Cablegate: Portugal: Tenth Annual Trafficking in Persons

DE RUEHLI #0071/01 0531512
P 221512Z FEB 10




E.O. 12958: N/A


Per reftel, this cable addresses questions in paragraphs
25-30. Embassy Lisbon's point of contact on trafficking is
Gina Felix, the Embassy's Political/Economic Assistant, tel:
351-21-770-2331, fax: 351-21-770-6547. The
Political-Economic Assistant spent over 120 hours researching
and meeting with Embassy contacts in preparation of this TIP
report cable.

(U) Summary: During the reporting period, the Portuguese
government, in collaboration with civil society, undertook
vigorous efforts to combat trafficking in persons, focusing
on prevention, prosecution of traffickers, and assistance to
victims. In 2009, Portugal handed down the first sentence
for the specific crime of human trafficking under the 2007
amendments to the Penal Code. The court convicted and
sentenced seven Romanian traffickers to an average of 12
years each, the maximum allowable. The government took the
lead in coordinating and implementing an EU-wide TIP
database, and continued to train government officials and
civil society leaders and to proactively raise public
awareness to combat TIP. Post believes that Portugal,s
previous Tier 2 ranking should be reconsidered in light of
the government,s demonstrated political will to combat
trafficking in persons and its continuous efforts to
strengthen its commitment to preventing TIP, protecting
victims, and prosecuting traffickers.


A. Portugal has numerous sources of credible information on
trafficking in persons, including:

Office of the Coordinator of the National Action Plan
Against Trafficking in Persons and National Rapporteur of the
Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG),
Presidency of the Council of Ministers;
Monitoring Center for Trafficking in Persons, Ministry
of the Interior(;
Ministry of Justice;
Association for Family Planning (APF);
Foreigners and Borders Service (SEF);
Judiciary Police (PJ);
High Commission for Immigration and Inter-cultural
Dialogue (ACIDI);
Portuguese Association for Victim Support (APAV);
International Organization for Migration (IOM);
Commission for the Equality and Rights of Women (CIDM).

Credible information on trafficking can also be found on the
Cooperation, Action, Investigation and World Vision (CAIM)
web site ( (see paragraph 25B for information
on the government's anti-trafficking project CAIM). This
comprehensive site has been available since February 2007 and
provides a wealth of information, including CAIM's
objectives, national/international partnerships and
legislation, links to government and NGOs for assistance to
victims, information guide for victims, media coverage of
trafficking cases, and national and international trafficking
reports. Trafficking statistics in Portugal, including

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numbers of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions, are
available on the website since April 2008. Access to
sensitive data is closely controlled and only available
through passwords obtained from CAIM on an as needed basis.
At Portugal,s request, various countries, including Brazil,
have incorporated the CAIM link into their TIP websites.

Since 2008, the Portuguese Ministry of the Interior has been
leading and coordinating the transnational project
"Trafficking in Persons - Data Collection and Harmonized
Information Management System." Partner countries include
Slovakia, Poland, and the Czech Republic. The main goal of
this data-gathering project, co-financed by the European
Commission, is to develop, consolidate, and share common
trafficking indicators to strengthen anti-trafficking
policies and programs in partner countries.

B. Portugal is a country of origin, transit, and destination
for internationally trafficked men, women, and children for
commercial sexual exploitation and/or forced labor.
Trafficking occurs across a mostly uncontrolled border with
Spain and also within Portugal, including the autonomous
regions of Madeira and the Azores. It does not occur in
territory outside the government's control. A full-time body
run by the Ministry of Interior (with assistance from other
government agencies and NGOs) to monitor and gather data on
trafficking-related developments has been in operation since
January 2007. Trafficking data are collected in a central
database using input from the various entities that track
trafficking cases, including police, security sources, and
NGOs. According to this monitoring center, most victims
identified in 2009 were foreigners found in the northern
region of Portugal, their average age was 30 years old, and
75 percent were women.

Women: The majority of victims is from Brazil and is
trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation in bars and
clubs. Typically, victims are women with little education.
The majority is legal immigrants with proper documents and
valid visas. Traffickers of these women often use Portugal
as a springboard to other European Union destinations.

Men: Victims are mainly from Eastern Europe (Ukraine,
Moldova, Russia, Romania), Brazil, and African lusophone
countries. They are trafficked for forced labor in the
construction, agricultural, and hotel industries.

Children: Neither government authorities nor NGOs have
direct knowledge of trafficking of children but estimate that
there may be 50-100 Roma minors, who were brought to Portugal
by family networks and are forced by parents or relatives to
work as street beggars.

There have been no changes in the origin or destination of
trafficking victims since the last TIP report. The persons
trafficked are mainly women from Brazil (for sexual
exploitation) and, to a lesser extent, from Eastern Europe
(Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Romania), Brazil, and African
countries (Nigeria and lusophone countries). Some
trafficking victims transit through Portugal en route to
other European countries.

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Portugal is not a significant country of origin; however,
there have been media reports of Portuguese victims of forced
labor in Spain and the Netherlands.

Since its election in March 2005, the Socialist government
has initiated key measures to address human trafficking. In
December 2005, it launched a pilot project (CAIM -
Cooperation, Action, Investigation and World Vision) to
combat the trafficking of women for sexual exploitation in
Portugal. In 2007, this project added combating trafficking
for labor exploitation to its list of objectives. Task
forces from the Ministries of Justice and Interior, the
Commission for the Equality and Rights of Women (CIDM), the
High Commission for Immigration and Inter-Cultural Dialogue
(ACIDI), the International Organization for Migration (IOM),
various NGOs, and security forces collaborated in designing
the CAIM project and have been working together on a regular
basis to carry out its objectives. As its main goals, CAIM
established a full-time unit in the Ministry of Interior to
monitor trafficking-related developments through the creation
of a centralized comprehensive database that has been
operational since January 2007. This monitoring center
includes a registry for filing legal complaints (see
paragraph 28F). In 2007, the GOP opened the first
government-financed safe house specifically for trafficking

C. Women trafficked for sexual exploitation are kept in
rooms/apartments in or near brothels or clubs. Upon arrival,
their passports may be withheld and turned over to a brothel
or club operator. Many, especially Brazilian women,
initially consent to prostitution activities but may later be
subject to threats and violence. Trafficked men are housed
in similar conditions, usually close to construction sites
where they work. They usually consent to the labor activity
but are sometimes victims of violence, threats, fraud,
coercion, peonage, and debt bondage. Police and NGOs have
reported that Roma children, brought from Romania to Portugal
by family networks, are sometimes forced by family members to
beg on street corners.

Trafficking victims are not normally kept locked up.
However, credible reports from former TIP victims describe
limited freedom of movement, such as accompanied shopping

D. Persons more at risk of being trafficked are women, mostly
from Brazil, for sexual exploitation, but there were also
reports of men with little education and low socio-economic
status being trafficked for forced labor.

E. SEF reports that the majority of traffickers are
Portuguese, Eastern European, and Brazilian men between the
ages of 20 and 50, who are either independent businessmen or
employees of prostitution-related commercial establishments.
Victims are often promised lucrative jobs - as domestic
servants, exotic dancers, or as prostitutes - and are usually
approached by friends of friends.

Brazilian and lusophone victims mostly arrive through one of

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Portugal,s various international airports. Victims from
Eastern European countries enter Portugal mainly in cars or
vans through the Spanish border. False documents are seldom
used. Employment, travel, and tourism agencies and marriage
brokers are rarely involved with or fronting for traffickers.


A. The Portuguese government recognizes that human
trafficking is a problem and has undertaken serious efforts
to address it, working closely with local and international
NGOs on prevention, prosecution of traffickers, and
protection of victims.

B. The following government agencies, led by the Commission
for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG), are involved in
anti-trafficking efforts:

Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG),
under the Ministry for the Presidency of the Council of
Monitoring Center for Trafficking in Persons, Ministry
of Interior;
Ministry of Justice;
Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Ministry of Labor and Social Security;
Foreigners and Borders Service (SEF);
Judicial Police (PJ);
Republican National Guard (GNR);
Public Security Police (PSP);
High Commission for Immigration and Inter-cultural
Dialogue (ACIDI);
Commission for the Equality and Rights of Women (CIDM);
Association for Family Planning (APF).

C. In spite of severe financial constraints, the current
government has undertaken serious efforts to address the
trafficking problem by providing supplementary funds to
agencies linked to the CAIM project. Given the importance
placed by the government on combating trafficking, additional
funds have been made available for police training and for
subsidies to NGOs that shelter and assist victims, as well as
for the establishment and operation of the Monitoring Center
for Trafficking. ACIDI depends on government funds and has
received extra resources to address trafficking.

Institutional corruption is not a problem.

The government has increased resources to aid victims. It
funds a safe house for trafficking victims (see paragraph
28B), and continues to refer victims to NGOs, for both
protection and assistance. One of these NGOs, the Association
for Victim Support (APAV), has a funding agreement with the
government to receive subsidies covering 80 percent of its
expenses (see paragraph 28C).

D. Since January 2007, the Monitoring Center for Trafficking
Victims has been the official government entity specifically
charged with gathering and processing trafficking data. Its

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website ( makes publicly available government
assessments of anti-trafficking efforts. Upon request, it
provides to regional/international organizations, privately
and directly, a password for access to more detailed data.
The center is further tasked with sharing its information
with appropriate legal, judicial, and health authorities and
preparing public awareness campaigns. As an integral part of
the CAIM project, the center collaborates with CAIM partners
in devising the GOP's trafficking policy responses. It also
plays a key role in fostering collaborative anti-trafficking
efforts with other governments. Between mid 2008 and 2009,
the Monitoring Center published and made available, publicly
and privately, two comprehensive TIP reports.

The implementation of the CAIM project has resulted in
greater coordination among government entities and NGOs,
facilitating statistical data gathering and making it more
reliable and accurate. With the current penal code defining
human trafficking as a distinct crime, annual statistical
summaries compiled by the GOP now include TIP in its own
statistical category. The Judiciary Police (PJ) and the
Justice Ministry also monitor and gather trafficking
statistics. Information gathering is also carried out by the
government's High Commission for Immigration and
Inter-Cultural Dialogue (ACIDI), the chief organization that
coordinates assistance to rafficking victims and immigrants.
All of these agencies pass their information to the
Monitoring Center, working together in a concerted effort to
produce reliable and accurate TIP statistics.

E. The government revised the nationality law (Organic Law
2/2006, regulated by Decree-Law 237-A/2006) and the
Immigration Law (Law 23/2007) to improve the identification
of local populations. The revisions allowed for Portuguese
nationality to be granted directly to the third generation
and simplify the legal requirements for the second
generation, in addition to granting all legal immigrants
uniform legal status and helping to combat human trafficking
and illegal immigration. Following these measures, the
government implemented inter-ministerial strategies, such as
the National Inclusiveness Action Plan, which targets more
than just immigrant and ethnic minorities, and the Immigrant
Integration Project (Council of Ministers Resolution

--F. The Inspectorate General of Internal Administration
(IGAI), created in 1995, gathers information on all of the
country,s security forces and produces a comprehensive
annual report with an in-depth assessment of law enforcement
efforts. The IGAI carries out regular inquiries and on-site
inspections of police force departments, some as a result of
public complaints by individuals and civil society


A. Portugal has laws specifically prohibiting all forms of
trafficking in persons. They are covered in Article 160 of
the revised Portuguese penal code, in effect since September
15, 2007. These laws cover both internal and external
(transnational) forms of trafficking. They broaden the

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previous definition of trafficking to cover both sexual and
labor exploitation, and impose tougher penalties for
trafficking crimes. Article 160 states the following:

1) Whoever offers, transfers, recruits, obtains, transports,
holds or houses a person for the purpose of sexual or labor
exploitation or extraction of organs:
a) Through the use of violence, kidnapping or serious threat;
b) Through deception or fraud;
c) Through abuse of power resulting from a relationship of
hierarchical, economic, work or family dependency;
d) Taking advantage of psychological incapacity or a
situation of special vulnerability of the victim; or
e) By obtaining the consent of the person who controls the
is subject to a prison sentence of 3 to 10 years.
2) The same sentence is applicable to whomever, through any
means, entices, transports, houses or harbors a minor, or
transfers, offers or accepts the minor for the purpose of
sexual or labor exploitation or the extraction of organs.
3) In the case of paragraph 2, if the agent uses any of the
means stipulated in paragraph 1 or acts in a professional
capacity or with monetary intentions, he/she is subject to a
prison sentence of 3 to 12 years.
4) Whoever, through payment or other compensation, offers,
transfers, solicits or obtains a minor, or obtains or
provides consent for his/her adoption, is subject to a prison
sentence of 1 to 5 years.
5) Whoever, having knowledge of the practice of the crime
stipulated in paragraphs 1 and 2, uses the services or organs
of the victim, is subject to a prison sentence of 1 to 5
years, if a harsher sentence is not applicable through other
6) Whoever confiscates, hides, damages or destroys
identification or travel documents of a victim of crimes
stipulated in paragraph 1 and 2 is subject to a prison
sentence of up to 3 years, if a harsher sentence is not
applicable through other laws.

Furthermore, an immigration law (Law 23/2007, Section V,
Articles 109-115), in effect since July 4, 2007, includes
automatic residency permits for immigrant victims of labor
and sexual trafficking who agree to cooperate with
authorities to bring traffickers to justice. In 2009, the
government granted six permanent residency permits to victims
of trafficking.

There are laws against slavery (5 to 15 years in prison under
Article 159 of the penal code) and the exploitation of
prostitution by means of force, fraud or coercion (1 to 8
years in prison under Article 169).

Traffickers may also be prosecuted under other laws, such as
labor-related crimes. By citing violations of multiple
provisions, judges may hand down longer sentences.

On January 19, 2008, Portugal ratified the Council of Europe
Convention on Action against Trafficking in Persons.

B. The penalty for human trafficking for commercial sexual
exploitation is 3 to 12 years imprisonment (see paragraph

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C. The penalty for labor trafficking is 3 to 12 years
imprisonment (see paragraph 27A). The trafficking laws
provide for criminal punishment for labor recruiters in
Portugal who engage in recruitment of laborers using
knowingly fraudulent or deceptive offers that result in
workers being trafficked in the destination country.
Articles 159 (slavery, up to 15 years in prison) and 160
(trafficking - up to 12 years in prison) punish employers or
labor agents who confiscate workers' passports or travel
documents, switch contracts without the workers, consent or
withhold payment of salaries as means of keeping the worker
in a state of compelled service.

Before the revisions to the penal code went into effect,
employers were held responsible for trafficking crimes under
specific labor laws, outside of the penal code. Under the
revised penal code, employers are now held criminally
accountable for trafficking crimes and slavery. (See
paragraph 27E for convictions.)

D. The Portuguese penal code stipulates penalties of up to 10
years imprisonment for rape or forcible sexual assault.

E. The Portuguese government investigated and prosecuted
cases against human trafficking offenders during the
reporting period. Final 2009 numbers of investigations,
prosecutions, convictions, and sentences imposed have not
been fully compiled by the Ministry of Justice. They will be
made available to Post in mid-March. The Monitoring Center
has informally provided us with the following unofficial
interim data (for the first six months of 2009) for our
reference, which should not/not be used in the TIP report as
it is pending approval for dissemination:

33 criminal proceedings in the trial phase involving the
crimes of trafficking in persons for commercial sexual
8 persons convicted for trafficking in persons;
172 persons convicted for trafficking in persons for
commercial sexual exploitation;
3 persons convicted for trafficking of minors for commercial
sexual exploitation.

One of the convictions is especially noteworthy. In May
2009, a Portuguese court sentenced seven Romanians to a total
of 83 years in prison (an average of 12 years each) and
deportation. This was the first sentence handed down for the
specific crime of human trafficking under the 2007 amendments
to the Penal Code. The human trafficking, criminal
association, and pandering were proven and the court handed
out heavy sentences to the four men and three women, who had
been held in preventive detention since 2007, following their
arrest in an SEF operation in Lisbon. The group trafficked
into Portugal young women from poor families in Romania, some
of them minors, for prostitution. At least nine victims

F. SEF officials and interns, as well as the GNR, receive
periodic specialized training on how to recognize,

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investigate, and prosecute instances of trafficking. Since
2005, SEF training of its incoming inspector class
(approximately 300 annually) has included a specific module
on TIP enforcement. SEF has been using various
documentaries, including "Lilya 4Ever," a film featuring an
actual trafficking victim, in its training classes. Trainees
are also prepared to treat victims of trafficking, as
distinct from illegal immigrants and criminals.

As a result of training and awareness programs, the three
national police forces (GNR, PSP, and PJ) have collaborated
more closely with each other and with SEF authorities in
combating trafficking crimes. There is increasing
coordination among these entities in targeted police checks
and smart raids on brothels, bars, and strip clubs. These
raids involve extensive planning and information-gathering by
undercover law enforcement officers and informants. Planned
to ensure the safety of all involved and with post-rescue
care arranged for trafficking victims, these raids have
rescued victims while minimizing harm to others.

Furthermore, the activities of Eastern European trafficking
rings, which began operating in Portugal in the early 1990s,
have significantly dropped due to this increasingly effective
police response. As a result, various rings were dismantled,
prosecuted, and sentenced.

The ongoing court trial of a high-profile case involving a
dismantled ring accused of trafficking women for sexual
exploitation in a chain of bars called Passarelle began on
October 8, 2007. The case involves 1,200 crimes, 24 suspects
(including the bar owner), 26 illegal immigrant women,
connections to seven districts in Portugal, 252 people
contacted by investigators, and 100 seized telecommunication
devices (cell phones, computers). Final ruling and verdict
are expected by the end of February 2010.

--G. The Portuguese government cooperates with other European
and non-European governments in the investigation and
prosecution of trafficking cases. Portugal substantially
enhanced prevention, monitoring, and trafficking control
efforts in multilateral fora. The government placed
immigration liaison officers in source countries, including
Brazil, Mozambique, Romania, Ukraine, Cape Verde, and
Senegal. SEF and the PJ have developed strong working
relations with international TIP working groups. They share
and receive information through the EUROPOL organized crime
database that the GOP co-developed with Spain, Italy, and
Germany. SEF also has bilateral agreements with Germany's
Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) and with Spain's Immigration Service,
and has established a direct working relationship with
Ukrainian authorities.

During the 2005 Luso-Spanish Summit, Portugal and Spain
signed a police cooperation agreement to more closely monitor
the external EU borders controlled by the two countries, i.e.
the southern Mediterranean flanks and the Atlantic coast and
the high seas. The agreement includes the strengthening of a
transborder rapid alert system, already in force, and the
setting up of joint police teams to crack down on the
networks which traffic immigrants.

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H. We are not aware of any case where the government of
Portugal extradited anyone for trafficking offenses committed
in another country. Portugal is a signatory to the US-EU MLAT
and Extradition Treaty and signed the bilateral implementing
protocols with the United States in 2005. The Portuguese
Constitution prohibits the extradition of Portuguese
nationals (with the exception of those charged with
committing acts of terrorism), and we are not aware of any
intention to change that provision in the case of traffickers.

I. There is no evidence of government involvement in or
tolerance of trafficking, neither on a local or institutional
level. The government has a strong anti-trafficking policy
and legislation prohibiting all forms of trafficking.

J. We have no evidence to suggest that government officials
are involved in human trafficking.

K. There were no reported cases of Portuguese members of
international peacekeeping missions, EU missions, or other
similar missions involved in human trafficking.

L. Portugal does not have an identified child sex tourism
problem. There is no credible evidence of sex tourists in
Portugal, or evidence that Portuguese nationals are
perpetrators of child sex tourism, either within the country
or abroad. In October 2004, Portuguese courts began hearing
evidence gathered over the previous year by public
prosecutors in the high-profile "Casa Pia" case, in which
eight defendants face charges that include procurement, rape,
sexual acts with adolescents, and sexual abuse of minors.
The case, which involves well-known Portuguese media figures
and politicians, and has had the effect of raising public
awareness of pedophilia. Final rulings are expected in the
coming months.


A. Government-assisted victims are provided shelter,
employment, education, and access to legal, medical,
psychological, and family reunification services. Some are
provided legalization of residency status; others are
repatriated to their countries of origin or third countries.

The law provides for repatriated victims to be assisted by a
multi-disciplinary government team in cooperation with the
IOM, consulates, and other public institutions. Support is
provided throughout the entire repatriation process - before
departure, during the trip, and upon arrival in the country
of destination, which may be the country of origin or a third
country. In order to prevent recurrence of victimization,
Portuguese authorities continuously work with destination
country authorities to ensure that the victim is safe and
protected in the country of reintegration.

The government provided these protections in practice during
the reporting period.

B. Trafficking victims, both foreign and domestic, have
access to various shelters throughout the country through

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referral by security forces, health care providers, and NGOs.
Women and their children may be housed in the government's
safe house specifically created for victims of trafficking.
This shelter, opened in January 2007, is located in the
northern region of Porto, has a capacity of eight, and is
available to receive victims 24 hours a day. It employs five
monitors, working in shifts, all of whom hold university
degrees in areas such as psychology and social work.
Referrals to the shelter are made by both police and NGOs.
The Ministry of Interior offers security training to the
shelter's staff and provides guards to patrol the vicinity of
the safe house. Under special circumstances, former
residents of the shelter may receive support from the shelter
team outside of the shelter facilities.

Male victims of forced labor may be temporarily housed in
hotels/motels, financed by the Ministry of Labor and Social
Security, during which time they receive protection and
assistance provided by the multi-disciplinary CAIM team.

Victims may also be referred to one of several national
immigrant support centers (CLAI) of the High Commission for
Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue (ACIDI) in Lisbon,
Porto, or 78 local centers throughout the country, which
provide immigrants with information and assistance. A large
percentage of those assisted is provided employment and
legalization status. Each center has various sources of
information available to immigrants, including an SOS
immigrant hotline, manned by a multilingual/multiethnic team,
a multimedia stand, and pamphlets in three languages
(Portuguese, English, and Russian). ACIDI provides
assistance to between 1,100 and 1,200 immigrants, including
trafficking victims, per day, at its headquarters in Lisbon,
and 200 a day in the northern city of Porto. All ACIDI
facilities provide victim care services.

The government also refers victims, including children of
victims, to NGOs, such as APAV and religious orders Irmas
Adoradoras, Irmas Oblatas, and Irmas de Jesus Bom Pastor for
protection and assistance.

APAV has one shelter in Porto, another in Lisbon and a third
in the southern Algarve region. APAV Algarve assisted eight
trafficking victims in 2009. The Irmas Adoradoras operate 6
shelters across the country that take in victims of all types
of violence, including trafficking victims. In order to
maintain the quality of their services, each shelter is
limited to a total capacity of 30, which includes victims and
their children. Maximum stay is six months but extensions
are considered on a case-by-case basis.

In both the government safe house and the NGO shelters,
victims are allowed a 30-60 day reflection period to decide
whether they will press charges against the traffickers.
Regardless of their decision, they have the right to a
one-year residency permit.

Under the penal code, the identity of trafficking victims
(and victims of other crimes of a sexual nature) cannot be
revealed by the press without consent by both the victim and
the Office of the Attorney General.

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C. The government provides funding and other forms of support
to foreign and domestic NGOs for services to victims. APAV
receives approximately 80 percent of its funding from the
government. The Irmas Adoradoras receive a fixed subsidy for
each victim assisted, including children of victims. The
Center for Women's Shelter and Orientation, run by Irmas
Oblatas, receives an annual government subsidy through the
Lisbon City Hall.

D. The government assists foreign trafficking victims by
providing shelter, employment, education, and access to
legal, medical, psychological, and family reunification
services. Some are provided legalization of residency
status; others are repatriated.

E. After leaving the government-run shelter, former residents
may receive support from the shelter team outside of the
shelter facilities to aid the victims in rebuilding their
lives. This support includes assistance with obtaining
employment, returning to school, registering for professional
training courses, and obtaining public medical and dental

F. Victims who are detained, arrested or placed in protective
custody by law enforcement authorities are transferred to the
government safe house or to NGOs for short-term care.
Increased awareness by authorities and greater coordination
have yielded positive results. A growing number of GNR and
PSP stations have specific designated areas to hold and
assist TIP victims. Security forces have begun to work
closely with the government shelter team to transfer victims
to the government safe house: in 2009, there were three
cases in which the shelter was previously informed by the
police of upcoming raids on bars suspected of being involved
in trafficking activities. The shelter team accompanied the
security forces during these raids, providing immediate
assistance and support to the rescued victims.

In 2007, the Ministry of Interior launched an online crime
reporting system. All forms of crimes, including trafficking
for sexual and labor exploitation, may be reported.
Complaints may be submitted by nationals or foreigners
residing in Portugal or present on national territory. Those
submitting complaints must identify themselves. Crimes
reported on this website are investigated by the Public
Security Police, the Republican National Guard, and the
Foreigners and Borders Service. The site offers detailed
information on trafficking crimes, including legislation,
ways to identify trafficking victims, and means of assistance
to victims. The identity of victims is protected.

G. The government does not yet have available the total
number of TIP victims identified during the reporting period.
The TIP Monitoring Center will provide this data in March.
During 2009, twelve victims were referred to the government
shelter for assistance by law enforcement authorities.

H. The Monitoring Center for Trafficking in Persons
implemented reliable procedures to facilitate the gathering
of comprehensive trafficking data. All security forces are

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required to fill out a standard detailed form if they suspect
that a person involved in prostitution or violation of
immigration laws is a victim of trafficking, and to submit it
to the monitoring center. This form was originally designed
for sexual exploitation cases only but was expanded in 2007
to encompass cases of labor exploitation. This form is
carefully analyzed by the center's working group, made up of
multi-agency staff, which cross-references each case with
social services and immigration data. If the case is
considered trafficking, it is recorded in the database. All
government officials involved in anti-trafficking cases have
access to this confidential form.

In 2008, the Portuguese Ministry of Interior took the lead in
coordinating the transnational project "Trafficking in Human
Beings - Data Collection and Harmonized Information
Management System." Partner countries include Slovakia,
Poland, and the Czech Republic. The main goal of this
data-gathering project, co-financed by the European
Commission, is to develop, consolidate and share common
trafficking indicators to improve trafficking policies and
programs in partner countries.

I. The rights of victims are respected. Police officers
receive training on identifying trafficking victims and
differentiating them from criminals. Victims who are
initially detained are later transferred to the
government-managed safe house, ACIDI or NGOs for protection
and assistance. Victims are not fined or prosecuted for
violations of other laws.

J. The Portuguese government, through legal services provided
by ACIDI, encourages victims to assist in the investigation
and prosecution of trafficking. During the reporting period,
and with the support of SEF officials, six victims assisted
in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, and were
granted residency status in Portugal. Victims may file civil
suits and seek legal action against traffickers. There is no
impediment to victims' access to such legal redress. If a
victim is a material witness in a court case against a former
employer, the victim may obtain other employment or leave the
country pending trial proceedings. ACIDI operates a victim
restitution program that includes employment services,
education programs, and access to medical, psychological, and
family reunification services.

K. SEF officials and interns, as well as GNR, PSP, and PJ
officers receive periodic specialized training on how to
recognize, investigate, and prosecute instances of
trafficking. SEF training of its inspector class,
approximately 300 per year, includes a specific module on TIP
enforcement. Inspectors are trained in how to assist victims
of trafficking, as distinct from illegal immigrants and other
criminals. ACIDI staff also receives similar training.

Under the CAIM project, the government has extended its
training to healthcare professionals to be better able to
recognize victims of trafficking and to subsequently refer
them to the appropriate health services and counseling.

The Monitoring Center staff also organizes specialized

LISBON 00000071 013 OF 016

training courses, made up of multidisciplinary teams from
various ministries. In December 2009, a team comprised of
Monitoring Center staff, the Ministry of Labor and Social
Security and SEF officials provided training to magistrates
who handle TIP cases. In February 2010, a team from the
Monitoring Center also trained labor inspectors from the
Labor Ministry.

Through the placement of liaison officers in source countries
such as Brazil and Mozambique, the government provides
training to its embassy and consulate employees on how to
protect and assist trafficking victims, and urges them to
develop ongoing relationships with NGOs that serve TIP

L. The government provides assistance to its nationals who
are repatriated as TIP victims.

M. The following international organizations and NGOs work
with trafficking victims in Portugal:

International Organization for Migration (IOM);
Portuguese Association for Victim Support (APAV);
Portuguese Catholic Office for Migrations (OCPM);
Religious Entities, Commission for Peace and Justice
Portuguese Charities Association (CP);
Trafficking Victims, Support Committee (CAVITP);
Roma Pastoral Office (SPC);
Religious Order Irmas Adoradoras;
Religious Order Irmas Oblatas;
Religious Order Irmas de Jesus Bom Pastor;
O Ninho;
Portuguese chapter of Doctors of the World;
Portuguese Red Cross; and
CAIS - Social Solidarity Association.

These organizations provide protection, food, and shelter, as
well as medical and employment services. Many have signed
protocols with the government-run shelter, and provide
facilitators to work with the victims housed there. The
government provides funding and other forms of support to
some of these NGOs for their services. For example, APAV
receives approximately 80 percent of its funding from the
government, and Irmas Adoradoras receives a fixed subsidy for
each victim, including children of victims.


A. The government conducted anti-trafficking education
campaigns during the reporting period.
State-owned RTP television broadcasts a daily program "Nos"
("We") on immigration, covering a wide spectrum of
immigrant-related issues, including human trafficking. It
aims to raise awareness and increase prevention of human
trafficking and sexual exploitation among immigrants in

RTP broadcasts, on a regular basis, public service ads
warning against trafficking. These ads are funded by the
government (ACIDI), media (Diario de Noticias daily

LISBON 00000071 014 OF 016

newspaper, TSF radio station, LusoMundo media group), and
NGOs (IOM and APAV).

The GOP provides pamphlets and anti-TIP campaign posters to
Portuguese embassies and consulates around the world, as well
as to international airports in countries of origin and

Furthermore, Portuguese media coverage of the trial of the
Casa Pia orphanage child abuse case significantly raised
awareness of the TIP problem in Portugal and constituted a
compelling public awareness campaign. Although the
overwhelming majority of sexual crimes against minors occurs
within the family unit and is not considered trafficking, the
attention focused on Casa Pia raised awareness not only of
child abuse but also of TIP-related sexual exploitation.

The Monitoring Center is currently translating an anti-TIP
manual targeted to journalists on how to properly investigate
and report human trafficking stories.

In October 2010, the Monitoring Center will begin work on a
new trafficking prevention campaign to target various groups,
including potential trafficking victims, and the demand for

In 2007, the government appointed lawyer Vitalino Canas the
first Inspector General for Temporary Labor. This entity is
responsible for receiving and inspecting labor complaints
from workers in temporary jobs. The Inspector General is
also responsible for proposing regulations, informing workers
of their rights, issuing recommendations, and promoting
public discussions.

According to the Monitoring Center, because of increased TIP
awareness brought about in large part by anti-TIP campaigns,
a growing number of students are preparing Ph.D. TIP-related

B. The government monitors immigration and emigration
patterns for evidence of trafficking through the Monitoring
Center. Although border checks have been removed since
Portugal and Spain implemented the Schengen Agreement in
1995, SEF officials remain vigilant and continue to monitor
Portugal,s border with Spain for cases of trafficking.

According to a government survey of deported women and women
not allowed to leave Brazil, carried out in the international
airport in Sao Paulo, Portugal tops the list of countries
that most effectively bars Brazilian women from entering the
country. Twenty-five percent of these women admitted they
had planned to work as prostitutes in the country of

C. With the establishment of the Monitoring Center, there is
now a central body for coordination and communication among
the various government agencies, international bodies, and
NGOs on trafficking-related matters. This larger,
wider-ranging multi-agency working group assumed the
responsibilities of the government-commissioned trafficking
in persons task force established in January 2005 and led by

LISBON 00000071 015 OF 016

the GNR.

The Central Directorate for Combating Corruption, Fraud, and
Economic and Financial Crimes is the government agency
responsible for combating all forms of corruption.

D. The government has a national plan of action to address
trafficking in persons. The national plan, adopted in June
2007, is the culmination of two years of work carried out by
the CAIM project, in close collaboration with government
agencies and NGOs. CAIM regularly consults and exchanges
information with the Foreigners and Borders Service (SEF),
the three police forces (GNR, PJ, and PSP), and NGOs. It has
also established transnational partnerships with Italy,
Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Estonia, to exchange
trafficking information with their security forces.

E. As of September 2007, the penal code provides specific
penalties for clients who knowingly procure the services of a
trafficking victim for sexual purposes (Article 160,
paragraph 5).

F. There is no evidence that Portuguese nationals participate
in international child sex tourism. The government
established in July 2007 the "Internet Segura" (Safe
Internet) project ( to increase
awareness of and to report illegal contents on the internet.
The project, part of the European Program "Safer Internet
Plus", is made up of a consortium coordinated by the
Knowledge Society Agency (UMIC) and includes the
Directorate-General for Innovation and Curricular Development
Task Force of the Education Ministry, the National Scientific
Computing Foundation (FCCN), and Microsoft Portugal. This
project educates and informs the public on how to protect
themselves and their children from the dangers of the
internet. Approximately 85,000 copies of an Internet Safety
Guide oriented to the general public were distributed through
a Portuguese newspaper. The project includes a hotline - - for citizens to report
illegal or harmful contents. Reported cases undergo a
preliminary screening of contents, which establishes whether
the case will go to the Judicial Police or to the competent
international authorities for further investigation.

G. The government provides specific anti-TIP training to all
Portuguese nationals (military troops as well as members of
the GNR and PSP) deployed abroad as part of peacekeeping or
other similar missions prior to deployment to ensure that
they do not engage in or facilitate trafficking or exploit
TIP victims.


A. The GOP engages with other governments, civil society,
and multilateral organizations to focus attention and devote
resources to addressing human trafficking. It works closely
with numerous local NGOs in civil society (see paragraph
28M). Internationally, the GOP has anti-TIP collaboration
agreements with Italy (Associazione On the Road), Germany
(IOM Deutschland), Estonia (National Institute for Health
Development), Lithuania (Missing Persons, Families Support

LISBON 00000071 016 OF 016

Center), Poland (La Strada Fundacja Przeciwko Handlowi
Kobietami), Brazil, and Spain.

For more reporting from Embassy Lisbon and information about Portugal,
please see our Intelink site: ugal

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