Cablegate: Daily Summary of Japanese Press 11/05/07

DE RUEHKO #5112/01 3090804
P 050804Z NOV 07





E.O. 12958: N/A



(1) Ozawa starts again cycle of "destruction" and "renewal"

(2) Ozawa's shocking resignation -- Dogmatic approach not acceptable

(3) Overseas dispatch of SDF troops abroad: Prime minister, Ozawa
agree to set UN resolution as condition for supporting permanent
law: Limitation to activities could become problem (Yomiuri)

(4) Questions about new refueling legislation: In interview, House
of Representatives member Kenji Eda emphasizes the need to consider
danger of having hand in military operations (Tokyo Shimbun)

(5) Defense Ministry has copy of MSDF supply ship Towada's logbook
for period it actively supplied fuel (Mainich))

(6) Poll on Fukuda cabinet, political parties, Prime Minister
Fukuda's coalition proposal to DPJ President Ozawa, Japan's calling
off of MSDF refueling in Indian Ocean (Asahi)

(7) Poll on reading habits (Mainichi)


(1) Ozawa starts again cycle of "destruction" and "renewal"

MAINICHI (Page 3) (Full)
November 5, 2007

Ichiro Ozawa announced yesterday his intention to resign as
president of the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ or
Minshuto). In order to realign political parties, Ozawa in the past
has destroyed and left parties and then created new ones. With his
failure to bring about a grand coalition in their latest talks,
Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda invited the mistrust of the ruling
coalition, while the very foundation of the DPJ was shaken - even
though the largest opposition party has been stepping up its
offensive since it won big in the July House of Councillors
election. Ozawa lost a good opportunity to establish principles to
dispatch overseas the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) for international
peace activities, his pet argument for ages. The Fukuda-Ozawa talks
were that unproductive.

Ozawa is regarded as a "destroyer" and is known for taking a
strong-armed approach. He will not hesitate to do anything to
realize his political ambitions. His typical political method was
seen in the establishment of new political parties -- the Japan
Renewal Party in June 1993, the New Frontier Party in December 1994,
and the Liberal Party in January 1998 -- as well as in political
realignments between a new party and existing parties. However, his
hard-line stance of pushing forward with his policy measures and his
disregard for how his action might appear to the public always made
the situation deteriorate.

The coalition government of Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa,
established in August 1993, suffered a setback because the then
Japan Socialist Party (JSP) and other coalition members left the
government in opposition to the idea of forming a parliamentary
coalition party "Kaishin." As a result, the LDP, the JSP and the New
Party Sakigake formed a coalition government. Ozawa, who then fell

TOKYO 00005112 002 OF 012

into the opposition, established the New Frontier Party (NFP),
rallying opposition forces, except for the Japanese Communist Party.
The NFP, however, broke up in late 1996 due to discord between Ozawa
and Tsutomu Hata, who was a friend of Ozawa since the two belonged
to the LDP. Ozawa then formed the Liberal party, attempting a
comeback to the center stage of politics.

The Ozawa-led Liberal Party joined the Obuchi government in January
1999, making a compromise with Hiromu Nonaka, Ozawa's bitter enemy
since the Takeshita faction split, but Ozawa dissolved the
LDP-Liberal Party coalition because Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi
turned down his proposed idea of dissolving the LDP and Liberal
Party in order to create a new conservative party. After dissolving
the Liberal Party, Ozawa and his followers joined the Democratic
Party of Japan (DPJ or Minshuto) in September 2003.

Security policy has been his main theme in planning political
realignment. In 1991 during his tenure as secretary general of the
LDP, Ozawa was able to obtain cooperation from the New Komeito and
in doing so, he gave up cooperation with the JSP, which strongly
opposed his idea of dispatching the SDF overseas.

The report compiled in February 1993 by the special research council
on Japan's role in the international community (Ozawa research
council) lies beneath the grand coalition concept this time around.

At yesterday's press conference, Ozawa stated: "I personally
determined that it was enough to begin discussion policies (for a
coalition with the LDP)," since Prime Minister Fukuda agreed with
Ozawa's stock argument that SDF dispatches should only be allowed
under a UN resolution. Security is of course an important factor for
national politics, but if he had his old stock argument in mind, it
was premature to discuss a grand coalition. Since Ozawa has
advocated political change by election, political circles are
critical of Ozawa and his sudden announcement to step down, some
saying, "He has started it again."

(2) Ozawa's shocking resignation -- Dogmatic approach not

YOMIURI (Page 1) (Abridged slightly)
November 5, 2007

The Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ or Minshuto) headquarters near
the Diet building turned into a madhouse yesterday afternoon.

President Ichiro Ozawa, who had told Secretary General Yukio
Hatoyama that he would hold an emergency press conference, entered
his office shortly before 4:00 p.m. Deputy President Naoto Kan and
other executives immediately rushed into Ozawa's office to try to
persuade him to stay on as party head. But Ozawa went ahead and held
the press conference and announced his intention to step down with a
stern look. He then got in a car and sped away without uttering a
word to party executives or reporters.

Ozawa held talks with Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda on Nov. 2, in
which he exchanged penetrating views with the prime minister on the
establishment of a coalition government with the Liberal Democratic
Party (LDP). The purpose was to find a breakthrough in the political
gridlock in the divided Diet. But Ozawa consequently found himself
in the hot seat because of that approach. Did he place too much
confidence in his hard-driving approach?

TOKYO 00005112 003 OF 012

Ozawa forced the ruling coalition into the minority in the July
House of Councillors election. Anticipating then that Prime Minister
Shinzo Abe would resign his position, Ozawa immediately after that
seems to have begun considering forming a grand coalition with Abe's

Excited about the party's overwhelming victory, many DPJ lawmakers
fervently talked about strategies to drive (the prime minister) into
Lower House dissolution for a snap general election with a view to
taking power at one stroke.

But Ozawa calmly analyzed his party's situation from the viewpoint
of the Diet and the next election.

In the press conference yesterday, Ozawa said: "Given the LDP's
overwhelming majority in the Lower House, we will not be able to
enact the bills we had pledged." The DPJ has presented many bills,
including one prohibiting any use of money paid into the pension
system for purposes other than benefit payouts. Their fates depend
on coordination with the ruling parties. No government-sponsored
bills have been enacted in the current extraordinary Diet session.

Ozawa categorically said: "The DPJ lacks strength and is difficult
to achieve a victory in the next Lower House election." Having
informally endorsed only about 210 persons for a total of 300
single-seat constituencies, the DPJ is not in a situation to aim at
a majority, according to a DPJ-connected source.

Ozawa thought that delaying Lower House dissolution by letting the
DPJ join the ruling coalition to acquire experience in the governing
bloc would help pave the way for a DPJ administration.

He also seems to have aimed at driving the New Komeito out of the
coalition administration. Ozawa reportedly explained to DPJ
lawmakers that his party would join hands only with the LDP. But
with Prime Minister Fukuda determined to keep the LDP-New Komeito
coalition intact, there was a gap in motives between Fukuda and

Although Ozawa made meticulous preparations behind the scenes for a
grand coalition, he hardly made any effort in advance to obtain the
party's understanding.

On Nov. 1, two days after his first meeting with Fukuda, Ozawa
declared, "I have no intention (of forming a grand coalition.)" For
many hours over the last several days, even party executives were
not aware of Ozawa's whereabouts. Hatoyama, for instance, visited
his house only to find he was absent. "His bad habit of trying to
move the political situation all by himself has come back," a DPJ
lawmaker said.

Ozawa's resignation will not change the current situation in which
the divided Diet is unable to press ahead with any important
policies. The Fukuda-Ozawa meetings also discussed the establishment
of a general law (permanent law) governing the overseas dispatch of
the Self-Defense Forces. The ruling and opposition camps are left
with the task of exploring ways not to waste past efforts.

(3) Overseas dispatch of SDF troops abroad: Prime minister, Ozawa
agree to set UN resolution as condition for supporting permanent
law: Limitation to activities could become problem

TOKYO 00005112 004 OF 012

YOMIURI (Page 2) (Full)
November 5, 2007

Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ or Minshuto) President Ozawa during a
press conference yesterday revealed that the prime minister and he
had agreed at the party head talks on Nov. 2 to make a UN resolution
a condition for adopting a general law (permanent law) stipulating
the way Self-Defense Force (SDF) personnel should be dispatched
abroad. If SDF troops are dispatched, based on a permanent law
subject to a UN resolution, the scope of operations for which SDF
troops can be dispatched would be extensively restricted, inevitably
disrupting the nation's international contribution in a flexible
manner. Chances are that the matter could become an issue in the
government and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).

Ozawa during the party head talks on Nov. 2 said, "I want to see the
dispatch of SDF troops limited to operations based on UN
resolutions." As a condition for his approving the dispatch of SDF
troops for international peace cooperation activities, Ozawa asked
the prime minister that the envisaged permanent law should mention
UN resolutions as a requirement for SDF dispatches. Ozawa during a
press conference on the 4th underscored that the prime minister
pledged to limit the dispatch of SDF troops to activities
established or approved by the UN.

Japan has dispatched SDF personnel, by enacting a time-limited law
each time it made various international contributions, including
participation in peace-keeping operations based on the UN
Peacekeeping Operations Cooperation Law. The aim of enacting a
permanent law is to lay down requirements for SDF personnel
dispatches and details of activities in a comprehensive manner.

However, if the envisaged permanent law sets a UN resolution as a
condition for dispatching SDF personnel, Japan would find it
impossible to take part in activities assisting multinational
forces, including the US-led coalition of the willing.

Japan has thus far carried out refueling operations by the Maritime
Self-Defense Force (MSDF) to supply fuel to US and British forces in
the Indian Ocean and humanitarian and reconstruction assistance
activities in Iraq, by establishing special measures laws. However,
whether such dispatches would have been possible if Japan had a
permanent law that sets a UN resolution as a condition is delicate,
because assistance to Iraq by various countries has a strong nature
of being part of the US' occupation policy, rather than being
activities based on a UN resolution.

For this reason, regarding the condition, "activities established or
approved by the UN", which Ozawa cited as a condition for
dispatching SDF troops to be included in the permanent law, such
"approved activities" would probably include participation in the
International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF), which Ozawa is
calling for. Refueling operations as stipulated under the new
antiterror special measures law would also be included. But neither
operation is directly based on a UN resolution, as a Defense
Ministry source said. This could be a settlement line for both
sides, which have made different assertions.

Regarding the issue of making a UN resolution a condition for the
dispatch of SDF personnel under the envisaged permanent law, noting,
"There could be cases in which UN resolution cannot be adopted due

TOKYO 00005112 005 OF 012

to opposition by certain UNSC members." The LDP National Defense
Division Subcommittee to Consider Defense Measures chaired by
(current defense minister) Shigeru Ishiba in August 2006 drew up
draft permanent legislation stipulating that SDF personnel could be
dispatched without a UN resolution or a request from an
international body if there is prior approval by the Diet. The panel
adopted this because it wanted to ensure flexibility.

(4) Questions about new refueling legislation: In interview, House
of Representatives member Kenji Eda emphasizes the need to consider
danger of having hand in military operations

TOKYO SHIMBUN (Page 24) (Full)
November 4, 2007

It is my understanding that unlike the Iraq war, the ongoing war on
terror in Afghanistan is America's self-defense war in response to
the terrorist attacks in the United States on Sept. 11, 2001. Japan
has had a hand in fighting that war for the first time since the end
of World War II, albeit in the area of logistical support.

In order to provide refueling service, Japan deployed its warships
(in the Indian Ocean). Fighting a war is impossible without
logistics. Naturally, the enemy saw such a Japan as a country
fighting together with the US forces. Japan insisted that it was
engaged simply in logistical support and that it had deployed its
ships in a non-combat zone, but what Japan did was the same as
exercising the right to collective self-defense, which is not
allowed under the government's conventional interpretation of the

After Prime Minister Koizumi, the government has strayed
considerably from the previous administration's security policy and
gradually accumulated a number of faits accomplis. I am highly
concerned about such moves by the government. I've pursued
allegations about a diversion of fuel provided by Japan for use in
the Iraq war.

If Japan continues to follow its current trend of blindly following
the US, it would become possible for Japan to dispatch its
Self-Defense Forces (SDF) across the world to have them engage in
logistical support for the US. Consequently, Japan would risk
becoming a country that faces war or acts of terrorism as a daily
event. I want to ask the public whether that is a good thing.

I think a dispatch of the SDF should be limited to logistical
support based on a United Nations resolution. Although the UN is
slow to make a decision, its decision reflects an objective
consensus of the international community. If SDF troops are
dispatched in line with a UN resolution, their deployment would be
welcomed by other countries and Japan would not make many enemies.
There is no country that launches war in the name aggression. In
historical terms, it is absolutely dangerous to follow a country
that launches war in the name of self-defense.

Maritime interdiction operations (MIO) were started with the
participation of 100 warships from 16 countries, but now only 17
vessels from five countries are engaged in MIO. Participating
countries are withdrawing from MIO one by one. Even if Japan follows
those other countries and withdraws now after six years, no country
will criticize Japan.

TOKYO 00005112 006 OF 012

In the current session of the Diet, the government has said "It is
important to disclose information," but it has not made clear either
the actual state of refueling services conducted by the Maritime
Self-Defense Force (MSDF) or the results of the MIO. I wonder
whether the government has something about which it feels guilty.
Unless the government changes its current attitude, it is not
qualified to enact new refueling legislation.

Kenji Eda: Born in Okayama Prefecture, 1956; assumed in 1996 the
post of secretary to Prime Minister Hashimoto after having been an
official of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry
(currently the Ministry of Economy, Trade & Industry); first elected
as an independent lawmaker to the Diet in 2002; and remains
independent to date.

This summer, Eda, based on the US Navy's website, brought up
suspicions about a diversion of fuel provided by the MSDF for use in
the Iraq war.

(5) Defense Ministry has copy of MSDF supply ship Towada's logbook
for period it actively supplied fuel

MAINICHI (Page 29) (Excerpts)
November 4, 2007

Logbooks of the Towada, a Maritime Self-Defense Force supply ship
dispatched to the Indian Ocean, were mistakenly discarded, but
copies of some of them have been kept at the Defense Ministry,
sources said yesterday. They are kept for screening for information
disclosure. Covering the period when refueling services were
especially active, they might become valuable data revealing the
part that has now become blank due to the lost documents.

According to the Defense Ministry, the Towada's logbooks were
discarded on July 26, 2007. Mistaking the four-year storage
limitation for three years, two petty officers reportedly shredded
the logbooks for the period between January 1998 and December 2003
without obtaining the captain's approval. The ministry explained
that they had destroyed them by mistake.

Kept at the ministry are the copies of logbooks between December
2001 when the refueling operation started under the Antiterrorism
Special Measures Law and April 2002. The Maritime Staff Office
Operations Assistance Division copied the originals and has been
keeping them because requests were made repeatedly for information
disclosure on the Towada's logbooks under the Freedom of Information

In the period up to April 2002, air strikes began and the Towada
provided fuel oil most frequently to US warships taking part in the
operation in Afghanistan. In the four months' period from December
2001, the Towada provided a total of 119,000 kiloliters of fuel oil,
or about one-fourth of the total amount provided in the refueling
operation that ended at midnight, Nov. 2.

The logbooks describe detailed conditions on the vessel inside and
outside, such as when fuel was provided, the vessel's latitudes,
longitudes, and courses and the names of vessels receiving oil. They
are expected to provide leads to learn how the refueling operation
was conducted.

(6) Poll on Fukuda cabinet, political parties, Prime Minister

TOKYO 00005112 007 OF 012

Fukuda's coalition proposal to DPJ President Ozawa, Japan's calling
off of MSDF refueling in Indian Ocean

ASAHI (Page 2) (Full)
November 5, 2007

Questions & Answers
(Figures shown in percentage, rounded off. Bracketed figures denote
proportions to all respondents. Figures in parentheses denote the
results of a survey conducted Oct. 13-14.)

Q: Do you support the Fukuda cabinet?

Yes 45 (47)
No 34 (30)

Q: Why? (One reason only. Left column for those marking "yes" on
previous question, and right for those saying "no.")

The prime minister is Mr. Fukuda 24(11) 5(2)
It's an LDP-led cabinet 23(11) 41(14)
From the aspect of policies 21(10) 39(13)
No particular reason 28(12) 11(4)

Q: Which political party do you support now?

Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 31 (32)
Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ or Minshuto) 24 (24)
New Komeito (NK) 3 (3)
Japanese Communist Party (JCP) 2 (3)
Social Democratic Party (SDP or Shaminto) 1 (1)
People's New Party (PNP or Kokumin Shinto) 0 (0)
New Party Nippon (NPN or Shinto Nippon) 0 (0)
Other political parties 1 (0)
None 32 (30)
No answer (N/A) + don't know (D/K) 6 (7)

Q: Prime Minister Fukuda, in his meeting with DPJ President Ozawa,
proposed holding talks for a coalition government of the LDP and the
DPJ. The DPJ did not accept the proposal. Do you support Fukuda's
proposal of a coalition government with the DPJ?

Yes 36
No 48

Q: Do you support the DPJ's rejection of the proposal?

Yes 53
No 29

Q: Do you think the House of Representatives should be dissolved as
soon as possible for a general election, or do you otherwise think
there is no need to do so?

Dissolve as soon as possible 35 (32)
No need to do so 57 (60)

Q: The United States and other countries have sent their naval
forces to the Indian Ocean in order to fight terrorist groups in
Afghanistan. The Antiterrorism Special Measures Law, intended to
back up their naval squadrons in the Indian Ocean, expired on Nov.
1, and the Self-Defense Forces halted its activities there. Do you

TOKYO 00005112 008 OF 012

think the SDF's activities should be resumed there?

Yes 43
No 41

Q: The government has now presented a new legislative measure to the
Diet instead of extending the Antiterrorism Special Measures Law,
and the Diet is now deliberating on the new legislation. This bill
limits SDF activities in the Indian Ocean to fuel and water supply.
It also sets the duration of SDF activities there at one year and
does not require the government to ask the Diet for its approval of
SDF activities there. Do you support this legislation?

Yes 35
No 43

Q: Do you think Japan's calling off of SDF activities in the Indian
Ocean will have a negative impact on Japan's international place?

Yes 50
No 37

Polling methodology: The survey was conducted Nov. 3-4 over the
telephone on a computer-aided random digit dialing (RDD) basis.
Respondents were chosen from among the nation's voting population on
a three-stage random-sampling basis. Valid answers were obtained
from 2,088 persons (59 PERCENT ).

(7) Poll on reading habits

MAINICHI (Page 14) (Full)
October 26, 2007

Questions & Answers
(T=total; M=male, F=female)

Q: Do you like reading magazines?

Yes 48 44 51
No 6 8 4
Neither yes nor no 45 46 43

Q: When do you usually read magazines? (Pick as many as you like.)

Home 75 71 79
Toilet 8 11 5
On my way to office or school 9 13 5
Lunch, break time 15 18 12
At work, school 3 5 1
While eating 2 3 2
While waiting at hospital, store 39 31 47
Bookstore, convenience store 27 30 25

Q: Do you have more opportunities to buy magazines, or do you have
fewer opportunities to do so?

More 8 7 8
Fewer 48 46 49
No change 41 43 39

TOKYO 00005112 009 OF 012

Q: (Only for those who answered "fewer") Why?

There are no magazines or articles that I want to read 19 21 17
It's hard to get magazines that I want to read 2 2 1
TV, Internet are more fun 12 14 11
Information is faster, richer on Internet 14 19 10
No money to buy 9 10 9
Eyes get tired 16 14 18
Too busy 26 18 32

Q: Young people are said to be weak in their Japanese language
proficiency, such as reading and writing kanji characters, and
wording. What do you think about this?

Unfavorable 75 72 77
Don't care 17 19 15
Don't think they are weak 5 6 5

Q: (Only for those who answered "unfavorable") Why?

They can't communicate well with elders 13 13 14
The Japanese language's culture is not inherited 25 25 25
The Japanese people's intellectual level goes down 26 29 23
Young people become simple in their sentiment, thought 18 17 19
Young people cannot express themselves well 16 14 17

Q: (Only for those who answered "don't care") Why?

Language is living, so it's strange to compare them with elders 37
44 29
Not only the Japanese language is important in the age of
internationalization 11 10 11
It's all right if they improve with age 37 34 40
The Japanese language is too complicated 9 7 12
Information media development can make up for the weakening of
Japanese language proficiency 4 2 6

Q: Do you think young people's tendency not to read causes their
Japanese language proficiency to weaken?

Yes 77 75 79
No 19 22 17

Q: Do you feel a lack of Japanese language proficiency?

Yes 79 78 80
No 18 20 16

Q: (Only for those who answered "yes") What do you feel is lacking?
(Pick as many as you like.)

Reading skills 31 31 31
Writing skills 71 70 71
Talking skills 37 37 37

TOKYO 00005112 010 OF 012

Modest, honorific words 41 39 42
Expressiveness 43 41 46
Knowledge of kanji characters 62 64 61

Q: (Only for those who answered "no") Why? (Pick as many as you

Don't read books 40 42 38
Read only easy books, magazines 22 21 23
Don't care about it when talking to others 14 13 15
Usually watch TV 32 31 32
Didn't study very much 27 29 26
Don't write very much 58 57 58
Use PC or cellphone when writing 42 44 40

Q: Do you think audiovisual media like multichannel TV broadcasts
and DVDs have something to do with the tendency of not reading

Very much 45 46 43
Somewhat 42 40 44
Not very much 8 9 8
Not at all 2 2 1

Q: Do you think the spread of the Internet and cellphones have
something to do with the tendency of not reading books?

Very much 49 50 48
Somewhat 37 36 39
Not very much 9 9 8
Not at all 2 2 2

Q: Have you ever bought or used any of the books listed below? (Pick
as many as you like.)

Brain-training drill 28 25 30
Numbers panel, calculation book 25 22 27
Coloring notebook 5 3 7
Transcribing book for classics 6 6 7

Q: There are now novels released on cellphone websites. Have you
ever seen a cellphone novel?

Yes 14 10 18
No 74 79 70
Don't know 9 9 9

Q: Have you ever read a cellphone novel? (Pick as many as you

Read on a cellphone 5 4 7
Read on a book 7 4 10
Not read 85 90 82

Q: What's your image of cellphone novels? (Pick as many as you

TOKYO 00005112 011 OF 012

Easy to read 8 6 11
Empathic 4 3 5
Excellent 1 1 1
Newsy 22 20 23
Hard to read 29 33 26
Only some people read 28 26 30
No depth 13 13 14
Not good for education 8 8 8

Q: Do you have an Internet cellphone?

Yes 52 54 50
No 43 40 45

Q: (Only for those who answered "yes") Have you ever read a novel or
comic on a cellphone?

Yes 15 10 19
No 84 88 79

Q: (Only for those who answered "yes") What do you read? (Pick as
many as you like.)

Novels in the news 58 47 63
Famous novels or classics 11 11 11
Comic 52 64 46

Q: Do you read blogs or diaries on the Internet?

Read often 6 5 8
Read sometimes 19 21 16
Don't read at all 69 68 70

Q: Have you ever put your own novel, diary, or essay on your website
or blog?

Yes 8 8 8
No 86 87 86

Q: Would you like to do so in the future?

Yes 9 9 8
No 85 85 85

Q: Have you ever published your own novel, haiku or tanka poem,
memoirs, and the like on your account, or have you ever thought to
do so?

Ever published 1 1 0
Ever thought 3 3 2
No 92 92 92

Q: (Only for those who answered "ever published" or "ever thought")

TOKYO 00005112 012 OF 012

Would you like to do so in the future?

Yes 4 5 4
No 86 85 86

(Note) Figures shown in percentage, rounded off. "0" indicates that
the figure was below 0.5 PERCENT . "No answer" omitted. Multiple
answers total over 100 PERCENT .

Polling methodology: The survey was conducted Sept. 7-9 on a
door-to-door visit basis. For the survey, a total of 4,800 persons
were chosen from among males and females aged 16 and over (as of
Sept. 30) across the nation on a stratified two-stage random
sampling basis. Answers were obtained from 2,685 persons (56 PERCENT
). In the breakdown of respondents, males accounted for 47 PERCENT ,
females at 53 PERCENT . Broken down into age brackets, those in
their late teens (aged 16-19) accounted for 5 PERCENT , those in
their 20s at 10 PERCENT , those in their 30s at 17 PERCENT , those
in their 40s at 16 PERCENT , those in their 50s at 19 PERCENT ,
those in their 60s at 17 PERCENT , those aged 70 and over at 16


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