WSSD Statements: Netherlands, Mongolia, China
Jan Peter Balkenende
Prime Minister of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,
World Summit on Sustainable Development
3 September 2002
Mahatma Gandhi once said, "You must be the change you wish to see in the world." It is up to us to make the difference. The difference between poverty and development. Between destroying the earth and sustaining it. To make the difference we must be clear and decisive. Clear about the future we want. And decisive to make it happen.
Let us first of all be clear about our ambitions. We set ambitions for this Millennium. We now added crucial targets on sanitation and chemicals. Let's be clear about biodiversity as well. We must stop looting the treasure house of the Creation.
Let us also be clear about our principles. The Rio-principles and human rights and fundamental freedoms, for men or women, are nonnegotiables. And let's be decisive. Education is a right and our best investment in the young generation. Boys and girls alike must be able to finish primary school. Within our ODA budget we will increase the allocation to education from 6 to 15 %.
Next we have our commitment to solidarity. Again nothing to negotiate, but something to be pursued decisively. Put your money where your mouth is. It is possible, as we know. The Netherlands has been living up to it for years already. We will continue to dedicate 0.7 percent of the Dutch GNP to development aid, and 0.1 percent to international environmental policy.
Let us also be clear about business. Business can generate financial flows many times greater than development aid. The investment schemes must be sustainable. Employers must offer decent terms of employment, comply with environmental norms and denounce corruption in all its forms. We should encourage business to commit them to accountability. Not because they have to. But because they want to, inspired by sustainable development. Inspiration that might be drawn from the Earth Charter.
We share the responsibility for the future. Therefore, I favour partnerships and involvement of civil society. They can support actions by governments. Responsibilities can also be differentiated. The degradation of the environment is largely on our account. So we will have to encourage sustainable production and consumption. The reform of unsustainable subsidies is a contribution to that end.
To achieve food security and poverty reduction we have to reform our agriculture. Developing countries must be able to benefit from increased access to our markets. We have to take decisive actions. The Netherlands together with other countries will launch a public-private partnership to improve market access in the form of institution and capacity building, especially in the field of food safety standards and quality control systems.
I talked about being decisive.
We've done the talking, so let's start walking!
The Netherlands will focus on water and energy and continue to support measures in the field of sustainable agriculture and bio-diversity. We support these goals by raising our contributions to the Global Environmental Facility adding up to 93 million dollars.
There is a wind of change in Africa, expressed by NEPAD. We must all stand together to support this new leadership, committed to good governance and poverty reduction. Only in this way Africa can deal with the challenges of famine, conflict and AIDS.
I salute President Mbeki for his crucial role in making these changes happen.
More than ever before, the choice facing the world is a united future, or no future at all. The prospect of that united future, free of poverty and environmental degradation, is what has brought us here to Johannesburg.
We know what we have to do. So let's do it.
H.E. Mr. Bangabandi
President of Mongolia
World Summit on Sustainable Development
Johannesburg, South Africa
3 September 2002
Distinguished Heads of States and Governments,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
At the outset, may I extend our sincere gratitude to His Excellency President Tabo Mbeki, the Government and people of the Republic of South Africa for the kind hospitality and excellent arrangements for the Johannesburg Summit, providing us all with an opportunity to review the post-Rio decade and collectively formulate our immediate agenda for sustainable development.
As a follow-up to the Rio conference Mongolia has developed its national program for sustainable development into the 21St century. A National Council for Sustainable Development has been set up under the leadership of the Prime Minister of Mongolia to coordinate and monitor the implementation of this program. As a result, the objectives and specific measures envisaged in the national program for sustainable development have found due reflection in day-to-day activities of the State and Government. Hence, the Good Governance for Human Security Program, being developed and implemented in Mongolia since 2000, has proved to be instrumental in translating into practice the objectives of the sustainable development. The Good Governance Program has epitomized the aspirations of the State and Government of Mongolia to consolidate the nascent democratic institutions and make them more humane, and to advance the country's development in an environment friendly manner. Hence, the program has been enjoying a broad support on the part of the general public.
Currently, 25 environmental acts along with 20 specific environmental programs are being implemented in Mongolia. As the 17th largest country in the world Mongolia has preserved 13.2 per cent of its total landmass as protected area. Although this area equals to entire territories of some countries we endeavour to enlarge it and, should it has been possible, place the almost entire territory of Mongolia under the international legal protection as a sacred reserve land beyond destruction and degradation. By doing this we would prevent the spread of desertification not only in Mongolia but also in the whole region of Central Asia and beyond. Otherwise, due to its geographic location on the Central Asian highland at the crossroads of wind-and-water flows Mongolian sands could reach even the far away regions on the globe.
Despite the considerable efforts exerted by Mongolia towards ensuring sustainable development it is still faced with environmental challenges most of them beyond her control.
The natural disasters, droughts and zud (severe snowfalls) which have occurred in Mongolia over the last two consecutive years badly hurt the livestock sector, a mainstay of the country's economy, forcing the affected herdsmen to join the ranks of the poor. The Government carried out a National poverty reduction program from 1996 to 2000, nonetheless, due to a multiple of factors, the level of poverty failed to see considerable reduction.
The country has faced a fast spread of desertification over the short span of time due to, a no lesser extent, to inappropriate human activities. The Third Forum of the Asian and African states parties to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and the 4th Asian meeting both held last year in Ulaanbaatar have resulted in greater awareness for regional cooperation to jointly combat desertification.
Over the last 30 years
1.6 million hectares of forest has been destroyed because of
forest fires and other inappropriate human activities.
In the 21St century the human family is faced with a scarcity of fresh water resources. Mongolia is no exception in that regard. Thus, in light of the upcoming World Water Forum next year we in Mongolia plan to designate 2003 as a water policy reform year with a view to developing regional cooperation in conserving fresh water resources with its adjacent areas and habitualizing its proper utilization.
Furthermore, Mongolia is keen to collaborate with fellow member states and relevant international organizations through developing joint studies and conducting various projects in the areas of combating desertification, preserving and restoring forests, conserving fresh water resources, protecting the endangered biological species, and rehabilitating the degraded environment as well as assessing the economic and health impact of probable climate changes and disasters.
I wish to emphasize the importance of the Johannesburg Summit and the 2nd General Assembly of Global Environmental Facility in providing fresh impetus towards ensuring early entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, creating adequate financial mechanisms for the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants as well as setting up the World Solidarity Fund on poverty.
One of the most expected outcomes of this
Summit is, in our view, a fresh impetus to be given to
proposals and initiatives designed to speed up the
implementation of national sustainable development
strategies and mobilization of necessary resources at the
international level for their realization. In this regard,
Mongolia welcomes the G-8 initiative to replenish the Global
Environmental Facility with US$2.9 billion for the next four
The spirit of Johannesburg Summit, which upholds the momentum gained in Rio and the new objectives envisioned in the outcome document are to be successfully realized if, inter alia, conveyed to the millions of ordinary people in a user-friendly way as ecological literacy.
As Head of State, it is my honour to reiterate that my country - Mongolia stands committed to actively cooperate with fellow members of the international community for the common good of our shared village.
Thank you for your attention.
H.E. Mr. Zhu Rongji
Primier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
World Summit on Sustainable Development
Johannesburg, South Africa
3 September 2002
It is of great significance for national leaders around the world to come together on the occasion of the 10' anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to review the past and look into the future in a discussion of important issues of global sustainable development. On behalf of the Chinese Government and people, I wish to express my warm congratulations on the convocation of this summit and my sincere thanks to the Government and people of South Africa for the great efforts they have put into it. What is particularly meaningful is that this summit meets in Africa shortly after the inauguration of the African Union. I am confident that with the establishment of the African Union and the implementation of the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), the African continent will take on a new look with historic changes and fresh contributions to world peace and development.
Sustainable development is a crucial and pressing task facing all countries in the world. Ten years ago, national leaders around the world met in Rio de Janeiro of Brazil and laid down the principles, objectives and programs of action on sustainable development. Since then, the international community and national governments have made unremitting efforts in implementing the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. Important steps have been taken in promoting the harmonious development of the economy, population, resources and environment, and various forms of regional and bilateral cooperation on environment and development have been carried out in greater depth. Meanwhile, environmental degradation worldwide has gone on unreversed. While such long-standing problems as poverty, hunger, waste of resources and ecological destruction remain unresolved, abnormal climatic changes, fresh water shortage, spread of HIV/AIDS and other new threats have cropped up. As economic globalization presses on, the gap between the North and South, as well as the digital divide, keeps on widening. What merits our particular attention is that terrorist activities, regional conflicts, trans-border crimes, rampant drug trafficking and other threats to peace and security remain quite serious. The pressure and challenge facing the international community are evidently on the increase, rather than decrease. Fulfilling the objectives of sustainable development as set by Agenda 21 is still a long and arduous journey.
We are already in the 21" century with complex and profound changes taking place every minute around the world. The new technology revolution spearheaded by IT and bioengineering is surging forward with dazzling speed. Working for peace, development and cooperation has become the irresistible trend of history. Regardless where they live, people all desire a good and peaceful life and want to see sustainable development a reality. We are called upon by the new situation to proceed from the larger interest of harmony between man and nature and complimentarity between environment and development and to take the road of sustainable development with stronger determination and more solid steps. Now, I wish to take this opportunity to give my propositions as follows:
1. We should deepen our understanding of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a new outlook on development as defined by the UNCED in Rio, which represents a radical departure from the traditional concept and model of development. Namely, economic development must contribute to the continuous use of resources and the virtuous cycle of the eco-system, and must not be achieved by abusing the resources and destroying the eco-system. Owing to differing national conditions and development levels, countries may differ in the way sustainable development is pursued. While taking the diversified development of countries as the basis and promoting global development through individual local development, efforts should be made to combine solutions to country-specific environmental problems with those of global environmental problems, so as to achieve sustainable development throughout the world.
2. Concerted efforts of all countries are needed in achieving sustainable development. We should take common development as our objective and bring about a new partnership featuring mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. The principles laid down by the UNCED in Rio, especially the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities", should be adhered to. The United Nations should play an active role in coordinating the overall international strategy of environment and development, as well as in conducting technology transfer, technical consultation, personnel training and aid programs. Relevant international and regional organizations and agencies should strengthen their cooperation with all countries, especially developing countries. Countries should do still a better job in mobilizing their social groups, enterprises and population to work for sustainable development.
3. We should strengthen scientific and technological cooperation in achieving sustainable development. Rapid development of science and technology in today's world has increasingly become a powerful engine for human progress. It is essential that we extensively apply the research results, especially those in information, biology and other hi-tech fields, in resources exploitation, environment protection and ecological development. Spread of science and technology should recognize no national boundaries. The international community and national governments should adopt new policies and mechanisms to help reduce clashes between protecting intellectual property rights and promoting wider application of technology so as to facilitate transfer of technology among states.
4. We should endeavour to create an international economic environment conducive to sustainable development. Global sustainable development requires a fair and equitable new international economic order and a new regime of world trade. Erecting trade barriers with excessive environmental standards will, instead of getting us any -closer to solving the environmental issues, seriously hamper the capabilities of the developing countries for sustainable development. The international community should fully understand the difficulties faced by the developing countries in the areas of fund, trade and debts, and take effective steps to remove protective trade practices of one kind or another. The developed countries, in particular, should make their market more accessible by dismantling trade barriers. The developing countries should take an active part in international cooperation and competition with a view to steadily enhancing their capabilities of sustainable development. To this end, we call for a proper handling of the relationship between trade and environment at the new round of multilateral trade negotiations so as to ensure that the two will promote each other.
5. Sustainable development cannot go forward without world peace and stability. Peace is the most essential prerequisite for mankind's survival and development. Our world, on the whole, is enjoying peace, relaxation and stability. But local wars, tensions and turbulences are still very pronounced. Our planet is no peace haven. All countries should abide by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, comply with the universally recognized norms governing international relations and work together to safeguard peace and stability in regions and globally. All disputes between states and all regional conflicts should be resolved by peaceful means, and the use or threat of force should be rejected.
The issue of environment and development commands the attention of the people the world over. A large number of important consensus and commitments have been reached by the UN-sponsored world conferences over the years. The UN Millennium Summit, held in September 2000 in New York City, set forth multiple objectives of eliminating poverty and promoting economic and social development. People have expected that this summit of ours will make substantive efforts to realize these commitments and objectives.
Since the Rio UNCED, the Chinese Government, acting in a highly responsible manner to discharge its commitment, has taken the lead in formulating China's Agenda 21, mapped out the strategy of rejuvenating the nation through science and technology and the strategy of sustainable development, and identified the key sectors of China's sustainable development for the early years of the new century and relevant programs of action. Having formulated and improved more than 120 laws, rules and regulations concerning population, family planning, environment protection, natural resources management, disaster prevention and relief, China now has an organizational and administrative system operating at various levels that involves multiple agencies of both the central and local governments. At the same time, China has acceded to a series of international conventions and completed the domestic procedure for the approval of the Kyoto Protocol with a view to taking an active part in multilateral environment cooperation.
Thanks to ten years of hard work, China's strategy of sustainable development has now run through all aspects of the country's economic and social development efforts, which effectively promoted a sustained and harmonious development of the economy, population, resources and environment and delivered remarkable successes. With reform and opening up, China's GDP increased by 158% in the past decade or so. As the economy grows rapidly and people's living standards improve steadily, the excessively rapid population growth has been brought under control. Protection and management of natural resources have been strengthened, work against pollution and for a sound eco-system accelerated, and environment quality of some cities and regions visibly improved. Particularly in recent years, China has stepped up its financial input in environment. From 1998 through 2002, a total of
RMB580 billion yuan was invested in environment protection and preservation of the ecosystem, accounting for 1.29% of the country's GDP in that period and 1.8 times the combined investment in this area from 1950 to 1997. After years of searching, we have found for ourselves a development model with Chinese characteristics and our sustainable development is holding out a promising prospect. By 2005, the tendency of ecological degradation will be on the whole arrested, and the total discharge of major pollutants will drop by 10% compared with 2000. In 2010, our GDP will double that of 2000 when our people will be much better off, the development of our resources more rational and the quality of our environment more improved, thus presenting a more uplifting picture of harmonious development of the economy, population, resources and environment.
As the world's largest developing country and a major player in environment protection, China is an important force in international environment cooperation. We are deeply aware of the responsibilities on our shoulders. If we do a good job in running China well, it will be a great contribution to the world cause of sustainable development. We are still faced with considerable restraints and difficulties in implementing the sustainable development strategy due to our large population, low per capita resources, vulnerable ecology, uneven regional economic development and inadequate development of our overall economy. We will continue to work hard, unflinchingly shoulder our responsibilities, honor our commitments with deeds, and steadfastly take the road of sustainable development. I firmly believe that this summit will usher in a better implementation of the sustainable development strategy in all countries. We in China will, as always, energetically participate in international environment cooperation and work with all other countries in protecting global environment and realizing sustainable development throughout the world. We are destined to have an even better future for China and for our entire world.
Thank you, Mr. President.