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NZ cities retain top spots in worldwide Quality of Living

New Zealand cities retain top spots in Mercer’s 2011 worldwide Quality of Living rankings

• New Zealand and Australian cities amongst best in the world - Auckland is unmoved in 3rd place and Wellington ranked 13th
• Vienna ranks highest for quality of living; Baghdad, the lowest
• Luxembourg ranks highest for personal safety; Baghdad, the lowest

Tuesday, 29 November 2011

New Zealand cities continue to offer world-class quality of living standards and excellent working conditions for overseas expatriates, promising a retreat from economic and political unrest, Mercer’s 2011 Quality of Living Survey has found.

Major New Zealand cities rank amongst the world’s top 37 cities for overall quality of living, dominating the rankings in the Asia Pacific region for the fourth year running. Auckland is unmoved in 3rd place and Wellington ranked 13th, both retaining consistent rankings over the past four years.

Across the Tasman, Australian cities remain stable with Sydney (11) ranking the highest, followed closely
by Melbourne (18) and Perth (21). The 2011 rankings have seen a convergence between Canberra (26),
Adelaide (30) and Brisbane (37) all following close behind.

Georgina Harley, Leader of Mercer’s Information Product Solutions business, said organisations and governments rely on clear and objective information on quality of living differences between cities when relocating employees from one country to another to ensure they compensate them fairly.

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“New Zealand remains an attractive destination for skilled workers who want a high quality of life coupled with economic and physical security. In contrast to Europe and the United States, New Zealand has a relatively strong economic outlook which increases its appeal as a safe haven from economic uncertainty,” Ms Harley said.

“New Zealand’s high living standards provide a potentially compelling case for attracting international talent to our shores. Employers should promote these benefits when undertaking international recruitment and secondment programs as part of their efforts to address skills shortages,” she said.

Mercer’s global survey is based on an evaluation of 39 criteria for each city, grouped in 10 categories, including political and socio-economic environment, medical and health considerations, education, transport and housing. The survey covers 221 cities which are compared to New York as the base city.

Ms Harley said a stable economy is only one part of the picture, as New Zealand cities continue to tick all the boxes when it comes to assessing living conditions for overseas workers.

“New Zealand cities consistently score highly on all liveability factors, providing expatriates with quality housing, excellent infrastructure, comprehensive health care, a wide selection of restaurants and other amenities, as well as a good education and environment for their families,” she said.

Global overview:

Vienna has the best living standard in the world, according to the Mercer 2011 Quality of Living Survey. Zurich and Auckland follow in second and third position, respectively, and Munich is in fourth with Düsseldorf and Vancouver sharing fifth place. Frankfurt is in seventh, followed by Geneva in eighth, while Copenhagen and Bern share ninth place.

The cities with the lowest quality of living are Khartoum, Sudan (217), Port-au-Prince, Haiti (218), N’Djamena, Chad (219), and Bangui, Central African Republic (220). Baghdad, Iraq (221) ranks last in Mercer’s table.

This year, the survey separately identifies those cities with the highest personal safety ranking based on internal stability, crime levels, law enforcement effectiveness and the host country’s international relations. Luxembourg tops this personal safety ranking, followed by Bern, Helsinki and Zurich – all ranked at number two. Vienna ranks fifth, while Geneva and Stockholm both rank sixth. Baghdad (221) is the world’s least safe city, followed by N’Djamena, Chad (220), Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (219), Bangui, Central African Republic (218), and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (217).

Slagin Parakatil, Senior Researcher at Mercer, commented: “Companies need to keep on top of current developments to ensure that their compensation packages remain competitive and continue to motivate expatriate employees. That means reviewing major events, such as social unrest, economic turmoil or natural disasters and their impact on the success of overseas placements.

“The top-ranking cities for personal safety and security are in politically stable countries with good international relations and relatively sustainable economic growth. Most of the low-scoring cities are in countries with civil unrest, high crime levels and little law enforcement,” said Mr. Parakatil.

Asia Pacific
Auckland (3) is the highest-ranking city for quality of living in the Asia-Pacific region and is followed by Sydney (11), Wellington (13), Melbourne (18) and Perth (21). The highest-ranking Asian cities are Singapore (25) and Tokyo (46). Hong Kong (70), Kuala Lumpur (76), Seoul (80) and Taipei (85) are other major Asian cities ranked in the top 100. Meanwhile, Dhaka, Bangladesh (204), Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (206), and Dushanbe, Tajikistan (208), rank lowest in the region.

At 8, Singapore ranks highest for personal safety, followed by Auckland and Wellington – both ranked 9. Canberra, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney all rank 25, and all the Japanese cities on the list (Tokyo, Kobe, Nagoya, Osaka and Yokohama) rank 31. The region’s lowest-ranking city for personal safety is Karachi, Pakistan (216).

“As a region, Asia Pacific is highly diverse. Countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Singapore dominate the top of both our general and personal safety rankings, in part because they have been continuously investing in infrastructure and public services,” said Slagin Parakatil, Senior Researcher at Mercer. “In general, the region has seen a greater focus on city planning. Nevertheless, many Asian cities rank at the bottom, mainly due to social instability, political turmoil, natural disasters such as typhoons and tsunamis, and lack of suitable infrastructure for expatriates.


Canadian cities dominate the top of the ranking for this region. Vancouver (5) has the best quality of living and is followed by Ottawa (14), Toronto (15) and Montreal (22). Honolulu (29) and San Francisco (30) are the highest-ranking US cities. In Central and South America, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe (63), ranks highest, followed by San Juan, Puerto Rico (72), and Montevideo, Uruguay (77). Port-au-Prince, Haiti (218), ranks lowest in the region.

Canadian cities also dominate the higher end of the personal safety ranking for this region, with Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver all ranked jointly at 17. In the United States, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston and San Francisco all rank 53. Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe (40), is again the highest-ranking city in Central and South America, followed by Nassau, Bahamas (66), San Juan, Puerto Rico (79), and Panama City, Panama (92). At the other end of the personal-safety scale, Caracas, Venezuela (205), Port-au-Prince, Haiti (202), Bogotá, Colombia (196), and Kingston, Jamaica (192), rank lowest in the region.

Mr Parakatil said: “The disparity in living standards between North and South America is still considerable. Though a number of South and Central American countries have experienced positive change, political and safety issues predominate in the region. In particular, drug trafficking, drugs cartels and high levels of street crime, combined with natural disasters, continue to impair the region’s quality of living.”


Vienna is the European city with the highest quality of living. German and Swiss cities dominate the top of the ranking, with three cities each in the top 10. Zurich (2) is followed by Munich (4), Düsseldorf (5), Frankfurt (7) and Geneva (8), while Bern shares ninth place with Copenhagen.

In the next tier are Amsterdam (12), Hamburg (16), Berlin (17), Luxembourg (19), Stockholm (20), Brussels (22), Nurnberg (24) and Dublin (26). Paris ranks 30 and is followed by Oslo (33), Helsinki (35) and London (38). Lisbon is number 41, Madrid is at 43 and Rome ranks 52. Prague, Czech Republic (69), is the highest-ranking eastern European city, followed by Budapest, Hungary (73), Ljubljana, Slovenia (75), Vilnius, Lithuania (79), and Warsaw, Poland (84). The lowest-ranking European city is Tbilisi, Georgia (214).

With seven cities in the top 10, European cities also fare well in the personal safety ranking. Luxembourg ranks highest, followed by Bern, Helsinki and Zurich, which all rank second. Vienna (5) is ahead of jointly ranked Geneva and Stockholm (6). In Eastern Europe, Ljubljana (30) and Prague (47) rank highest for personal safety, whereas Moscow (199) and Tbilisi (215) rank lowest.

Mr Parakatil said: “European cities in general continue to have high standards of living, because they enjoy advanced and modern city infrastructures combined with high-class medical, recreational and leisure facilities. But economic turmoil, high levels of unemployment and lack of confidence in political institutions make their future positions hard to predict. Countries such Austria, Germany and Switzerland still fare particularly well in both the quality of living and personal safety rankings, yet they are not immune from decreases in living standards if this uncertainty persists.”

Middle East and Africa

Dubai, UAE (74), ranks highest for quality of living across the Middle East and Africa and is followed by Abu Dhabi, UAE (78), Port Louis, Mauritius (82), and Cape Town, South Africa (88). Johannesburg ranks 94 and is followed by Victoria, Seychelles (95), Tel Aviv (99), Muscat, Oman (101), and Doha, Qatar (106). Africa has 18 cities in the bottom 25, including Bangui, Central African Republic (220), N’Djamena, Chad (219), Khartoum, Sudan (217), and Brazzaville, Congo (214). Baghdad (221) is the lowest-ranking city both regionally and globally.

At 23, Abu Dhabi has the highest personal safety ranking in the Middle East and is followed by Muscat (29), Dubai (39), and Doha (67). Port Louis (59) and Victoria (79) are the only African cities in the top 100. Elsewhere in the region, Tunis, Tunisia, ranks 140, Casablanca, Morocco, is at 147 and Cairo ranks 176. At 185, Algiers is followed by Tehran (188), and towards the bottom of the list is Tripoli (204). In terms of personal safety, Baghdad (221) is the lowest-ranking city regionally and globally, along with N’Djamena, Chad (220), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (219), Bangui, Central African Republic (218), and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (217).

Mr Parakatil said: “The recent wave of violent protests across North Africa and the Middle East has temporarily lowered living standards in the region. Many countries such as Libya, Egypt, Tunisia and Yemen have seen their quality of living levels drop considerably. Political and economic reconstruction in these countries, combined with funding to serve basic human needs, will undoubtedly boost the region as a key player in the international arena.”

He added: “Currently, expatriates and locals need to exercise extreme caution when going about their everyday activities in the most dangerous cities. The roots of unrest vary from country to country, and many places remain volatile. So companies should ensure they monitor the impact this might have on their local expatriates. Furthermore, employers should review their expatriate strategies to ensure they contain specific safety measures such as secure accommodation and effective communication channels if evacuation becomes necessary.”

"It is also worth noting that some of this region's cities, including Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Muscat, rank quite high on the personal safety list. This is mainly due to their internal stability and low crime levels," concluded Mr Parakatil.


Notes for editors

The worldwide rankings are produced annually from the most recent Worldwide Quality of Living Survey, conducted by Mercer. Individual reports are produced for each city surveyed. Comparative quality-of-living indexes between a base city and a host city are available, as are multiple-city comparisons. Further information is available from Mercer Client Services in Warsaw, on tel. +48 22 434 5383. Or see www.mercer.com/qualityofliving

The list of rankings is provided to journalists for reference, and should not be published in full. Publications and other media outlets may reproduce the top 10 and bottom 10 cities in either list in a table. The data was largely collected between September and November 2011, and is regularly updated to take account of changing circumstances. In particular, the assessments are revised in the case of significant political, economic and environmental developments.

Updated index

This year's Quality of Living press release is published in November rather than April/May as in previous years. It is based on data from Mercer's latest Quality of Living Survey. The new timing of the survey and press release provides a more current assessment of quality of living in the world that employers can use for planning purposes.

Expatriates in difficult locations: Determining appropriate allowances and incentives

Companies need to be able to determine their expatriate compensation packages rationally, consistently and systematically. Providing incentives to reward and recognise the efforts that employees and their families make when taking on international assignments remains a typical practice, particularly for difficult locations. Two common incentives include a quality-of-living allowance and a mobility premium.
• Quality-of-living or “hardship” allowances compensate expatriates for decreases in the quality of living between their home and host locations.
• By contrast, a mobility premium simply compensates for the inconvenience of being uprooted and having to work in another country.

A quality-of-living allowance is typically location-related, whilst a mobility premium is usually independent of the host location. Some multinational companies combine these premiums, but the vast majority provide them separately. The latter approach is clearer and more transparent.

Mercer hardship allowance recommendations

Mercer evaluates local living conditions in all the 420 cities it surveys worldwide. Living conditions are analysed according to 39 factors, grouped in 10 categories:
1) Political and social environment (political stability, crime, law enforcement, etc)
2) Economic environment (currency exchange regulations, banking services, etc)
3) Socio-cultural environment (censorship, limitations on personal freedom, etc)
4) Health and sanitation (medical supplies and services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste disposal, air pollution, etc)
5) Schools and education (standard and availability of international schools, etc)
6) Public services and transportation (electricity, water, public transport, traffic congestion, etc)
7) Recreation (restaurants, theatres, cinemas, sports and leisure, etc)
8) Consumer goods (availability of food/daily consumption items, cars, etc)
9) Housing (housing, household appliances, furniture, maintenance services, etc)
10) Natural environment (climate, record of natural disasters)

The scores attributed to each factor allow for city-to-city comparisons. The result is a quality-of-living index that compares relative differences between any two locations. For the indices to be used effectively, Mercer has created a grid that allows users to link the resulting index to a quality-of-living allowance amount by recommending a percentage value in relation to the index.

The information and data obtained through the Quality of Living Reports (the “Reports”) are for information purposes only and are intended for use by multi-national organizations and government agencies. They are not designed or intended to use as the basis for foreign investment or tourism. In no event will Mercer be liable for any decision made or action taken in reliance of the results obtained through the use of, or the information and/or data contained in or provided by, the Reports. While the Reports have been prepared based upon sources, information and systems believed to be reliable and accurate, they are provided on an “as-is” basis, and Mercer accepts no responsibility/liability for the validity/accuracy (or otherwise) of the resources/data used to compile the Reports. Mercer and its affiliates make no representations or warranties with respect to the Reports, and disclaim all express, implied and statutory warranties of any kind, including, but not limited to, representations and implied warranties of quality, accuracy, timeliness, completeness, merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose.

Mercer is a global leader in human resource consulting, outsourcing and investment services. Mercer works with clients to solve their most complex benefit and human capital issues by designing, implementing and administering health, retirement and other benefit programs. Mercer’s investment services include investment consulting, implemented consulting and multi-manager investment management. Mercer’s 20,000 employees are based in more than 40 countries. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc., which lists its stock (ticker symbol: MMC) on the New York and Chicago stock exchanges. For more information, visit www.mercer.com.

Mercer Quality of Living Survey – Worldwide Rankings, 2011
Rank City Country
1 Vienna Austria
2 Zurich Switzerland
3 Auckland New Zealand
4 Munich Germany
5 Düsseldorf Germany
5 Vancouver Canada
7 Frankfurt Germany
8 Geneva Switzerland
9 Bern Switzerland
9 Copenhagen Denmark
11 Sydney Australia
12 Amsterdam Netherlands
13 Wellington New Zealand
14 Ottawa Canada
15 Toronto Canada
16 Hamburg Germany
17 Berlin Germany
18 Melbourne Australia
19 Luxembourg Luxembourg
20 Stockholm Sweden
21 Perth Australia
22 Brussels Belgium
22 Montreal Canada
24 Nurnberg Germany
25 Singapore Singapore
26 Canberra Australia
26 Dublin Ireland
28 Stuttgart Germany
29 Honolulu, HI United States
30 Adelaide Australia
30 Paris France
30 San Francisco, CA United States
33 Calgary Canada
33 Oslo Norway
35 Helsinki Finland
36 Boston, MA United States
37 Brisbane Australia
38 London United Kingdom
39 Lyon France
40 Barcelona Spain
41 Lisbon Portugal
42 Milan Italy
43 Chicago, IL United States
43 Madrid Spain
43 Washington, DC United States
46 Tokyo Japan
47 New York City, NY United States
48 Seattle, WA United States
49 Kobe Japan
49 Pittsburgh, PA United States
49 Yokohama Japan
52 Birmingham United Kingdom
52 Rome Italy
54 Aberdeen United Kingdom
54 Philadelphia, PA United States
56 Glasgow United Kingdom
57 Osaka Japan
58 Los Angeles, CA United States
59 Minneapolis, MN United States
60 Nagoya Japan
61 Leipzig Germany
62 Dallas, TX United States
63 Belfast United Kingdom
63 Pointe-à-Pitre Guadeloupe
65 Houston, TX United States
66 Miami, FL United States
67 St. Louis, MO United States
68 Atlanta, GA United States
69 Prague Czech Republic
70 Hong Kong Hong Kong
71 Detroit, MI United States
72 San Juan Puerto Rico
73 Budapest Hungary
74 Dubai United Arab Emirates
75 Ljubljana Slovenia
76 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
77 Montevideo Uruguay
78 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
79 Vilnius Lithuania
80 Seoul South Korea
81 Buenos Aires Argentina
82 Port Louis Mauritius
83 Athens Greece
84 Warsaw Poland
85 Taipei Taiwan
86 Bratislava Slovakia
87 Limassol Cyprus
88 Cape Town South Africa
89 Tallinn Estonia
90 Santiago Chile
91 Riga Latvia
92 Busan South Korea
93 Panama City Panama
94 Johannesburg South Africa
95 Shanghai China
95 Victoria Seychelles
97 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei
98 Zagreb Croatia
99 Tel Aviv Israel
100 Noumea New Caledonia
101 Brasilia Brazil
101 Johor Bahru Malaysia
101 Muscat Oman
104 Monterrey Mexico
105 San Jose Costa Rica
106 Doha Qatar
107 Bucharest Romania
108 Nassau Bahamas
109 Beijing China
110 Sofia Bulgaria
110 Tunis Tunisia
112 Asuncion Paraguay
113 Manama Bahrain
114 Rio de Janeiro Brazil
115 Rabat Morocco
116 São Paulo Brazil
117 Istanbul Turkey
118 Lima Peru
119 Guangzhou China
120 Kuwait City Kuwait
121 Bangkok Thailand
121 Mexico City Mexico
123 Casablanca Morocco
124 Quito Ecuador
124 Windhoek Namibia
126 Amman Jordan
127 Chengdu China
128 Manila Philippines
129 Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
130 Bogotá Colombia
131 Gaborone Botswana
132 Blantyre Malawi
132 Shenzhen China
134 Nanjing China
135 Cairo Egypt
136 Belgrade Serbia
137 Lusaka Zambia
137 Qingdao China
139 Colombo Sri Lanka
140 Jakarta Indonesia
141 Bangalore India
142 Guatemala City Guatemala
143 New Delhi India
144 Kingston Jamaica
144 Mumbai India
146 Shenyang China
147 Hanoi Vietnam
147 La Paz Bolivia
149 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam
150 Chennai India
151 Kolkata India
152 Dakar Senegal
152 Skopje Macedonia
154 Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
155 Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina
156 Libreville Gabon
157 Riyadh Saudi Arabia
158 Accra Ghana
159 Jeddah Saudi Arabia
160 Jilin China
161 Kiev Ukraine
162 Kampala Uganda
163 Moscow Russia
164 Caracas Venezuela
165 St. Petersburg Russia
166 Managua Nicaragua
167 Banjul Gambia
168 San Salvador El Salvador
169 Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic
170 Beirut Lebanon
171 Cotonou Benin
172 Almaty Kazakhstan
173 Yerevan Armenia
174 Nairobi Kenya
174 Tirana Albania
176 Djibouti Djibouti
177 Tegucigalpa Honduras
178 Algiers Algeria
179 Damascus Syria
179 Islamabad Pakistan
181 Maputo Mozambique
182 Minsk Belarus
183 Yaoundé Cameroon
184 Douala Cameroon
184 Kigali Rwanda
186 Phnom Penh Cambodia
187 Tehran Iran
188 Dar es Salaam Tanzania
189 Havana Cuba
190 Lahore Pakistan
191 Karachi Pakistan
192 Harare Zimbabwe
193 Lomé Togo
194 Luanda Angola
195 Baku Azerbaijan
196 Yangon Myanmar
197 Bamako Mali
198 Tashkent Uzbekistan
199 Ashkhabad Turkmenistan
200 Addis Ababa Ethiopia
200 Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
202 Tripoli Libya
203 Lagos Nigeria
204 Dhaka Bangladesh
205 Abuja Nigeria
206 Bishkek Kyrgyzstan
207 Niamey Niger
208 Dushanbe Tajikistan
209 Antananarivo Madagascar
210 Conakry Guinea republic
211 Kinshasa Democratic Rep. of the Congo
212 Nouakchott Mauritania
213 Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire
214 Brazzaville Congo
214 Tbilisi Georgia
216 Sana’a Yemen
217 Khartoum Sudan
218 Port-au-Prince Haiti
219 N’Djamena Chad
220 Bangui Central African Republic
221 Baghdad Iraq

Personal Safety Ranking, 2011*

1 Luxembourg Luxembourg
2 Bern Switzerland
2 Helsinki Finland
2 Zurich Switzerland
5 Vienna Austria
6 Geneva Switzerland
6 Stockholm Sweden
8 Singapore Singapore
9 Auckland New Zealand
9 Wellington New Zealand
11 Copenhagen Denmark
11 Düsseldorf Germany
11 Frankfurt Germany
11 Munich Germany
11 Nurnberg Germany
16 Dublin Ireland
17 Amsterdam Netherlands
17 Calgary Canada
17 Montreal Canada
17 Ottawa Canada
17 Toronto Canada
17 Vancouver Canada
23 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
24 Oslo Norway
25 Canberra Australia
25 Melbourne Australia
25 Perth Australia
25 Sydney Australia
29 Muscat Oman
30 Ljubljana Slovenia
31 Kobe Japan
31 Nagoya Japan
31 Osaka Japan
31 Tokyo Japan
31 Yokohama Japan
36 Berlin Germany
36 Hamburg Germany
36 Hong Kong Hong Kong
39 Dubai United Arab Emirates
40 Brussels Belgium
40 Pointe-à-Pitre Guadeloupe
42 Leipzig Germany
42 Stuttgart Germany
44 Aberdeen United Kingdom
44 Glasgow United Kingdom
46 Limassol Cyprus
47 Lisbon Portugal
47 Prague Czech Republic
49 Bratislava Slovakia
50 Adelaide Australia
50 Brisbane Australia
52 Vilnius Lithuania
53 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei
53 Birmingham United Kingdom
53 Chicago, IL United States
53 Honolulu, HI United States
53 Houston, TX United States
53 San Francisco, CA United States
59 Port Louis Mauritius
60 Lyon France
60 Paris France
62 Milan Italy
63 Barcelona Spain
63 Belfast United Kingdom
65 Tallinn Estonia
66 Nassau Bahamas
67 Doha Qatar
68 Boston, MA United States
68 London United Kingdom
68 Madrid Spain
68 Minneapolis, MN United States
68 New York City, NY United States
68 Pittsburgh, PA United States
74 Taipei Taiwan
75 Bucharest Romania
75 Johor Bahru Malaysia
75 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
75 Zagreb Croatia
79 Riga Latvia
79 Rome Italy
79 San Juan Puerto Rico
79 Victoria Seychelles
83 Warsaw Poland
84 Dallas, TX United States
84 Los Angeles, CA United States
84 Miami, FL United States
84 Philadelphia, PA United States
84 Seattle, WA United States
84 Washington, DC United States
90 Budapest Hungary
91 Noumea New Caledonia
92 Panama City Panama
93 Montevideo Uruguay
94 Beijing China
94 Chengdu China
94 Guangzhou China
94 Jilin China
94 Nanjing China
94 Qingdao China
94 Shanghai China
94 Shenyang China
102 Atlanta, GA United States
102 Detroit, MI United States
102 St. Louis, MO United States
105 Kuwait City Kuwait
106 Busan South Korea
107 Santiago Chile
108 Chennai India
109 Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
110 Hanoi Vietnam
111 Sofia Bulgaria
112 Lusaka Zambia
112 Shenzhen China
114 Seoul South Korea
115 Asuncion Paraguay
115 Gaborone Botswana
117 Bangalore India
118 Athens Greece
119 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam
120 Djibouti Djibouti
120 Rabat Morocco
122 San Jose Costa Rica
123 Amman Jordan
123 Manama Bahrain
125 Blantyre Malawi
126 Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
127 Belgrade Serbia
127 Kolkata India
127 New Delhi India
127 Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina
131 Brasilia Brazil
132 Havana Cuba
133 Buenos Aires Argentina
134 Accra Ghana
135 Maputo Mozambique
136 Monterrey Mexico
137 Libreville Gabon
137 Lima Peru
139 Managua Nicaragua
140 Tunis Tunisia
141 Windhoek Namibia
142 Mumbai India
143 Skopje Macedonia
144 Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic
145 Jeddah Saudi Arabia
145 Riyadh Saudi Arabia
147 Casablanca Morocco
148 Dakar Senegal
149 La Paz Bolivia
150 Quito Ecuador
151 Baku Azerbaijan
152 Kiev Ukraine
153 Mexico City Mexico
154 Kampala Uganda
154 Yerevan Armenia
156 Douala Cameroon
156 Yaounde Cameroon
158 Cape Town South Africa
159 Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
160 Bangkok Thailand
161 Banjul Gambia
162 Cotonou Benin
163 Almaty Kazakhstan
163 Luanda Angola
165 Dar es Salaam Tanzania
165 Kigali Rwanda
167 Niamey Niger
168 Johannesburg South Africa
169 Bamako Mali
170 Tirana Albania
171 Minsk Belarus
172 Rio de Janeiro Brazil
173 Manila Philippines
173 St. Petersburg Russia
175 San Salvador El Salvador
176 Cairo Egypt
177 Tel Aviv Israel
178 São Paulo Brazil
179 Guatemala City Guatemala
180 Tegucigalpa Honduras
181 Jakarta Indonesia
182 Antananarivo Madagascar
182 Lomé Togo
184 Ashkhabad Turkmenistan
185 Algiers Algeria
185 Tashkent Uzbekistan
187 Istanbul Turkey
188 Tehran Iran
189 Colombo Sri Lanka
190 Yangon Myanmar
191 Damascus Syria
192 Kingston Jamaica
193 Phnom Penh Cambodia
194 Dushanbe Tajikistan
194 Harare Zimbabwe
196 Bogotá Colombia
197 Addis Ababa Ethiopia
198 Brazzaville Congo
199 Moscow Russia
200 Dhaka Bangladesh
201 Nouakchott Mauritania
202 Port-au-Prince Haiti
203 Beirut Lebanon
204 Tripoli Libya
205 Caracas Venezuela
206 Abuja Nigeria
207 Bishkek Kyrgyzstan
208 Lagos Nigeria
209 Islamabad Pakistan
209 Lahore Pakistan
211 Khartoum Sudan
212 Conakry Guinea Republic
212 Nairobi Kenya
214 Sana’a Yemen
215 Tbilisi Georgia
216 Karachi Pakistan
217 Kinshasa Democratic Rep. of the Congo
218 Bangui Central African Republic
219 Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire
220 N’Djamena Chad
221 Baghdad Iraq
*Mercer’s Personal Safety Ranking 2011 is based on measures of internal stability, crime levels, law enforcement effectiveness and host country international relations.

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