Background Note: Maldives
Background Note: Maldives
Republic of Maldives
Area: 298 sq. km. (115 sq. mi.), over 1,100 islands; twice the size of Washington, DC.
Cities: Capital--Male' (pop. 100,000).
Terrain: Flat islands.
Climate: Hot and humid.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Maldivian(s).
Population: 300,000 (plus 67,000 expatriate workers who are not counted in the census).
Population growth rate: 1.66%. Population growth rate has dropped dramatically in recent years.
Ethnic groups: Maldivians.
Religion: Sunni Islam.
Languages: Dhivehi (official); many government officials speak English.
Education: Years compulsory--7. Enrollment--primary (grades 1-7) 97%; secondary (grades 8-10) 67%. Literacy--98%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--33/1,000. Life expectancy--68 years.
Resident work force: Community, social and personal services--21%; manufacturing--13%; fishing--11%; tourism--11%; transport, storage, and communication--9%; other--35%.
Independence: July 26, 1965 (formerly a British protectorate).
Constitution: August 7, 2008.
Branches: Executive--president, cabinet. Legislative--unicameral Majlis (parliament). Judicial--Supreme Court, High Court, Civil Court, Criminal Court, Family and Juvenile Court, and 204 general courts.
Administrative subdivisions: 19 atolls and capital city.
Political parties: Adhaalath Party, Dhivehi Raiyyethunge Party, Islamic Democratic Party, Maldivian Democratic Party, Social Liberal Party, Maldives National Congress, Maldives Social Democratic Party, Republican Party, others in formation.
Suffrage: Universal at age 18.
GDP (2007 est.): $1.1 billion.
GDP growth rate (2007): 6.6%.
Per capita GDP (2007 est.): $3,460.
Inflation, year over year (2007): 10.34%.
Percentages of GDP (2007): Tourism--28%; transport and communications--20%; government--16%; manufacturing--7%; real estate--6%; fishing--5%; construction--6%; agriculture--2.5%; other--9%.
Trade (2007): Exports--$232 million: fish products. Major markets--U.S., Thailand, EU, Sri Lanka, Japan (source: Maldives Customs Service). Imports--$936 million: oil, construction material, prepared foodstuffs, vegetables, animal products, electrical appliances, wood products, computers, transport equipment. Major suppliers--Singapore, U.A.E., India, EU, Sri Lanka, Malaysia.
PEOPLE, HISTORY, AND CULTURE
Maldives comprises 1,191 islands in the Indian Ocean. The earliest settlers were probably from southern India. Indo-European speakers followed them from Sri Lanka in the fourth and fifth centuries BC. In the 12th century AD, sailors from East Africa and Arab countries came to the islands. Today, the Maldivian ethnic identity is a blend of these cultures, reinforced by religion and language.
Originally Buddhists, Maldivians were converted to Sunni Islam in the mid-12th century. Islam is the official religion of the entire population. Strict adherence to Islamic precepts and close community relationships have historically helped keep crime low and under control. However, a growing heroin addiction problem and the emergence of youth gangs, especially in Male, have increased the crime rate and the incidence of street violence.
The official and common language is Dhivehi, which is related to Sinhala, a language of Sri Lanka. The writing system is from right to left. English is used widely in commerce and increasingly as the medium of instruction in government schools.
Some social stratification exists on the islands. It is not rigid, since rank is based on varied factors, including occupation, wealth, perceived Islamic virtue, and family ties. Members of the social elite are concentrated in Male'.
The early history of the Maldives is obscure. According to Maldivian legend, a Sinhalese prince named KoiMale was stranded with his bride--daughter of the king of Sri Lanka--in a Maldivian lagoon and stayed on to rule as the first sultan.
Over the centuries, the islands have been visited and their development influenced by sailors from countries on the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean littorals. Mopla pirates from the Malabar Coast--present-day Kerala state in India--harassed the islands. In the 16th century, the Portuguese subjugated and ruled the islands for 15 years (1558-73) before being driven away by the warrior-patriot Muhammad Thakurufar Al-Azam.
Although governed as an independent Islamic sultanate for most of its history from 1153 to 1968, the Maldives was a British protectorate from 1887 until July 25, 1965. In 1953, there was a brief, abortive attempt at a republican form of government, after which the sultanate was re-imposed. Following independence from Britain in 1965, the sultanate continued to operate for another 3 years. On November 11, 1968, it was abolished and replaced by a republic, and the country assumed its present name.
There is growing concern about coral reef and marine life damage because of coral mining (used for building and jewelry making), sand dredging, and solid waste pollution. Mining of sand and coral have removed the natural coral reef that protected several important islands, making them highly susceptible to the erosive effects of the sea. The practices have recently been banned. In April 1987, high tides swept over the Maldives, inundating much of Male' and nearby islands That event prompted high-level Maldivian interest in global climatic changes, as its highest point is about 8 feet above sea level.
The government expenditure for education was 8% of GDP in 2006. Literacy in Maldives is high at 98%. Maldives has made great strides in primary and lower secondary education, with 100% enrollment in the primary level (grade 1 to 7) since 2002. Secondary school enrollment has also improved significantly, with about 80% progressing to secondary level. Lower secondary schools (grades 8 through 10) are located on 138 islands. The government intends to make 10 years of education available to all before 2010. Only a small proportion of children leave school with a qualification, and "Ordinary level" pass rates (at the completion of grade 10) are low for those who opt to take the examination. Access to higher secondary schools (grades 11 and 12) is limited as schools are located only on 14 islands (as of mid-2007). Access to tertiary education is more limited. Whereas for primary and lower secondary schools there is no gender bias, for upper secondary and tertiary education there is a bias in favor of boys.
The World Bank provided about $19 million for education development from 2000-2007. It plans to commit a further $5 million for education development in 2009. The World Bank has identified teacher training as a critical need as the country still relies heavily on expatriate teachers, as well as upgrading the curriculum and materials. Over 2000-2006, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) committed $7 million to support post-secondary education development in Maldives. ADB has committed $6.5 million for employment skills training over 2004-2009.
A 1968 referendum approved the constitution, making Maldives a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. The constitution was amended in 1970, 1972, 1975, and again in 2008.
Ibrahim Nasir, Prime Minister under the pre-1968 sultanate, became President and held office from 1968 to 1978. He was succeeded by Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who was elected President in 1978 and reelected in 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998, and again in October 2003. After 30 years of rule, in October 2008 Gayoom was defeated by Maldivian Democratic Party candidate Mohamed Nasheed in the first multiparty presidential elections held in 30 years. President Nasheed was inaugurated on November 11, 2008 as head of the executive branch. Nasheed reduced the number of government ministries from 21 to 14, appointed a 14-member cabinet, and replaced the eight Majlis members appointed by his predecessor.
The current unicameral Majlis, elected in 2005, is composed of 50 members serving 5-year terms. Two members from each atoll and Male' are elected directly by universal suffrage. Eight are appointed by the president. According to the 2008 constitution, the next Majlis will be convened after elections due by February 2009. It will be larger, will have no appointed members, and will be elected under a system that will more closely reflect the population differences between the atolls.
The Maldivian legal system--a mixture of traditional Islamic and common-law principles--is administered by secular officials, a chief justice, and lesser judges on each of the 19 atolls, who are currently appointed by the president. In the future, judicial appointments are to be overseen by the independent Judicial Services Commission. A new Supreme Court appointed by the previous President, Gayoom, took office in September 2008. There is also an attorney general. Each inhabited island within an atoll has a chief who is responsible for law and order. Every atoll chief, appointed by the president, functions as a district officer in the British South Asian tradition.
On November 8, 1988, Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries tried to overthrow the Maldivian Government. At President Gayoom's request, the Indian military suppressed the coup attempt within 24 hours. In September 2003, following the death of an inmate, a brief prison riot broke out on an island near the capital Male'. Three other inmates were killed during the incident. In response to the killings of the inmates, brief rioting took place on the streets of Male'.
Under Gayoom, the government often prevented opposition rallies from taking place. President Gayoom's commitment to introduce political reforms in June 2004 was widely welcomed. A human rights commission was established, and a special Majlis, or parliament, was convened to consider changes in the constitution, including the legalization of political parties. In August 2004, however, a demonstration in the capital turned violent and the government declared an emergency and arrested a large number said to be connected to the protest. Some of those arrested were prominent in the reform movement, including several members of the special Majlis. Most were released a few months later.
The Maldives were badly hit by the Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, which killed 82 and caused substantial damage to Maldives tourism, housing, and fishing infrastructure. The U.S. provided $1.6 million in immediate relief assistance. Despite the disaster, the Government of the Maldives held parliamentary elections, originally scheduled for December 31, on January 22, 2005. Reform candidates performed strongly. Following the poll, President Gayoom announced plans to establish multiparty democracy within a year.
In June 2005, the members of the People's Majlis unanimously voted to legally recognize political parties. In order of registration the first parties were the opposition Maldivian Democratic Party, the government's Dhivehi Raiyyethunge Party, the Adhaalath (Justice) Party, and the Islamic Democratic Party. More recently, a number of other parties formed, including the Social Liberal Party, the Maldivian National Congress, the Maldives Social Democratic Party, and the Republican Party. Some of these appear to have minimal public backing. Another political formation is the New Maldives group, but it has not registered as a party.
Throughout 2006, the opposition faced restrictions on freedom of assembly, and the government continued to arrest opposition activists. In March 2006, the government introduced a "Roadmap for Reform" and subsequently introduced several bills in parliament. In August 2007, voters decided via referendum that the Maldives' new constitution should provide for a presidential system of government (vice parliamentary). The special Majlis completed its work and the new constitution took effect in August 2008.
In accordance with the new constitution ratified by President Gayoom on August 7, 2008, the first round of presidential elections was held on October 10, 2008. As no candidate received 50% of the vote, a second round was held on October 29 between President Gayoom and Mohamed Nasheed. Nasheed won with 54% of the vote. Members of parliament declared their political affiliations long before the October 2008 multiparty elections. Five opposition leaders were allowed to contest the presidential elections, and the principal opposition candidate was elected. President Nasheed is among the founders of the Maldivian Democratic Party.
President Nasheed, a former Amnesty International "prisoner of conscience," has promised to further strengthen democracy and increase media freedom. During his campaign, Nasheed pledged that if elected, he would hold early presidential elections in the middle of his term.
The government keeps a tight rein on expressions of Islamic extremism. It is investigating links between religious extremists and a September 2007 bombing in a Male' park that injured several tourists.
Minister of Defense and National Security--Ameen Faisal
Minister of Economic Development and Trade--Mohamed Rasheed
Minister of Finance and Treasury--Ali Hashim
Minister of Home Affairs--Gasim Ibrahim
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Ahmed Shaheed
Ambassador to the United States--Mohamed Hussain Maniku
Ambassador to the United Nations--Ahmed Khaleel
The Maldivian economy is based on tourism and fishing. Of the Maldives' 1,191 islands, only 200 are inhabited. The population is scattered throughout the country, with the greatest concentration on the capital island, Male'. Limitations on potable water and arable land constrain expansion.
Development has been centered upon the tourism industry and its complementary service sectors, transport, distribution, real estate, construction, and government. Taxes on the tourist industry have been plowed into infrastructure and used to improve technology in the agricultural sector.
GDP in 2007 totaled $1.1 billion, or about $3,460 per capita. The Maldivian economy has made a remarkable recovery from the tsunami, which inflicted damages of about $375 million, excluding $100 million in damages to resorts, the bulk of which was covered by private insurance. A rebound in tourism, post-tsunami reconstruction, and new resort construction helped increase GDP by about 19% in 2006 and 6.6% in 2007 from a contraction of 4.5% in 2005. Inflation accelerated to about 10% in 2007 and to about 15% by May 2008. Due to rising imports and higher oil prices, the trade deficit ballooned to $700 million in 2007. However, due to a tourism boom and increase government borrowing, the balance of payments recorded a surplus of about $45 million in 2006 and 2007. Fiscal control has deteriorated due to tsunami reconstruction and in particular due to an increase in non-tsunami-related government expenditure. Government expenditure expanded to over 60% of GDP in 2005-2007, compared to 36% of GDP in 2004 before the tsunami. Government expenditure is projected to expand further to 73% of GDP in 2008. Consequently the budget deficit is projected at 10% of GDP in 2008. In July 2008 the government acknowledged that its economy is in a recession. While tsunami reconstruction is ongoing, the recovery process remains underfunded.
The Maldives had a merchandise trade deficit of under $300 million until 2003. Since then the trade deficit reached an unprecedented $700 million, largely the result of increased oil prices and increased imports of food and construction material.
International shipping to and from the Maldives is mainly operated by the private sector with only a small fraction of the tonnage carried on vessels operated by the national carrier, Maldives Shipping Management Ltd. Over the years, the Maldives has received economic assistance from multilateral development organizations, including the UN Development Program (UNDP), Asian Development Bank, and the World Bank. Individual donors--including Japan, India, Australia, and European and Arab countries (including Islamic Development Bank and the Kuwaiti Fund)--also have contributed.
A 1956 bilateral agreement gave the United Kingdom the use of Gan--in Addu Atoll in the far south--for 20 years as an air facility in return for British aid. The agreement ended in 1976, shortly after the British closed the Gan air station.
Tourism. In recent years, Maldives has successfully marketed its natural assets for tourism--beautiful, unpolluted beaches on small coral islands, diving in blue waters abundant with tropical fish, and glorious sunsets. Tourism now brings in about $500 million a year. Tourism and related services contributed 28% of GDP in 2007.
Since the first resort was established in 1972, more than 90 islands have been developed, with a total capacity of some 18,500 beds. Maldives has embarked on a rapid tourism expansion plan; another 65 resorts are under construction. Over 675,000 tourists (mainly from Europe) visited Maldives in 2007. The average occupancy rate is over 80%, and reaches over 95% in the peak winter tourist season. Average tourist stay is 8 days.
Fishing. This sector employs about 11% of the labor force. The fisheries industry, including fish processing, traditionally contributes about 7% of GDP. Due to a drastic drop in the fish catch, the industry's contribution to GDP was only about 5% in 2007. Fish export earnings were estimated at $100 million in 2007. The use of nets is illegal; all fishing is done by line. Production was about 65,000 metric tons in 2007, most of which was skipjack tuna. More than 60% is exported, largely to Sri Lanka, Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and the European Union. Fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted, and canned tuna exports account for about 90% of all marine product exports.
Agriculture. Poor soil and scarce arable land have historically limited agriculture to a few subsistence crops, such as coconut, banana, breadfruit, papayas, mangoes, taro, betel, chilies, sweet potatoes, and onions. Almost all food, including staples, has to be imported. The December 2004 tsunami inundated several agricultural islands, which could take a significant amount of time to recover. Agriculture provides about 2.5% of GDP.
Manufacturing. The manufacturing sector provides less than 7% of GDP. Traditional industry consists of boat building and handicrafts, while modern industry is limited to a few tuna canneries, a bottling plant, and a few enterprises in the capital producing PVC pipe, soap, furniture, and food products. Five garment factories that had exported principally to the United States closed in 2005, following the expiration of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) that had set quotas on developing country garment exports to developed countries. The loss of these factories has not proven an insurmountable hurdle, however, as most of the profits were repatriated and most of the labor was expatriate.
Other. The construction sector contributes approximately 6% of GDP due to tsunami reconstruction and new resort construction.
Maldives follows a nonaligned policy and is committed to maintaining friendly relations with all countries. According to the Foreign Ministry, the country has a UN Mission in New York, embassies in the United States (Washington, DC), Sri Lanka, China, the United Kingdom, Bangladesh, India, Japan, Singapore, and Malaysia, as well as diplomatic missions in Geneva and Brussels. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka maintain resident embassies in Male'. Denmark, Norway, the U.K., Germany, Turkey, and Sweden have consular agencies in Male' under the supervision of their embassies in Sri Lanka and India. The UNDP has a representative resident in Male', as do the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Like the United States, many countries have nonresident ambassadors accredited to the Maldives, most of them based in Sri Lanka or India. The Maldives is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). In 2009, Maldives will host the 16th annual South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit.
U.S. MALDIVIAN RELATIONS
The United States has friendly relations with the Republic of Maldives. The U.S. Ambassador and some Embassy staff in Sri Lanka are accredited to the Maldives and make periodic visits. The United States supports Maldivian independence and territorial integrity and publicly endorsed India's timely intervention on behalf of the Maldivian Government during the November 1988 coup attempt. U.S. Naval vessels have regularly called at Male' in recent years. The Maldives extended strong support to U.S. efforts to combat terrorism and terrorist financing in 2001-2002.
U.S. contributions to economic development in the Maldives have been made principally through international organization programs. Following the December 2004 tsunami, the U.S. and Maldives signed a bilateral assistance agreement for $8.6 million in reconstruction assistance. This assistance will help in the rebuilding of harbors, sewerage systems, and electrical generation facilities and in the development of aid absorption capacity in the Ministry of Finance. The United States has directly funded training in airport management and narcotics interdiction and provided desktop computers for Maldivian customs, immigration, and drug-control efforts in recent years. The United States also trains a small number of Maldivian military personnel annually. About 10 U.S. citizens are resident in the Maldives; some 5,000 Americans visit the Maldives annually. The Maldives welcomes foreign investment, although the ambiguity of codified law acts as somewhat of a damper. Areas of opportunity for U.S. businesses include tourism, construction, and simple export-oriented manufacturing, such as garments and electrical appliance assembly. There is a shortage of local skilled labor, and most industrial labor has to be imported from Sri Lanka or elsewhere.
Principal U.S. Embassy
Ambassador--Robert O. Blake
The U.S. Embassy in Sri Lanka is at 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3; tel: +94 (1) 244-8007; fax: +94 (1) 2437-345.
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