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Cablegate: Tsfrol: Unprofor Force Commander Gen. Cot's

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.

UNCLASSIFIED LIMITED OFFICIAL USE SECTION 01 OF 04 ZAGREB 00082

SIPDIS


AMEMBASSY ROME
AMEMBASSY PARIS
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW
USMISSION GENEVA
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY BONN
AMEMBASSY BUCHAREST
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY ATHENS
AMEMBASSY BUDAPEST
USEC BRUSSELS


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE SECTION 01 OF 04 ZAGREB 000082


VIENNA FOR BOSNIA
WARSAW FOR AMB. ALBRIGHT'S PARTY
E.O. 12356: N/A
TAGS: PHUM PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR BK
SUBJECT: TSFROL: UNPROFOR FORCE COMMANDER GEN. COT'S
JAN 5 BRIEFING FOR AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT


-------
SUMMARY
-------

1. IN A JAN 5 ZAGREB BRIEFING CHAIRED BY UNSYG SPECIAL
REPRESENTATIVE AKASHI, UNPROFOR FORCE COMMANDER GENERAL
COT BRIEFED AMBASSADORS ALBRIGHT AND GALBRAITH, ASSTSEC
SHATTUCK, AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE ALBRIGHT DELEGATION ON
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


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PAGE 03 ZAGREB 00082 01 OF 04 071631Z
THE SITUATION ON THE GROUND IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA. COT
EMPHASIZED THAT WHILE PEACKEEPING IS THE MANDATE IN
CROATIA, PROTECTION OF HUMANITARIAN AID OPERATIONS IS THE
TASK IN B-H. WHILE THERE IS AT LEAST A TEMPORARY
CEASEFIRE WORKING IN CROATIA, GENERAL WARFARE AND
TARGETING OF HUMANITARIAN AID CONVOYS IN B-H CONTINUE
UNABATED. AMB. ALBRIGHT STRESSED THE NEED TO KEEP BOTH
DISCUSSION OF UNPROFOR AND CRITICISM OF UN RESOLUTIONS
AFFECTING ITS OPERATIONS WITHIN "THE BOSOM OF THE
FAMILY," AND OUT OF PUBLIC FORA.

END SUMMARY.

2. AFTER A BRIEF INTRODUCTION FROM AKASHI AND A SHORT
PRESENTATION ON UNPROFOR CIVIL AND HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS
PROJECTS, GENERAL COT OPENED THE FLOOR TO QUESTIONS.
AMB. ALBRIGHT ASKED FOR AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT
COMBAT LEVELS IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA AND THEIR EFFECT ON
PEACE PROSPECTS AND HUMANITARIAN AID OPERATIONS.

-------
CROATIA
-------

3. COT SAID THAT PEACEKEEPING IS THE UNPROFOR MANDATE IN
CROATIA. SINCE DECEMBER 23 THERE HAD BEEN A GENERALLY-
RESPECTED, UNPROFOR-BROKERED PROVISIONAL CEASEFIRE
BETWEEN CROATIAN AND KRAJINA SERB FORCES. UNPROFOR IS
WORKING TO PERSUADE THE SIDES TO EXTEND THE CEASEFIRE
BEYOND ITS CURRENT JAN 15 TERMINATION DATE. THIS PERIOD
OF RELATIVE STABILITY MADE POSSIBLE THROUGH UNPROFOR
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


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PAGE 04 ZAGREB 00082 01 OF 04 071631Z
EFFORTS IS "THE SORT OF GOOD NEWS NOT OFTEN REPORTED ON
CNN," COT ADDED.

------
BOSNIA
------

4. COT SAID UNPROFOR'S MANDATE TO PROTECT HUMANITARIAN
AID OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA WAS SEVERELY HAMPERED BY THE
HIGHLY DANGEROUS SITUATION ON THE GROUND, ESPECIALLY IN
CENTRAL BOSNIA. BOTH THE GENERAL LEVEL OF COMBAT AND
TARGETING OF HUMANITARIAN CONVOYS WERE INCREASING. COT
PARTICULARLY NOTED THE RECENT HEAVY FIGHTING IN THE VITEZ
AREA. AT PRESENT, SERB FORCES THERE HAD BECOME
"INTERESTED SPECTATORS" TO THE RAGING CONFLICT BETWEEN
BOSNIAN CROAT (HVO) AND MAINLY MUSLIM GOVERNMENT FORCES,
BUT COT PREDICTED NEW SERB OFFENSIVES SOON.

LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

NNNN

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PAGE 01 ZAGREB 00082 02 OF 04 071632Z
ACTION IO-16

INFO LOG-00 AID-01 AMAD-01 CIAE-00 C-01 OASY-00 EAP-01
EB-01 EUR-01 OIGO-01 HA-09 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00
L-01 ADS-00 NSAE-00 OIC-02 PA-01 PM-01 PRS-01
P-01 RP-10 SIL-00 SP-00 SR-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-01 TRSE-00 USIE-00 RPE-01 SNIS-00 NISC-02 /054W
------------------17C51B 071633Z /38
O 071604Z JAN 94
FM AMEMBASSY ZAGREB
TO SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 0431
INFO WHITE HOUSE WASHDC IMMEDIATE
HQ JTF PP NAPLES IT//CA/POLAD//
JOINT STAFF WASHDC//J5-PMA/J2I//
SECDEF WASHDC//ISA/ISP//
USEUCOM VAIHINGEN GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5/ECPOLAD//
CINCUSAFE RAMSTEIN AB GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5//
CINCUSAREUR HEIDELBERG GE//J3/J4/J5/POLAD//
CINCUSNAVEUR LONDON UK//N2/N22//
AMEMBASSY BELGRADE
COM SIXTHFLT//N2//
AMEMBASSY VIENNA
AMEMBASSY WARSAW
USMISSION USNATO
USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
AMEMBASSY LJUBLJANA
AMEMBASSY THE HAGUE
AMEMBASSY SOFIA
AMEMBASSY MADRID
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

PAGE 02 ZAGREB 00082 02 OF 04 071632Z
AMEMBASSY ROME
AMEMBASSY PARIS
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW
USMISSION GENEVA
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY BONN
AMEMBASSY BUCHAREST
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY ATHENS
AMEMBASSY BUDAPEST
USEC BRUSSELS


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE SECTION 02 OF 04 ZAGREB 000082


VIENNA FOR BOSNIA
WARSAW FOR AMB. ALBRIGHT'S PARTY
E.O. 12356: N/A
TAGS: PHUM PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR BK
SUBJECT: TSFROL: UNPROFOR FORCE COMMANDER GEN. COT'S
JAN 5 BRIEFING FOR AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT

5. A/S SHATTUCK ASKED COT TO CHARACTERIZE UNPROFOR
TACTICS FOR PROTECTING AID OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA,
PARTICULARLY UNPROFOR'S VIEW ON WHETHER A MORE "RIGOROUS"
POSTURE IN DEFENDING RELIEF FLOWS WOULD BE WISE. COT
RESPONDED THAT UNPROFOR AND UNHCR OPERATIONS ARE "WHOLLY
INTERTWINED," DESPITE UNHCR'S "TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF
AVOIDING PEOPLE IN KHAKI." COT RESISTED ANY IMPLICATION
THAT UNPROFOR WAS LESS THAN RIGOROUS IN ITS RELIEF
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PAGE 03 ZAGREB 00082 02 OF 04 071632Z
PROTECTION EFFORTS. HE NOTED THAT A FRENCH UNPROFOR
SOLDIER IN SARAJEVO HAD RECENTLY BEEN WOUNDED, AND
POSSIBLY PARALYZED, WHEN HE DROVE A UNHCR RELIEF DELIVERY
INTO A SECTOR CONSIDERED TOO DANGEROUS FOR UNHCR DRIVERS.
UNPROFOR REGULARLY MAKES DIRECT DELIVERI
ES INTO SUCH
AREAS OF SARAJEVO, AS WELL AS MANY OF THE MOST DANGEROUS
ZONES IN CENTRAL BOSNIA.

--------
SARAJEVO
--------

6. AMB. ALBRIGHT ASKED COT FOR HIS ASSESSMENT OF THE
SITUATION IN SARAJEVO. COT RESPONDED THAT UNHCR COULD
OFFER A MORE GENERAL BRIEFING, BUT HE COULD ADDRESS THE
MILITARY ENVIRONMENT. COT OBSERVED THAT THE FIGHTING IN
SARAJEVO IS TERRIBLE, BUT DISTRIBUTION THERE OF
HUMANITARIAN AID WAS, IN MANY WAYS, THE BEST IN BOSNIA.
HE FURTHER STRESSED THAT SOME HIGHLY VISIBLE ASPECTS OF
THE SIEGE, NAMELY THE CONSTANT SERB ARTILLERY AND SNIPER
FIRE, MAY OBSCURE THE REAL MILITARY EQUATION.
APOLOGIZING FOR ENGAGING IN "A MACABRE ARITHMETIC," COT
STRESSED THAT THE NUMBER OF KILLED AND WOUNDED IN
SARAJEVO WAS GENERALLY LOWER THAN WHAT MIGHT BE ASSUMED
ON THE BASIS OF THE DAILY COUNT OF ARTILLERY IMPACTS.
MOREOVER, ESPECIALLY HEAVY SERB ARTILLERY BARRAGES IN
RECENT DAYS WERE IN PART RESPONSES TO INCREASINGLY STRONG
INFANTRY CHALLENGES BY BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES IN THE
MOUNT ZUK AREA OF THE CITY AND ELSEWHERE.

LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


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PAGE 04 ZAGREB 00082 02 OF 04 071632Z
----------
ATROCITIES
----------

7. AMB. ALBRIGHT AND A/S SHATTUCK BOTH STRESSED THE
DELEGATION'S CONCERN THAT UNPROFOR TAKE AN ACTIVE ROLE IN
KEEPING THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES COMMISSION AND OTHER
BODIES INFORMED ABOUT ATROCITIES IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA.
COT NOTED THAT THE RECENT MASSACRES IN THE MEDAK POCKET
(IN CROATIA) AT STUPNI DOL (IN CENTRAL B-H) HAD BEEN
THOROUGHLY DOCUMENTED BY UNPROFOR MILITARY AND CIVILAN
POLICE ELEMENTS AND REPORTED TO THE COMMISSION AND OTHER
APPROPRIATE ENTITIES. HE THEN OPINED, IN PASSIONATE
TERMS, THAT "ALTHOUGH WE IN UNPROFOR ARE NOT ALWAYS SURE
WHY WE ARE STILL HERE, WE DO KNOW THAT, WERE WE NOT HERE
AS WITNESSES, THERE WOULD BE MANY MORE ATROCITIES."
REFERRING LATER TO THIS POINT, AMB. ALBRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGED
THAT UNPROFOR'S PRESENCE MUST INDEED HAVE PREVENTED


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

NNNN

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PAGE 01 ZAGREB 00082 03 OF 04 071632Z
ACTION IO-16

INFO LOG-00 AID-01 AMAD-01 CIAE-00 C-01 OASY-00 EAP-01
EB-01 EUR-01 OIGO-01 HA-09 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00
L-01 ADS-00 NSAE-00 OIC-02 PA-01 PM-01 PRS-01
P-01 RP-10 SIL-00 SP-00 SR-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-01 TRSE-00 USIE-00 RPE-01 SNIS-00 NISC-02 /054W
------------------17C530 071634Z /38
O 071604Z JAN 94
FM AMEMBASSY ZAGREB
TO SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 0432
INFO WHITE HOUSE WASHDC IMMEDIATE
HQ JTF PP NAPLES IT//CA/POLAD//
JOINT STAFF WASHDC//J5-PMA/J2I//
SECDEF WASHDC//ISA/ISP//
USEUCOM VAIHINGEN GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5/ECPOLAD//
CINCUSAFE RAMSTEIN AB GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5//
CINCUSAREUR HEIDELBERG GE//J3/J4/J5/POLAD//
CINCUSNAVEUR LONDON UK//N2/N22//
AMEMBASSY BELGRADE
COM SIXTHFLT//N2//
AMEMBASSY VIENNA
AMEMBASSY WARSAW
USMISSION USNATO
USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
AMEMBASSY LJUBLJANA
AMEMBASSY THE HAGUE
AMEMBASSY SOFIA
AMEMBASSY MADRID
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

PAGE 02 ZAGREB 00082 03 OF 04 071632Z
AMEMBASSY ROME
AMEMBASSY PARIS
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW
USMISSION GENEVA
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY BONN
AMEMBASSY BUCHAREST
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY ATHENS
AMEMBASSY BUDAPEST
USEC BRUSSELS


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE SECTION 03 OF 04 ZAGREB 000082


VIENNA FOR BOSNIA
WARSAW FOR AMB. ALBRIGHT'S PARTY
E.O. 12356: N/A
TAGS: PHUM PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR BK
SUBJECT: TSFROL: UNPROFOR FORCE COMMANDER GEN. COT'S
JAN 5 BRIEFING FOR AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT

COUNTLESS ADDITIONAL ATROCITIES.

-----------
RESOLUTIONS
-----------

8. IN A CONCLUDING DISCUSSION, AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT
REFLECTED ON THE EXTRAORDINARY LEVEL OF ACTIVITY IN THE
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


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PAGE 03 ZAGREB 00082 03 OF 04 071632Z
UN SECURITY COUNCIL IN THE PAST TWO YEARS, NOTING THAT
MORE RESOLUTIONS HAD PASSED THERE IN THAT TIME THAN IN
THE INSTITUTION'S ENTIRE PREVIOUS HISTORY. ONE REASON
WAS SIMPLY THAT IT WAS EASIER IN A POST-COLD WAR
ENVIRONMENT TO PASS RESOLUTIONS. BEYOND THIS FACT,
HOWEVER, THERE WERE EXTREMELY HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR UN
PEACEKEEPING IN THE WAKE OF THE COLD WAR. SHE WENT ON TO
OBSERVE THAT GENERAL COT HAD SOMETIMES CRITICIZED THE
COUNCIL'S RESOLUTIONS IN THEIR APPLICATION TO THE FORMER
YUGOSLAVIA, AND ASKED IF HE COULD ELABORATE ON HIS
PUBLICLY-STATED VIEWS.

9. COT SAID THAT, AS A SOLDIER, HE WAS ACCUSTOMED TO
EXPRESSING HIMSELF IN DIRECT AND SIMPLE FASHION. PLANS
CONCEIVED UNDER SOME UN RESOLUTIONS SEEMED TO HIM
"INCONCRETE." HE CALLED THE ORIGINAL RESOLUTION AND
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VANCE PLAN FOR CROATIA "A SWINDLE,"
IN THE SENSE THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAD NEVER
MADE AVAILABLE THE FORCES AND AUTHORITIY TO ACCOMPLISH
THE MISSION. WALKING TO A THEATER MAP ON THE CONFERENCE
ROOM WALL, COT POINTED OUT THAT HE HAD HAD TO "SCRAPE UP
EVERY SOLDIER HE COULD LOCATE IN CROATIA AND B-H COMMAND"
TO STEM AN AUTUMN OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING BETWEEN CROATS AND
KRAJINA SERBS IN CROATIA. SUCH A SCRAMBLE POINTED UP THE
WEAKNESSES OF UNPROFOR ASSETS, AND WAS A HUMILIATING
EXERCISE FOR A GENERAL IN COMMAND OF INTERNATIONALLY-
SUPPORTED PEACEKEEPING FORCES. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS
ON UNPROFOR IN BOSNIA MADE THE UN'S PROTECTION EFFORT
THERE ANOTHER "SWINDLE," COT SAID. OF THE 7,500
ADDITIONAL TROOPS CALLED FOR TO IMPLEMENT "SAFE AREAS,"
ONLY 2,000 HAD BEEN FORTHCOMING.
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PAGE 04 ZAGREB 00082 03 OF 04 071632Z

10. AMB. ALBRIGHT RESPONDED THAT SHE UNDERSTOOD THESE
FRUSTRATIONS, AND THAT THE UN NOW FINDS ITSELF WORKING IN
"A NEURALGIC TIME" IN TRYING TO MAINTAIN PEACEKEEPING
OPERATIONS AS PUBLIC CONCERN ABOUT THE POLITICAL, FISCAL,
AND HUMAN COSTS OF SUCH OPERATIONS INCREASES IN MANY
NATIONS, INCLUDING THE UN
ITED STATES. EMPHASIZING THE
NECESSITY OF LEARNING FROM MISTAKES, AMB. ALBRIGHT SAID
SHE WAS NONETHELESS TROUBLED WHEN CRITICISMS OF THE UN BY
OTHER ELEMENTS OF THE INSTITUTION APPEARED IN PUBLIC
STATEMENTS. THE SECURITY COUNCIL MAY NEED TO LOOK EVEN
MORE REALISTICALLY AT FUTURE RESOLUTIONS, BUT COMMANDERS
IN THE FIELD SHOULD ADDRESS THEIR CONCERNS FIRST "IN THE
BOSOM OF THE FAMILY" AT THE UN, AND NOT IN PUBLIC FORA.
GENERAL COT DID NOT RESPOND. IN CONCLUSION, BOTH
AMBASSADORS GALBRAITH AND ALBRIGHT EMPHASIZED THEIR
APPRECIATION FOR THE COMMITMENT AND COURAGE OF UNPROFOR


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

NNNN

LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

PAGE 01 ZAGREB 00082 04 OF 04 071633Z
ACTION IO-16

INFO LOG-00 AID-01 AMAD-01 CIAE-00 C-01 OASY-00 EAP-01
EB-01 EUR-01 OIGO-01 HA-09 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00
L-01 ADS-00 NSAE-00 OIC-02 PA-01 PM-01 PRS-01
P-01 RP-10 SIL-00 SP-00 SR-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-01 TRSE-00 USIE-00 RPE-01 SNIS-00 NISC-02 /054W
------------------17C537 071634Z /38
O 071604Z JAN 94
FM AMEMBASSY ZAGREB
TO SECSTATE WASHDC IMMEDIATE 0433
INFO WHITE HOUSE WASHDC IMMEDIATE
HQ JTF PP NAPLES IT//CA/POLAD//
JOINT STAFF WASHDC//J5-PMA/J2I//
SECDEF WASHDC//ISA/ISP//
USEUCOM VAIHINGEN GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5/ECPOLAD//
CINCUSAFE RAMSTEIN AB GE//ECJ3/ECJ4/ECJ5//
CINCUSAREUR HEIDELBERG GE//J3/J4/J5/POLAD//
CINCUSNAVEUR LONDON UK//N2/N22//
AMEMBASSY BELGRADE
COM SIXTHFLT//N2//
AMEMBASSY VIENNA
AMEMBASSY WARSAW
USMISSION USNATO
USMISSION USUN NEW YORK
AMEMBASSY LJUBLJANA
AMEMBASSY THE HAGUE
AMEMBASSY SOFIA
AMEMBASSY MADRID
LIMITED OFFICIAL USE


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

PAGE 02 ZAGREB 00082 04 OF 04 071633Z
AMEMBASSY ROME
AMEMBASSY PARIS
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY MOSCOW
USMISSION GENEVA
AMEMBASSY LONDON
AMEMBASSY BONN
AMEMBASSY BUCHAREST
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY ATHENS
AMEMBASSY BUDAPEST
USEC BRUSSELS


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE SECTION 04 OF 04 ZAGREB 000082


VIENNA FOR BOSNIA
WARSAW FOR AMB. ALBRIGHT'S PARTY
E.O. 12356: N/A
TAGS: PHUM PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR PREF EAID MOPS HR BK
SUBJECT: TSFROL: UNPROFOR FORCE COMMANDER GEN. COT'S
JAN 5 BRIEFING FOR AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT

PEOPLE IN THE FIELD.

11. THIS MESSAGE HAS BEEN CLEARED BY AMB. ALBRIGHT.

GALBRAITH


LIMITED OFFICIAL USE

NNNN

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