Cablegate: Japan Hosts Sixth Asian Senior-Level Talks On

DE RUEHKO #0153/01 0252338
R 252338Z JAN 10



STATE PASS DOE FOR NA-20 Ken Baker, NA-21 Andrew Bienowski, NA-24
Mark Whitney, NE-6 Ed McGinnis, NE-54 Carter Savage

E.O. 12958: N/A
SUBJECT: Japan Hosts Sixth Asian Senior-Level Talks on
Non-Proliferation (ASTOP)

TOKYO 00000153 001.2 OF 006


1. (SBU) Summary and Comment: The government of Japan hosted the
sixth meeting of the Asian Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation
(ASTOP) December 11, 2009. Sixteen countries from the Asia-Pacific
region and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were
represented. The U.S. delegation (USDel) was pleased with the level
of participation and degree of preparedness of participants in a
wide range of discussions on nonproliferation-related topics,
including North Korea and UNSCR 1874, nuclear security, and the
Iranian nuclear issue. USG participation in and support for ASTOP
helps achieve regional nonproliferation objectives and should be
continued. In tandem with the newly-created Intersessional Meeting
on Nonproliferation and Disarmament in the ASEAN Regional Forum,
ASTOP provides a useful forum to engage ASEAN members in particular
on a broad range of nonpro issues. In addition, our support of
ASTOP serves to cultivate Japanese leadership in the region on
nonproliferation issues. End Summary and Comment.

2. (SBU) The sixth annual meeting of the Asian Senior-Level Talks
on Non-Proliferation (ASTOP) was held in Tokyo on December 11, 2009.
With the exception of China and Canada, which were represented by
Japan-assigned diplomats, participants at the DAS/AS level from
Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, New
Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, the United States,
Vietnam, and Japan came well prepared to engage substantively. Only
the Brunei delegation remained silent during the full-day event.
Indonesia had been invited, but did not attend. USDel, led by
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy and
Negotiations C. S. Eliot Kang, participated in discussions that
covered North Korea and Iran, peaceful uses of nuclear energy,
proliferation security, and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

3. (SBU) Japanese Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs
Shuji Kira delivered opening remarks in which he noted the global
expansion in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the need to
maintain the non-proliferation regime. He referenced the challenges
of North Korea and Iran, and called on the international community
to agree on a clear and unified path forward. Meeting Chair
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) Director General for Disarmament,
Non-Proliferation, and Science Toshio Sano began the day's
discussions by describing developments since 2003, when the first
ASTOP meeting was held. He highlighted the strengthening of
sanctions against the North Korean regime, and the renewal of doubts
about Iran's peaceful intentions as a result of the Qom disclosure.

North Korea

4. (SBU) Wang Tianling, Counselor from the Chinese Embassy in
Tokyo, delivered a perfunctory presentation (which he translated
from the original Chinese text) on North Korea, in which he noted
the desire of all parties to resume Six-Party Talks and expressed
China's hope for progress on denuclearization. Wang stressed three
goals: to strive for an early resumption of Six-Party Talks, to
maintain the peace and stability of Northeast Asia, and to respect
the security interests of all parties while undertaking
implementation of UNSC resolutions.

5. (SBU) Tsuotomu Koizumi, Director of the Non-Proliferation,

TOKYO 00000153 002.2 OF 006

Science, and Nuclear Energy Division in the Japanese Ministry of
Foreign Affairs expressed full agreement on the necessity of a
peaceful solution on the Korean peninsula, but asserted that North
Korea's return to the negotiating table should be a start to the
process, and not a reason to grant any concessions. DAS Kang gave a
read out of Ambassador Bosworth's just-completed visit to the DPRK.
He noted that the purpose of Ambassador Bosworth's visit was to
facilitate the resumption of Six-Party Talks and to reaffirm the
goal of implementing the September 2005 Joint Statement, and
emphasized that our bilateral engagement itself takes place in the
context of the Six-Party framework.

UNSCR 1874

6. (SBU) Ambassador Mario Lopez De Leon,Jr., Chief Coordinator in
the Office of the Secretary, Philippine Department of Foreign
Affairs, delivered remarks on the Philippines implementation of
UNSCR 1874 sanctions on North Korea. De Leon described Philippine
efforts to comply with the resolution and the challenges faced by an
archipelagic nation in dealing with maritime cargo inspections. In
particular, De Leon noted the need for equipment and related
training in order to enhance capacity for cargo identification as
well as technical training on enforcement of existing regulations.
ISN/ECC Director Justin Friedman responded with a brief outline of
our extensive, collaborative, capacity-building efforts under the
EXBS program.

7. (SBU) Anuson Chinvanno, Director-General of the Department of
International Organizations in the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
expressed Thailand's ambition to comply with 1874 as fully as
possible, but noted the importance of sharing accurate information
and raised concerns about shipment inspections and liability.
(Note: this event occurred before the Thai seizure in Bangkok of an
aircraft carrying North Korean arms. End Note.) Specifically,
Anuson asked who bears liability should an inspection fail to turn
up any contraband. In response, the U.S and other delegations
highlighted the importance of clarifying national law to provide
customs officials the proper protections and authorities to
undertake inspections.

8. (SBU) Shin Dong-ik, Director-General of the Bureau of
International Organizations of the South Korean Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and Trade, argued that implementation of 1874 was going well
but urged all transshipment countries to remain vigilant and respond
to reasonable and credible information. Shin also raised the issue
of inspection cost, and suggested that while it generally expected
the inspecting country to bear the costs, in cases where countries
make requests of each other for inspections, perhaps the requesting
country could share the cost of the inspection. Shazryll bin
Zahiran, Principal Assistant Secretary of the Nuclear Disarmament
and Non-Proliferation Division in the Malaysian Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, then asked about best practices related to inspecting and
seizing cargo as well as how best to dispose of seized cargo.

Iranian Nuclear Program

9. (SBU) DAS Kang gave a presentation describing recent
developments on the Iran nuclear issue, including an update on

TOKYO 00000153 003.2 OF 006

centrifuges and uranium enrichment, details on the status of the
IAEA investigation, and a summary of existing UNSC resolutions.
Gerry McGuire, Director of the Counter-Proliferation Section in the
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, followed the
U.S. presentation by detailing the requirements of each of the
Security Council resolutions on Iran, and describing Australia's
efforts to implement them.

10. (SBU) To Anh Tuan, Assistant Director General for the
Department of International Organizations in the Vietnamese Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, stated Vietnam's desire for a peaceful
resolution to the Iranian issue, but noted the differences between
Iranian words and actions. DAS Kang urged that international
solidarity is vital for dealing with Iran and that those countries
within the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) interested in peaceful nuclear
development should not allow Iran to be the messenger for them on
nuclear issues. Tint Swai, Deputy Director-General of the ASEAN
Affairs Department in the Burmese Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
stressed the need to integrate both Iran and the DPRK into the
international community.

11. (SBU) Ambassador De Leon of the Philippines expressed concerns
about how Iranian withdrawal from the NPT could negatively affect
the NPT Review Conference. De Leon cautioned that Iran's views on
peaceful use of nuclear power would have extra weight as it was
currently on the NAM troika.

IAEA & Additional Protocol

12. (SBU) Attendees discussed the importance of the IAEA Additional
Protocol (AP) and efforts to universalize adoption. DG Anuson of
Thailand noted that the AP has essentially become a requirement for
any country to build a nuclear power plant, but challenges for
universalization remain. He asked what incentives the international
community could use to get countries to adopt the protocol, and
whether it should be made an obligation under the NPT. Delegations
debated whether concerns about cost, lack of technical capacity, or
invasiveness prevented countries from bringing APs into force. Laos
raised concerns that an AP provided no clear benefits for states
without nuclear programs. DAS Kang, supported by the Singaporean
del, responded that whether to adopt the AP should not be viewed as
simply a question of benefit, but rather as a necessary obligation
for all sovereign states and important for the establishment of
regional norms. Todd Perry, Manager of NNSA's International
Nonproliferation Export Control Program, noted the United States was
prepared to provide technical assistance as necessary.

13. (SBU) After a presentation by the IAEA on the Agency's
activities in the Asia-Pacific region, DG Shin from South Korea
asked a question about the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.
Shin, arguing that pyroprocessing is safe and proliferation
resistant, asked whether the IAEA considers pyroprocessing to be a
form of reprocessing. The IAEA delegate noted that the IAEA does
consider it reprocessing, and is currently training IAEA staff to
better understand pyroprocessing technologies.

Nuclear Energy

TOKYO 00000153 004.2 OF 006

14. (SBU) Sueo Machi, a GOJ science advisor and former
commissioner of Japan's Atomic Energy Commission, delivered a
presentation on nuclear energy, in which he highlighted the role of
nuclear energy in mitigating global warming and promoting energy
security, two important GOJ objectives. He noted Japan's low CO2
emission per GDP, which he attributed to energy conservation and
nuclear power. In subsequent discussions, DDG Tuan of Vietnam
reiterated that while Vietnam supports non-proliferation, the right
to peaceful uses of nuclear energy must be maintained. Tuan
expressed appreciation for IAEA assistance in the areas of planning
and regulatory reform, and noted future need for training of
personnel, improved safety measures, and assistance setting up a
nuclear regulatory agency.

Nuclear Security

15. (SBU) DAS Kang led a discussion on nuclear security, covering
the Nuclear Security Summit, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear
Terrorism (GICNT), and UNSCR 1540. Kang noted the need for
countries to come to a common understanding of the threat posed by
nuclear terrorism, and to agree to effective preventative measures.
He told participants that the United States and Russia as co-chairs
of the GICNT are working to revise the terms of reference for the
Initiative, and described some proposed changes such as a rotating
chairmanship, a voting mechanism, and working groups.

16. (SBU) DG Anuson of Thailand, noting the UNSCR 1540 Comprehensive
Review, expressed his hope that next year's report on implementation
reflects the importance of capacity building of human resources and
the need for technical equipment. Anuson also observed that to
date, 1540 implementation discussion had focused almost exclusively
on nuclear nonproliferation and urged that more consideration be
given to chemical and biological controls.

Proliferation Security Initiative

17. (SBU) Low Chian Siong, Branch Head for Policy in the
Singaporean Ministry of Defense, and DG Shin of South Korea led
discussion on the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI). Low
presented on Singapore's recent Deep Sabre II Workshop, which
involved 11 participants and 10 observers. Low described
Singapore's joining of the PSI, a fact welcomed by several
delegations, and announced that it would host both a regional PSI
workshop in the second half of 2010, and the Plenary for the Global
Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) in 2011. During
discussions, Joseph Peter Ballard, Policy Officer in the
International Security and Disarmament Division in the New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, identified New Zealand's PSI
priorities as broadening cooperation, increasing communication
between members, and encouraging greater regional involvement.

NPT Review Conference

18. (SBU) MOFA Director for Arms Control and Disarmament Hideo
Suzuki delivered Japan's presentation on the Non-Proliferation
Treaty (NPT) and the 2010 NPT Review Conference (RevCon). He

TOKYO 00000153 005.2 OF 006

focused on the importance of ensuring an outcome that will maintain
and strengthen the NPT regime.

19. (SBU) Suzuki identified three main objectives for Japan:
progressing on all three pillars in a balanced manner, contributing
to the conference by playing a bridging role between interests, and
reaching an agreement on forward-looking measures to strengthen the
NPT regime. As specific action items, he suggested members should
discuss a consultation mechanism on withdrawal, and revise the 13
practical steps from the 2000 NPT RevCon.

20. (SBU) Deborah Paul, Political Counselor for the local Canadian
Embassy, noted Canada's high expectations for this RevCon, and
described Canada's goal as a substantive and balanced outcome
document. Paul suggested that the RevCon will have to address the
various fuel supply initiatives under discussion. Finally, Paul
noted Canada's intent to advocate for a non-discriminatory set of
criteria by the Nuclear Suppliers Group that does not prohibit
countries with exemplary non-proliferation credentials from
acquiring enrichment and reprocessing technologies. Mr. Ballard
from New Zealand urged more concrete progress on disarmament in the
lead up to the RevCon.

Bilateral Discussions

21. (SBU) During bilateral discussions on the margins of ASTOP with
ADG Tuan from Vietnam, DAS Kang urged Vietnam to play a larger role
in the Non-Aligned Movement's proceedings on nonproliferation. Kang
expanded that the NAM was in need of voices of moderation and
pragmatism, especially in light of Egypt and Iran's posturing and
the upcoming 2010 NPT Review Conference. Tuan opined Vietnam had
engaged some on the DPRK issue, but stated Vietnam was a "small
country" and not a strong voice in many NAM discussions. Tuan
stated he would forward the U.S. message to Hanoi and relevant

22. (SBU) During lunch discussions with Kang, PAS Shazryll from
Malaysia stated that the Malaysian government is currently reviewing
its general approach to nonproliferation. He confided that the MFA
was taken off guard by the PM Office's reaction to Malaysian Perm
Rep Arshad's negative vote on the Iran issue at the November IAEA
Board of Governors (BOG) meeting. [Note: Malaysia was one of only
three countries to vote against the Iran resolution at the November
IAEA BOG. The Malaysian government issued a press statement in
December declaring that the vote was not in accordance with
government procedures and recalled Ambassador Arshad back to Kuala
Lumpur. End note.]

23. (SBU) In a separate conversation with ECC Director Friedman,
Shazryll said that Malaysia was ready to work more actively with the
United States on export control capacity building through the EXBS
program. He cautioned that a proposed January date for a commodity
identification training (CIT) program would be difficult, as the
Malasian interagency was moving slowly in lining up the right
participants. He suggested March would be better timing for the

24. (SBU) Shazryll-the GoM point of contact on export
controls-complained that international donors were flooding Malaysia
with offers of "best practice" training and it was difficult to sort

TOKYO 00000153 006.2 OF 006

out which would be best. Friedman suggested that the GoM call a
donors conference to show leadership on the issue and set priorities
for the donor community to fill in a coordinated fashion. Shazryll
said that he will be moving on to a new assignment in the next six
months. Friedman suggested that he focus his efforts on developing
a capacity development implementation plan that his successor could
take up to prevent any unnecessary delay in capacity development
during the job handover.

25. (U) This cable was cleared with the delegation subsequent to
its return to Washington.


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