS TO
DELIVER MONEY TO TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS; THE
TRANSFER USUALLY OCCURS IN A THIRD COUNTRY.


LIBYAN TRAINING CAMPS
----------------------

LIBYA HAS TRAINED PALESTINIAN AND OTHER TERRORISTS IN
COUNTRY SINCE THE EARLY 1970S. IN ADDITION TO THE
PRINCIPAL FACILITIES IN AND AROUND TRIPOLI, OVER THE
PAST TWO DECADES THE LIBYANS HAVE OPERATED SMALLER
TRAINING CAMPS DISPERSED THROUGHOUT THEIR COUNTRY. ON
SOME OCCASIONS, TERRORISTS ARE TRAINED AT LIBYAN
MILITARY BASES. FOR EXAMPLE, IN 1988 MEMBERS OF THE
RADICAL PALESTINIAN GROUP, THE POPULAR STRUGGLE FRONT,
TRAINED AT AN AIR FORCE BASE IN THE AOUZOU REGION.
MEMBERS OF THE PFLP-GC ALSO ARE KNOWN TO HAVE TRAINED IN
LIBYAN MILITARY CAMPS.

NON-PALESTINIAN GROUPS THAT HAVE RECEIVED TRAINING IN
LIBYA IN RECENT YEARS INCLUDE THE ECUADORIAN ALFARO
VIVE, CARAJO ORGANIZATION, COLOMBIA'S M-19 THE HAITIAN
LIBERATION ORGANIZATION, THE CHILEAN MANUEL RODRIGUEZ
PATRIOTIC FRONT, THE ARMENIAN SECRET ARMY FOR THE
LIBERATION OF ARMENIA, AND THE JAPANESE RED ARMY.

TRAINEES FROM ASIA, LATIN AMERICA, AND AFRICA OFTEN GO
TO LIBYA LEGALLY, USUALLY PRETENDING TO BE STUDENTS.
SOMETIMES, THIRD WORLD NATIONALS TRAVEL TO LIBYA FOR
WHAT THEY BELIEVE TO BE LEGITIMATE SCHOOLING, SUCH AS
TECHNICAL OR RELIGIOUS TRAINING. WHEN THEY ARRIVE,
HOWEVER, THEY FIND THEMSELVES MET AT THE AIRPORT BY
SOLDIERS, PLACED ON A TRUCK, AND TRANSPORTED TO A
TERRORIST/DISSIDENT TRAINING CAMP. THOSE STUDENTS
HOSTILE TO LIBYAN OVERTURES ARE SUMMARILY DEPORTED AND
BRANDED AS UNWORTHY STUDENTS.

EXTREMISTS TRAVEL TO LIBYA USING OTHER METHODS AS WELL.
FOR EXAMPLE, RADICALS FROM MAURITIUS TRAVELED TO TRIPOLI
IN 1987 OSTENSIBLY TO ATTEND A YOUTH CONFERENCE.
INSTEAD, THEY WENT TO A TERRORIST TRAINING CAMP.


QADHAFI AND KIDNAPPING
-----------------------

THE HOLLOWNESS OF QADHAFI'S RHETORIC IS BEST ILLUSTRATED
BY LIBYA'S LONGSTANDING INVOLVEMENT IN KIDNAPPING,
DESPITE HIS REGULAR DENUNCIATIONS OF SUCH ACTS. IN 1978
LIBYAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS KIDNAPPED IMAM MUSA SADR,
THE SPIRITUAL LEADER OF THE LEBANESE SHIA COMMUNITY,
JUST AFTER HE ARRIVED IN TRIPOLI. MUSA SADR EVENTUALLY
DIED IN LIBYAN CAPTIVITY. THROUGHOUT THE 1980S QADHAFI
PUBLICLY DENOUNCED THE ILLEGAL DETENTION OF HOSTAGES BY
EXTREMIST GROUPS IN LEBANON. YET IN APRIL 1986, LIBYA
BOUGHT AND ARRANGED FOR THE MURDER OF THREE WESTERN
HOSTAGES IN LEBANON, INCLUDING AMERICAN PETER KILBURN.
MORE RECENTLY IN NOVEMBER, 1987 THE ABU NIDAL
ORGANIZATION (ANO) HIJACKED THE YACHT SILCO IN
INTERNATIONAL WATERS. THE HOSTAGES--BELGIAN AND FRENCH
NATIONALS--WERE RELEASED IN STAGES, WITH THE LAST
DETAINEES FREED JANUARY 1991. THE YACHT WAS SEIZED BY
ANO ELEMENTS UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE LIBYAN
INTELLIGENCE SERVICE, AND SOME OF THE HOSTAGES WERE EVEN
HELD ON LIBYAN SOIL. MINIMIZE CONSIDERED.

EAGLEBURGER

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