Why women aren’t continuing in physics
Why women aren’t continuing in physics despite being high achievers
Most high achieving female students studying physics at university choose to discontinue physics as a core subject, not because they aren’t good at physics, but because they pursue further study in the life sciences.
This is one of the key findings of research by Te Pūnaha Matatini researchers at the University of Auckland that has been published today in the journal PLoS One.
“We found that the majority of high achieving female physics students were actually studying physics for life sciences, which is needed for medicine and bioscience, and not actually for core physics,” says lead author Steven Turnbull, Te Pūnaha Matatini PhD student in the University of Auckland’s Faculty of Education and Social Work.
“More importantly, of those students who do pursue further study in physics, we see higher attrition rates for female students after controlling for achievement level, with the exception of higher achievers.”
It is well known that female students are under-represented in university physics. However, the reasons for this are not so well understood.
“Importantly, our findings debunk any kind of idea that there's a lack of high achieving female physics students out there. It's not that they aren’t doing well in physics or aren’t interested in physics, because they are,” says co-author Dr Dion O’Neale, Te Pūnaha Matatini Principal Investigator in the University of Auckland’s Department of Physics.
“The implications of this are potentially career-limiting for women,” says Dr Kirsten Locke, a co-author of the study and an investigator at Te Pūnaha Matatini at the University of Auckland’s Faculty of Education and Social Work. “Higher achieving women are tending to opt for physics engagement strongly associated with specific career pathways, in ways that differ from their male counterparts”.
One of the unique aspects of this study was the combination of sociological methods and quantitative network analysis to understand the contexts in which students were making enrolment decisions.
“Using these tools to frame the results gives one the chance to come up with hypotheses [explanations] as to why things are a particular way or mechanisms for taking the next step,” says O’Neale. “[From a scientist’s perspective], you've got something that you can start to test, as opposed to just saying yeah sure there aren't many women in physics.”
In terms of their data set, the
researchers analysed administrative data from 8,905 students
enrolled in University of Auckland undergraduate physics
courses from 2009 to 2014.
Turnbull says the study’s findings have implications for the New Zealand education system, particularly with respect to the way in which physics is presented to students at school.
“We would suggest that work to address gender disparities in physics also needs to be conducted before university level, even as far down as when students start forming their academic identity around 10 or 11 years old. Most importantly, we need to shift attitudes, both inside physics and in society as a whole, so that all students feel like physics is a field where they belong and can contribute.”
The Head of Physics at the University of Auckland, Prof Richard Easther, said he was excited that his Department had hosted this work.
Easther said it had an immediate impact locally as, “It helps us to make evidence-based changes to our own practice, and the ways we present our subject to students.” The Department was recently recognised by the Astronomical Society of Australia with a Silver Pleiades accreditation [https://asa-idea.org/the-pleiades-awards/] for its progress toward building a culture of equity, diversity, and inclusion.