Cablegate: Canada 2010 Tip Report

DE RUEHOT #0208/01 0572334
O R 262332Z FEB 10



E.O. 12958: N/A
SUBJECT: Canada 2010 TIP Report


A. The Government of Canada collects trafficking in persons (TIP)
information within Canada through a number of sources, including
police and court-reported data, reported case law, and the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Human Trafficking National
Coordination Centre (HTNCC). The 2009 Annual Criminal Intelligence
Service Canada Report on Organized Crime provides a general
assessment of human trafficking in Canada and is available online.
The Department of Citizenship and Immigration (CIC) collects data
on the issuance of Temporary Resident Permits to foreign nationals
who are suspected victims of trafficking; not all of these cases go
through the police or court system. Canada is finalizing a study
on the feasibility of developing a national data collection
framework, and expects to release the results in 2010. The study
assessed data and information needs, examined the current capacity
to track TIP data and information that is currently available and
any subsequent data gaps, identified potential direct and indirect
indicators, and highlighted the challenges that will need to be
addressed regarding data collection and data sharing. During the
reporting period, the National Missing Children's Services (NMCS)
of the RCMP Canadian Police Centre for Missing and Exploited
Children interviewed 175 police and service agencies in 20 Canadian
cities and towns to determine the nature and scope of domestic
trafficking of children under age 18. NMCS also trains police and
recognized searching agencies in the investigation of missing,
abducted, and runaway children. NMCS plans to expand this training
to include information on the potential risks that such children
face of being trafficked.

B. Canada is primarily a destination country for TIP. According
to the government, Asia, in particular South Korea, China, Hong
Kong (SAR), Taiwan, and Malaysia as well as Eastern European
countries such as Romania, Ukraine, and Moldova are the primary
sources for TIP victims for sexual exploitation in Canada. NGOs
allege human trafficking for forced labor occurs across the
country, with a higher number of cases in Alberta and Ontario
provinces; however, they acknowledge the difficulty in gauging
labor exploitation versus trafficking. According to the
government, the majority of the human trafficking for forced labor
investigations in Canada has been linked to foreign workers
staffing industries for food processing, energy resources,
technology as well as the service industry, including food retail
chains and restaurants. Labor-related investigations also involve
migrants from the Philippines, India, Poland, China, Ethiopia, and
Mexico, with employers illegally transporting migrants and
subsequently exploiting them as domestic helpers. None of the
government investigations, however, determined that the level of
exploitation rose to forced labor trafficking.

Both NGOs and the government report that trafficking for sexual
exploitation is more prevalent than forced labor, specifically in
the cities of Vancouver, Montreal, and Toronto. The government
identifies migrant women, new immigrants, at-risk youth, and those
who are socially or economically challenged as vulnerable
populations at risk of trafficking. While the government believes

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that organized crime is involved in human trafficking for sexual
exploitation, it has not determined the extent of transnational
criminal involvement.

NGOs rarely attempt to quantify independently the number of
trafficking victims in Canada, although most quote an estimate of
2,000 people subject to trafficking into Canada annually. In 2004,
the RCMP had estimated that traffickers brought approximately 600 -
800 persons into Canada annually and that they sent an additional
1,500 - 2,200 persons from Canada into the United States. The
government no longer uses the 2004 estimates and the RCMP is
conducting a national threat assessment to gauge the level of TIP
activity across Canada. The RCMP plans to release the results of
the assessment in early 2010. Trafficking victims have been
foreign nationals, permanent residents, and Canadian citizens.

C. Reported case law confirms that victims face sexual
exploitation within Canada in various venues. The majority of the
victims believe that they will be working as waitresses, models,
caregivers, or other legitimate occupations, only to find
themselves in the sex trade under coercion. Control tactics to
retain victims in exploitative situations include isolation from
their social network, forcible confinement, withholding
identification documents, imposing strict rules to control
behavior, limitation of movement, as well as threats and violence.
Complaints by foreign workers have commonly cited elements of
deception, financial exploitation, harassment, and threats of
deportation by their employer or by a third party agency.

D. The federal government identifies migrant women, new
immigrants, at-risk youth, and those who are socially or
economically disadvantaged as the most vulnerable TIP populations.
All cases of TIP for sexual exploitation that law enforcement
agencies across Canada have investigated, including those that did
not result in TIP-specific charges, involved women or teenage girls
or both. The majority of these cases included socially and
economically disadvantaged women and girls. Cases of trafficking
for forced labor under investigation by law enforcement agencies
across Canada involve both adult male and female foreign workers.

NGOs and advocacy groups have drawn attention to the plight of
aboriginal women and their vulnerability to trafficking. The
Native Women's Association of Canada'(NWAC) has created education
and awareness programs aimed at improving access to the judicial
system for victims, while identifying the challenge of encouraging
prosecutors to lay trafficking charges and secure convictions.
NWAC is seeking to expand the definition of trafficking beyond
prostitution to other forms of exploitation, including the use of
aboriginal women as involuntary drug couriers. The government
awarded C$5 million (US$4.7 million) to NWAC in 2005 for five
years, but has not as yet renewed its funding commitment beyond
2010. NGOs further identify agricultural workers and domestic
caregivers as highly vulnerable to trafficking.

E. According to the government, human trafficking for sexual
exploitation is primarily associated with organized prostitution.
Specifically, human trafficking occurs behind prostitution fronts,
such as escort agencies and residential brothels. Suspects in
human trafficking activities mostly operate with associates of

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similar ethnicity and have ethnic ties to the source countries of
their migrant workers.

Government investigations show that organized crime networks with
Eastern European links transported women from former Soviet states
into Canada for employment in escort services in the Greater
Toronto Area and possibly in massage and escort services in the
Montreal area. These groups have demonstrated transnational
capabilities and significant associations with convicted human
traffickers in the Czech Republic, Germany, Belarus, and Israel.
Government investigations indicate that criminal networks use
agents in Eastern European source countries to facilitate the
recruitment and transport of illegal sex workers into Canada.
These individuals arrange local employment advertisements, initiate
contact, facilitate travel documents, and coach potential victims
to deceive Canadian immigration officials. Criminal networks
trafficking Eastern European nationals to Canada for the sex
industry likely have access to high quality fraudulent
identification and travel documents, allowing migrants to travel
undetected across multiple borders. Investigations have found
that some Eastern European women who had been recruited to come to
Canada to work illegally in the sex trade were exploited by
traffickers. Major cities with Asian organized crime networks are
also destinations for migrant sex workers from Asia. Some Asian
women have come to Canada with legitimate employment offers, only
to enter the sex trade under coercion by organized crime groups
once in Canada.

Reported case law shows that some of the individuals convicted of
trafficking offenses were affiliated with street gangs that are
known to law enforcement for their "pimping" culture. Domestic
human trafficking victims have mostly been recruited through the
Internet, by an acquaintance, or directly by traffickers, who then
coerced the victim to enter the sex trade. Victims of domestic
human trafficking included underage girls who were exploited
through prostitution in exotic dance clubs or escort services.
Some traffickers provided fraudulent identification for their
victims to feign legal age. With the exception of one case, all
traffickers involved with Canadian girls and women within Canada
were males. RCMP investigations have uncovered individuals or
family units who control, threaten, and underpay foreign national
domestic helpers, whose employers often smuggle them into Canada.
The RCMP has not identified organized crime involvement in human
trafficking for forced labor.


A. Canada recognizes the serious nature of human trafficking,
which disproportionately harms the most vulnerable members of
societies, predominantly women and children. Canada remains
committed to combating human trafficking domestically and abroad,
and will continue to work closely with domestic and international
partners to this end.

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B. The Interdepartmental Working Group on Trafficking in Persons
(IWGTIP) coordinates federal anti-trafficking efforts. Chaired by
the federal Departments of Justice and of Public Safety, IWGTIP
brings together 17 federal departments and agencies and serves as a
central repository of federal expertise. The province of British
Columbia maintains offices dedicated solely to human trafficking;
however, most provinces rely on a network of law enforcement
agencies, court records, social service agencies, and NGOs to
combat sex and labor trafficking. For example, the province of
Alberta supports the Action Coalition on Human Trafficking (ACT
Alberta), a TIP advocacy group and service provider to TIP victims.

The IWGTIP has representatives from the following federal

A Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)

A The Department of Canadian Heritage (CH)

A Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

A Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC)

A Department of Citizenship and Immigration (CIC)

A Department of Justice (Justice Canada)

A Department of National Defence (DND)

A Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade

A Department of Health (Health Canada) / Public Health
Agency of Canada (PHAC)

A Department of Human Resources and Skills Development

A Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (INAC)

A Passport Agency (under DFAIT)

A Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC)

A Department Public Safety (Public Safety Canada)

A Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

A Statistics Agency (Statistics Canada)

A Status of Women Agency (SWC)

C. No systemic limitations hinder the government's ability to

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address TIP, and no evidence suggests any corrupt involvement by
Canadian officials in TIP-related matters. Jurisdictional issues
between federal and provincial or territorial governments hamper
the ability of the federal government to have a detailed picture of
the national scope of trafficking cases, investigations, and
anti-TIP efforts. The government investigates and prosecutes any
allegations of corruption in accordance with Canadian law.

D. The IWGTIP monitors all federal anti-trafficking efforts. The
Minister of Citizenship, Immigration, and Multiculturalism presents
an annual report to Parliament on the immigration activities and
initiatives of CIC. CIC reports on the issuances of Temporary
Resident Permits for victims of human trafficking in this report,
which is available online. Justice Canada monitors TIP case law,
and the HTNCC coordinates anti-trafficking law enforcement
prevention and investigation efforts. The RCMP maintains
statistics on TIP training/awareness for law enforcement agencies,
government and non-government organizations as well as the public,
and shares them with the IWGTIP, various government officials, and
media outlets, as requested. NGOs, advocacy groups, and provincial
offices also share law enforcements strategies, best practices, and
successful cases studies with the law enforcement community and
NGOs during conferences, RCMP human trafficking workshops, and
regular meetings with the HTACs.

Internationally, Canada is an active participant at the Conference
of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime. Canada participated in two
open-ended intergovernmental working groups of the Conference of
Parties, the implementation of the United Nations Convention
against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and

E. Statistics Canada conducts a census every five years to count
the population, including Canadian citizens (by birth and by
naturalization), landed immigrants, and non-permanent residents
together with family members living with them. The census
questionnaires are in English, French, and 62 non-official
languages, including aboriginal languages and Braille as well as on
audio cassette. The census collects detailed information from all
residents including population counts and demographic data,
language, place of birth, place of birth of parents, generation
status, citizenship, landed immigrant status, year of immigration,
ethnic origin, aboriginal identity, visible minority population,
population group (i.e. White, Chinese, South Asian, Black,
Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian,
Korean, Japanese, Other - Specify), education, unpaid work, labor
market activities, mobility, journey to work, income, families and
households, housing, shelter costs, and disability. The census also
collects the place of birth, place of birth of father, place of
birth of mother, generation status, citizenship, landed immigrant
status, and period of immigration of Canada's population.

Registration of births is a legal requirement in each province and
territory. Provincial and territorial Vital Statistics Acts (or
equivalent legislation) require the registration of all live

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births, stillbirths, deaths, and marriages within their
jurisdictions. All provinces and territories maintain reports on
the date and place of birth, child's sex, birth weight, and
gestational age, parents' age, marital status and birthplace,
mother's place of residence, and type of birth (single or
multiple). Parents complete the registration of a live birth and
file it with the local registrar. Most provinces also require
physicians (or other birth attendants) to report all births.

F. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS), in
co-operation with the policing community, collects annual
police-reported crime statistics through the Uniform Crime
Reporting (UCR2) Survey. The UCR2 survey data represent the number
of criminal incidents of TIP that were detected or recorded by
police within a calendar year. The Adult Criminal Court Survey
(ACCS) is a national database of statistical information on the
number of appearances, charges, and cases in adult criminal courts.
The survey is intended to be a census of federal statute charges
heard in provincial and superior criminal courts in Canada. These
data are collected by the CCJS in collaboration with provincial and
territorial government agencies responsible for adult criminal
courts. Justice Canada also monitors TIP-related case law. Any
issues that arise are explored in relevant Federal/
Provincial/Territorial fora. It is difficult to make linkages
between police and court data. There is no single unit of count
(e.g., incidents, offenses, charges, cases or persons) that is
consistent across the major sectors of the justice system. In
addition, the number and type of charges may change at the
pre-court stage or during the court process. Time lags between the
various stages of the justice process also make
comparisons/linkages difficult.

Provinces and territories face several problems that limit local
groups' abilities to combat human trafficking, including difficulty
in maintaining collaboration between NGOs and local government, the
lack of a lead TIP governmental office in many provinces, and the
drain on police resources to support TIP victims to ensure a strong
trafficking case. Few NGOs are able to assume such a large role.
In Ontario province, the Peel Regional Police Service now refers
many of its trafficking victims to an Ontario NGO that provides
services, ranging from basic hygiene kits to job search and
resettlement assistance.

NGOs cited lack of coordination between federal programs that admit
temporary foreign workers to Canada and provincial government
responsibility for regulating labor standards, arguing this creates
conditions in which labor exploitation and potential labor
trafficking can flourish. Provincial labor standards legislation
regulates the employment of temporary foreign workers, but the
rules of the temporary foreign worker programs are set by the
federal government and are not coordinated with the provinces.


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A. Canada's criminal laws prohibit trafficking in persons for any
exploitative purpose, regardless of whether the trafficking occurs
wholly within Canada or whether it involves the bringing of persons
into Canada. Criminal laws apply across Canada and therefore
provide a uniform approach to address TIP and related conduct.

There have been no legislative changes to Canada's laws against
trafficking since last year's report. Three TIP-related bills died
upon the prorogation (temporary suspension) of Parliament in
December 2009: Bill C-268, An Act to amend the Criminal Code
(minimum sentence for offenses involving trafficking of persons
under the age of eighteen years); Bill S-223, An Act to amend the
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and to enact certain other
measures in order to provide assistance and protection to victims
of human trafficking; and, Bill C-45, An Act to amend the
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

The Criminal Code of Canada contains three specific indictable
offenses to address trafficking in persons:

Section 279.01 criminalizes trafficking in persons by prohibiting
anyone from engaging in specified acts for the purpose of
exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of a person. This
offense carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment where it
involves kidnapping, aggravated assault or aggravated sexual
assault, or death. A maximum penalty of 14 years applies in all
other cases.

Section 279.04 specifies that a person exploits another person if
s/he causes that person to provide, or offer to provide, labor or a
service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances,
could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe
that his/her safety or the safety of a person known to him/her
would be threatened if s/he failed to provide, or offer to provide,
the labor or service. Exploitation is also defined to mean causing
a person, by means of deception or the use or threat of force or of
any other form of coercion, to have an organ or tissue removed.

The second offense, section 279.02, prohibits anyone from receiving
a financial or other material benefit resulting from the commission
of a TIP offence. This offense is punishable by a maximum of ten
years imprisonment.

Finally, section 279.03 prohibits the withholding or destroying of
documents, such as identification or travel documents, for the
purpose of committing or facilitating the commission of a TIP
offence, and carries a maximum penalty of five years' imprisonment.

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These three offenses were enacted in 2005 (Bill C-49, An Act to
amend the Criminal Code (trafficking in persons) S.C. 2005, c. 43).
They supplement previously existing Criminal Code offenses that
also are applicable to TIP cases, including kidnapping, forcible
confinement, uttering threats, extortion, assault, sexual assault,
prostitution-related offenses, and criminal organization offenses.

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) also includes a
TIP offense that applies to cases involving trafficking of persons
into Canada (s.118). The offense carries a maximum penalty of life
imprisonment and a fine of up to C$1 million (US$ 950,000).

In addition, the Criminal Code contains numerous provisions
targeting those who sexually exploit children or who seek to profit
from such exploitation. Section 212(2) prohibits living on the
avails of the prostitution of a person under the age of 18
(punishment: a maximum of 14 years and a mandatory minimum of 2
years). Section 212(2.1) is an aggravated offense prohibiting the
procuring of a young person into prostitution for profit and the
use of threats or violence (punishment: a maximum of 14 years and a
mandatory minimum of 5 years). Section 212(4) makes it an offense
to obtain or communicate for the purpose of obtaining for
consideration the sexual services of a person who is under 18 years
of age (punishment: a maximum of 5 years and a mandatory minimum of
6 months).

B. The maximum penalty for a person convicted of a trafficking in
persons offense, including trafficking for the purpose of sexual
exploitation under the Criminal Code is life imprisonment, where it
involves kidnapping, aggravated assault or sexual assault, or
death, and a maximum penalty of 14 years in all other cases. The
maximum penalty for a conviction of trafficking in persons under
IRPA is life imprisonment and/or a fine not exceeding C$1 million

C. The provisions outlined above apply equally to trafficking for
the purposes of forced labor. The penalties are the same as above.
Provinces and territories have primary responsibility for
enforcement of labor standards, which apply equally to Temporary
Foreign Workers and Canadian workers. Some provinces have, or are
developing, measures to regulate the activities of third party

In Ontario province, the law enforcement system for provincial
labor standards places the onus on workers to report violations.
NGOs claim that the provincial Ministry of Labor is
under-resourced. Currently in Ontario, NGOs estimate processing
backlogs for labor standards violations from six to twelve months

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to open an investigation, and an average of eighteen months to
conclude an investigation, often longer than a temporary foreign
worker remains in Canada.

In December 2009, Ontario enacted the Employment Protection for
Foreign Nationals Act. The main provisions of the law prohibit
recruiters from charging live-in caregivers fees and employers or
recruiters from taking possession of a caregiver's property,
including passports and work permits. The law requires recruiters
and employers to distribute information sheets to caregivers
setting out their rights under Ontario law. Employers or
recruiters who violate the law are subject to fines up to C$50,000
(US$ 47,000) and a year in jail.

D. The penalties for sexual assault offenses are: sexual assault:
a maximum of ten years; sexual assault with a weapon: a maximum of
14 years imprisonment and a mandatory minimum penalty of 4 years
where a firearm is used; and, aggravated sexual assault: a maximum
of life imprisonment and a mandatory minimum penalty of 4 years
where a firearm is used. There are also several child-specific
sexual assault offences, which carry a maximum penalty of 10 years.

E. The CCJS collects annual information on the number of criminal
incidents reported to police, as well as on cases processed through
the courts. The most recent reporting period for police reported
data is 2008, while the most recent court data available is
2006/2007. The CCJS, in co-operation with the policing community,
collects annual police-reported crime statistics through the
Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2). The UCR2 data includes the
number of criminal incidents of TIP that were detected or recorded
by police within a calendar year. In 2008, the UCR2 survey
indicated that a total of 12 incidents of trafficking in persons
were reported by police across Canada, which includes two victims
under the age of 18.

The IWGTIP reports that there are a number of on-going
investigations with potential international or domestic TIP
elements across Canada. In addition to these on-going
investigations, 29 cases, involving 35 accused, are currently
before the courts with human trafficking charges under section
279.01 and/or 279.03 of the Criminal Code and/or section 118 of
IRPA. All of these, with the exception of one case, involve
allegations of trafficking for sexually exploitation. These cases
involve 36 adult and child victims. Available information further
indicates that the majority of the victims originated from within

In the current reporting period, provincial courts convicted two
individuals of trafficking in persons charges (i.e. section 279.01
of the Criminal Code). In Regina (the Crown) v. Emerson in
Gatineau, QuAbec, Laura Emerson pled guilty on April 9, 2009 to
exploiting and living off the proceeds of two women, one of whom

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was underage; she received two concurrent sentences of seven years.
With double credit for time already served, she will serve five
years in prison after conviction. In Regina v. Vilutis in Toronto,
Ontario, Vytautas Vilutis pled guilty on April 16, 2009 to human
trafficking and material benefit from human trafficking; he
received three concurrent two year sentences. With double credit
for time already served, he will serving 13 months in prison after

In December 2009, police in Calgary, Alberta made the first arrests
in western Canada under the Canadian federal Protection of Sexually
Exploited Children Act. In one case, police arrested a man who
recruited and trafficked women from inside Canada. In another
case, police allege that the suspect agreed to sell two women to
undercover officers for a total of C$8,000 (US$7,600). One of the
exploited women taken into custody was ordered deported to Hong
Kong for violation of her visa use.

The government recognizes that these statistics do not represent
all trafficking cases in the criminal justice system due to the
challenge of identifying data reported by the police and by the
courts as "trafficking" cases. For example, charges and/or
convictions in human trafficking cases may be laid and/or
prosecuted under trafficking-specific or other non-trafficking
specific offenses, such as kidnapping or aggravated sexual assault.
In addition, the number and type(s) of charges laid and reported by
police may subsequently change (either at the pre-court stage or
during the court process) by the time of conviction.

Provincial and municipal law enforcement agencies may choose not to
file human trafficking charges if another related charge (e.g.,
living off the proceeds of prostitution, sexual assault) could
guarantee a longer period of incarceration.

F. The RCMP provides law enforcement training on trafficking in
persons bi-annually at the RCMP Immigration and Passport
Investigators Course to RCMP personnel as well as officials of
agencies outside of the RCMP, including the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security, CBSA, and foreign and municipal police forces.
This week-long training session includes a full day dedicated to
human trafficking and includes in-depth informative training and
discussion on relevant sections of the Immigration and Refugee
Protection Act and the Criminal Code, training on current
investigative techniques, and identification of potential victims.

In 2009, the RCMP organized a series of human trafficking workshops
involving an integrated training approach for frontline,
investigative, and intelligence officers, border and immigration
officials, and prosecutors. These events include presentations by
the RCMP, Justice Canada, SWC, CBSA, CIC, and PPSC, along with
presentations of TIP case studies from various police services
across Canada and a testimony from a human trafficking survivor.
The training focuses on both domestic and international cases of
human trafficking. Over the reporting period, workshops took place

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in British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Quebec
provinces. Approximately 1,200 law enforcement officers, border
services officers, and prosecutors participated in these human
trafficking workshops. In addition, two human trafficking
workshops took place in Quebec province for provincial prosecutors.
Approximately 140 prosecutors attended the workshops and received
information on TIP, including on aboriginal issues to raise
awareness of the victimization of aboriginal women and girls and
the possible link between such vulnerable populations and human
trafficking. In July 2009, the IWGTIP co-chairs and HTNCC made a
presentation to the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs at the Prevent
Human Trafficking: Stop the Sexual Exploitation of First Nations
Women and Children Forum.

The HTNCC also provides TIP awareness to some RCMP recruits before
they enter the field. During the reporting period, HTNCC members
delivered TIP awareness presentations to: recruits at the RCMP
national academy in Regina, Saskatchewan; law enforcement officers
attending the Canadian Police College Organized Crime course; the
CISC courses and the aboriginal gang course; and, to all law
enforcement officers participating in international peacekeeping
missions in Haiti and Cote d'Ivoire, according to DFAIT.

At the federal level, the HTNCC and HRSDC Labor Program developed
training for HRSDC personnel. At the provincial/territorial level,
the HTNCC and HRSDC developed training for provincial labor
inspectors and other officials, including information about
indicators of human trafficking, industries at risk, and possible
areas of cooperation between federal, provincial, territorial labor
officials, law enforcement, and other implicated parties.

IWGTIP co-chairs presented on trafficking for forced labor to the
federal/ provincial/territorial Labor Ministers to raise awareness
among front line labor inspectors to mitigate the risk for labor
exploitation by migrant workers. There were similar presentations
to federal/ provincial/ territorial labor officials in 2008 and

The RCMP has six regional Human Trafficking Awareness Coordinators
(HTAC) in strategic locations across the country. Key
responsibilities of the HTACs include developing and maintaining
strong relationships and raising awareness about human trafficking
among various law enforcement agencies, government agencies, NGOs,
youth, and the public in all the provinces and territories. The
HTNCC and the HTACs delivered TIP awareness sessions to
approximately 5,500 law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and
government employees, as well as 4,500 members of civil society.
Since 2008, a total of approximately 26,300 law enforcement,
government and non-governments organizations received training from
either HTNCC members or the HTACs. In addition, the British
Columbia provincial HTAC has provided awareness sessions to 350
firefighters, including indicators of human trafficking to assist
them in recognizing human trafficking when responding to emergency

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The RCMP developed a human trafficking tool kit that includes
victim assistance guidelines for international and domestic cases
on how to treat victims after identification. The tool kit also
contains anti-trafficking posters in six languages, pamphlets, a
police officer handbook, pocket cards with contact information to
report cases to law enforcement, and a training video. The
training video includes information on domestic and international
TIP for sexual exploitation as well as trafficking for forced
labor, and is for NGOs, law enforcement agencies, and the public.
The material in the tool kits include an anonymous toll-free
tip-line that is administered by the Canadian Crime Stoppers
Association. In early 2009, these tool kits went to approximately
3,000 police services across Canada and are received wide
distribution during workshops and awareness sessions. In addition,
the HTNCC is in the process of developing an investigator's
guidebook for Canadian law enforcement to include additional
information, such as the identification and protection of victims
and useful tips for interviewing TIP victims.

RCMP policy provides guidelines and procedures to follow when
officers are investigating suspected cases of human trafficking.
Immigration officers working in Canada and abroad receive training
on the global problem of TIP, including how to recognize and
interact with a potential TIP victim as well as potential referral
services, in addition to receiving specific training on new
immigration guidelines. To supplement this training, CIC developed
an interactive computer-based training package for electronic
distribution to officers already in the field.

CBSA Migration Integrity Officers (MIOs) also receive specialized
immigration training, including the detection of migrant smuggling
and trafficking in persons, passport and document fraud,
intelligence collection and reporting, identification of
inadmissible persons, and threats to national security. All CBSA
Border Services Officers, through their 13 week Port of Entry
Recruit Training program, receive general TIP-awareness training.
In 2009, CBSA developed a policies and procedures manual on how
officers can detect instances of human trafficking, assist in the
safety and security of victims of human trafficking by referring
them to appropriate government services, and support the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking offenders. CBSA also
published Trafficking in Persons Information Sheets for the public,
CBSA, and RCMP officers.

CBSA officers receive training on the special needs of children who
may have been smuggled or trafficked. CBSA officers at Ports of
Entry receive specialized training under the "Our Missing Children"
program on identifying and assisting missing and abducted children,
including sensitivity training and special procedures in the
conduct of interviews with children.

NGOs report that they are aware of TIP training, and have
encountered TIP public education and awareness materials, but judge
them to be of limited use. NGOs providing support to the

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aboriginal community in particular note that the materials appear
to target care providers and outreach/intake workers only, are not
aboriginal-specific, do not resonate with individuals with poor
reading or literacy skills, and often use culturally insensitive or
culturally irrelevant terminology.

G. Canada has ratified the Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime and its Protocols on migrant smuggling and TIP
(which provide a basis for international cooperation in the absence
of a specific bilateral treaty) and has bilateral and multilateral
treaties dealing wholly or partially with mutual legal assistance.
Canada's Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act is the
legislation that enables Canadian authorities to give effect to
treaty requests to obtain search warrants, evidence gathering
orders, and other warrants available under the Criminal Code on
behalf of a requesting state assuming the legal and evidential
basis for the order exists.

The RCMP participates in a Canada/China working group that provides
ongoing discussions of law enforcement issues, including human
trafficking investigations, between both countries. RCMP
International Liaison Officers are stationed throughout the world
and are responsible for developing and maintaining liaison as well
as exchanging information with foreign officials and international
partners, often in source countries in Asia and Eastern Europe.
The liaison officers share any intelligence gathered abroad with
the HTNCC.

The RCMP is a member of the Interpol Working Group on Trafficking
in Human Beings and attends numerous working group meetings.
During the course of international investigations, law enforcement
agencies cooperate with officials from other countries, either
through the RCMP liaison officers or through international

H. The Extradition Act, along with the relevant extradition
agreement, provides the legal framework to extradite persons from
Canada on the request of an extradition partner for the purposes of
prosecuting those persons, imposing a sentence upon them, or
enforcing a sentence imposed on them. Generally, the offense in
respect of which the extradition is requested must be punishable by
imprisonment of at least two years. Canada cooperates with other
countries to extradite individuals in appropriate cases, including
its own nationals, when trafficking offenses are committed abroad.

I. There is no evidence of any government involvement or tolerance
of TIP at any level.

J. There is no evidence of any government involvement or tolerance
of TIP at any level.

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K. There are no known cases of Canadian officials deployed abroad
engaging in or facilitating the trafficking of persons. The
Canadian Forces (CF) employ a zero tolerance policy with respect to
exploitation and abuse while deployed on operations. CF expect
members to address issues they may witness in the field, whether it
is to intervene or report. Soldiers found to be party to such
actions themselves would be held to account accordingly. Canada
would investigate and, if necessary, prosecute any such allegation
under Canada's laws.

The Canadian military justice system has jurisdiction to address
disciplinary issues involving CF members who are participating in
operations outside of Canada, even while members of the CF are
involved in a UN or other international operation. In particular,
Part III of the National Defence Act (NDA) -- known as the Code of
Service Discipline (CSD) -- details who is subject to the CSD, and
who is liable to be charged, dealt with, and/or tried for an
alleged service offense, whether the offense takes place in or
outside Canada. The term 'service offence' is defined in the NDA
to include all offenses provided for under the NDA, the Criminal
Code of Canada, and any other Act of Parliament.

In addition to the jurisdiction that exists to deal with service
offenses that are based on the laws of Canada, disciplinary action
under the CSD can address an alleged act or omission committed by
someone subject to the CSD while outside Canada when that act or
omission is an offense under the law in the country where it
occurs. As a consequence, the CF maintains full disciplinary
jurisdiction over CF members who are participating in international
operations to deal not only with alleged service offenses but also
offenses under the law of the country where the operation takes

DND is committed to comprehensive implementation of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Policy on Combating Trafficking
in Human Beings. This policy represents a political commitment to
prohibit forces and civilian personnel under NATO command from
engaging in human trafficking activities or facilitating them. It
also prescribes that personnel under NATO command will, within
their competence and mandate, support the efforts of responsible
authorities within the host country to combat trafficking in human

L. Canadian criminal law prohibits all child sexual exploitation,
including Canadians or permanent residents of Canada engaging in
such criminal conduct while abroad ("child sex tourism").
Canadian criminal law treats child sex tourism and trafficking in
persons as distinct offenses.

The Criminal Code of Canada permits the Canadian prosecution of
Canadian citizens or permanent residents who engage in prohibited
sexual activity with children while abroad under Subsection 7

OTTAWA 00000208 015 OF 031

(4.1), including seeking/obtaining the sexual services of any
person under 18 years (juvenile prostitution). Accordingly, when a
Canadian or permanent resident of Canada is alleged to have engaged
in child sex tourism while abroad is not charged/convicted by the
country in which the offense is alleged to have been committed,
Canada can undertake the prosecution.

To date, there have been three Canadian child sex tourism
convictions: an Ontario provincial court convicted Donald Bakker
in June 2005 and sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment; and,
Armand Huard and Denis Rochefort, both of whom were charged in
February 2008 and pled guilty in November 2008 (Huard was sentenced
to 3 years in jail; Rochefort was sentenced to 2 years in prison
and 3 years probation). In addition, between 1997 and 2009
Canadians have been charged with/prosecuted in at least 136 cases
by destination countries for engaging in child molestation.


A. Victim services and assistance is primarily the responsibility
of provincial/territorial governments. Each of the provinces and
territories has victim services to address the needs of victims.
They may be court-based, police-based, or system-based. The
specific services offered to victims, including those offered in
shelters, vary depending on the location but usually include: the
provision of information; support and referral; short-term
counseling; court preparation and accompaniment; assistance in the
completion of victim impact statements; and, corrections
information. Services are provided to all victims of crime,
although some provinces provide specialized services including
specific child victim witness programs, assistance under provincial
family violence legislation, sexual assault/rape crisis centres,
violence awareness programs for women, partner assault response
programs, services to women and children, and initiatives for
aboriginal victims.

Although law enforcement and shelter personnel are becoming more of
aware of the issue, NGOs complain that there is limited information
available to trafficking victims about their rights under Canadian
anti-trafficking laws. NGOs have difficulty tracking the numbers
of foreign victims, as foreign victims may apply for refugee status
instead of the Temporary Resident Permit.

The provinces and territories are primarily responsible for the
administration and enforcement of laws relating to children and
youth, as well as the provision of socio-legal services geared
towards children. All provinces and territories have child
protection laws and agencies responsible for assisting children in
need focussed on the principle of the best interest of the child.
Where a child is found to be in need of protection - including
against sexual abuse and exploitation - an array of services to
meet the needs of the child may come into play. Where appropriate,
each jurisdiction works collaboratively to assist the other in

OTTAWA 00000208 016 OF 031

meeting and enhancing their policies and programs relating to

At the federal level, CIC and CBSA have programs and policies in
place to assist vulnerable children within their respective
mandates. New guidelines ensure that child victims of trafficking
remain safe, are separated from the control and custody of any
possible trafficker(s), and receive police protection. Children
believed to be victims of trafficking, like adults, can also
receive Temporary Resident Permits and referral to appropriate
provincial and territorial child welfare authorities; they are also
eligible for health care under the Interim Federal Health Program

Witness protection is provided by both the federal government under
the Witness Protection Program Act (WPPA), as well as by some
provinces that operate legislated (Manitoba and Saskatchewan),
policy-based (Ontario and QuAbec), or operationally structured
(British Columbia) programs. A victim of human trafficking could
be eligible under the terms of either the federal or provincial
programs to receive protection to assist law enforcement and

The federal WPPA program provides the legal framework to protect
persons who are involved in providing assistance to law enforcement
in various matters. This can include persons who are assisting the
RCMP in law enforcement matters or those who are assisting another
law enforcement agency, provided an agreement has been entered into
between the RCMP and that agency. While services for witnesses are
on a case by case basis, protection can include relocation,
accommodation, and change of identity, as well as counseling,
training, and finite financial support necessary to ensure the
security of the person and to facilitate his/her re-establishment
and self-sufficiency. The RCMP administers the Witness Protection
Program. As of January 2010, no victims of human trafficking had
applied for protection under this program.

B. The protection of victims of crime is a shared responsibility
between the federal and provincial/territorial governments.
Numerous programs and services are available to victims of crime in
Canada, including trafficking victims, ranging from health care to
emergency housing and social and legal assistance. Legal aid
programs are administered separately by each province and
territory, and eligibility is based primarily upon financial need.
Similarly, social services such as emergency financial assistance,
including food allowances, and housing are at the provincial and
territorial levels and are available to those in need.

In the province of British Columbia, emergency shelters and other
forms of social housing operate under licenses from the provincial
government. Trafficking victims, regardless of their status in the
country, may have access to such shelters. These facilities are
operated by non-government organizations. For example, on December
1, 2009, the Salvation Army, a non-government organization, opened
a 10-bed facility in Vancouver, British Columbia to provide shelter

OTTAWA 00000208 017 OF 031

to victims of sex trafficking. Women will also receive immediate
medical care, help with addictions, legal issues, refugees services
as well as 24/7 care from staff.

C. The government allocated an additional C$52 million (US$ 49
million) in 2007 to be used through 2011 for programs, services,
and funding to support federal efforts, as well as the provinces
and territories in meeting the needs of victims of crime across the
continuum of the justice system and federal corrections.

Under the Victims Fund, which was established in 2000 at Justice
Canada to encourage the development of new approaches to meet the
needs of crime victims, C$7.75 million (US$ 7.3 million) per year
supports initiatives to increase the confidence of victims of crime
in the criminal justice system, to raise awareness of the needs of
victims of crime, and to facilitate the provision of available
services and assistance among victims and their families.
Provincial and territorial governments and NGOs may apply to the
Victims Fund to develop programs to fill gaps in the delivery of
services to victims. Other forms of support come from the Policy
Centre for Victims Issues at Justice Canada, which commissions
research on victim-related issues, creates and disseminates fact
sheets and other forms of public legal education on victim issues,
and undertakes consultations with NGOs and victims.

The mandate of Canada's Federal Ombudsman for Victims of Crime
(established in April 2007) includes promoting access to existing
federal government programs and services available to victims of
crime, addressing complaints about compliance with the provisions
for victims of crime in the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act, and identifying systemic and emerging issues that impact
negatively on victims. The Ombudsman has identified the sexual
abuse of children and the distribution of child sexual abuse images
as a priority issue.

Foreign nationals who are suspected victims of trafficking may
receive a Temporary Resident Permit (TRP). TRP holders have access
to Canada's Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP), thus ensuring
that they receive immediate medical attention, as required. The
IFHP covers essential and emergency health services for the
treatment and prevention of serious medical conditions and the
treatment of emergency dental conditions. In the case of
trafficking victims, trauma counselling is also included.
Provincial or territorial health coverage becomes available to
persons who have been resident in that jurisdiction. The period of
required residency usually varies from three to six months,
depending on the jurisdiction.

D. In May 2006, Canada strengthened guidelines for immigration
officers to issue short-term, fee-exempt TRPs to trafficking
victims for a period of reflection. This period is designed to
help victims of trafficking escape the influence of their
traffickers, recover from their ordeal, and evaluate their
immigration options. Permit-holders have access to the IFHP, thus

OTTAWA 00000208 018 OF 031

ensuring that they receive the immediate medical attention
required. The IFHP covers essential and emergency health services
for the treatment and prevention of serious medical conditions and
the treatment of emergency dental conditions. In the case of
trafficking victims, trauma counselling is also included. CIC may
renew TRPs.

In 2007, the extension period grew from 120 days to 180 days to
provide further protection to victims of trafficking. Under the
180-day permits, victims are eligible to apply for a fee-exempt
work permit, an option previously unavailable under the 120-day
permit. Long-term TRPs may be up to three years in cases where
circumstances warrant. TRP holders may qualify to remain in Canada
under the permit holder class after three or five years, depending
on individual circumstances.

Victims of trafficking are not required to testify against their
traffickers in order to gain temporary or permanent immigration
status. Canada has undertaken numerous efforts, including through
amendments to criminal laws, to encourage the participation of
victims in supporting the prosecution of alleged offenders
including through the provision of victim support and assistance
and the use of testimonial aids.

In addition to TRP, there are alternate avenues available for
individuals to remain in Canada temporarily or permanently, such as
provisions for humanitarian and compassionate consideration.
Should persons feel that they are at risk of persecution, torture
or cruel and unusual treatment, or punishment upon return to the
country of nationality, they may also make an in-Canada refugee
claim. Individual circumstances differ, and victims' needs receive
evaluation on a case-by-case basis.

E. See response to question B in this section.

F. See response to question H in this section.

G. Given Canada's federal structure, there is no single mechanism
for collecting statistics on the total number of identified TIP
victims. CCJS collects information on incidents reported to
police, charges, and their outcomes. In addition, CIC collects data
on the number of TRP issued to TIP victims. During the reporting
period, 15 foreign nationals received TRPs as victims of
trafficking. The RCMP collects data on TIP cases before the
courts. Twenty-nine victims were identified by law enforcement in
cases in which human trafficking charges were laid during the
reporting period. This number does not include the victims that
were identified during on-going investigations. British Columbia
province has provided 13 trafficked foreign victims with assistance
through government-funded shelters, interpretation, legal, support

OTTAWA 00000208 019 OF 031

and counseling services during the reporting period.

H. Law enforcement agencies train officers in victim
identification and sensitization to the special needs of trafficked
victims. The CBSA policy and procedures manual assists officers
who come into contact with potential victims of human trafficking
by providing detailed information on the identification of victims,
their special needs, and proper referral protocols. When, in the
judgment of the officer, an adequate number of indicators are
present, the officer has the option of referring the possible TIP
victim to CIC for consideration for a TRPt. The guidelines
instruct both CIC and CBSA officers to take action to ensure the
safety of the possible victim and ensure the possible victim is
separated from the control and custody of any possible trafficker,
and to coordinate with partners to ensure the victim will be taken
to a shelter or receive police protection, as appropriate. The
guidelines also include special provision for dealing with child
victims of trafficking.

I. Legislation at the federal and provincial/territorial levels
affirms the rights of all victims of crime receive respectful
treatment and that their views and concerns are an important
consideration in the criminal justice system. The Canadian
Statement of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime,
endorsed by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers
responsible for criminal justice, outlines the basic principles
that guide the development of policy, programs, and legislation
pertaining to all victims of crime in Canada. The Canadian Charter
of Rights and Freedoms also guarantees the right against arbitrary
detainment, the right to counsel, the right to be informed of the
reasons for arrest or detention, and the presumption of innocence.
Canadian criminal law and charging practices provide flexibility
for dealing with situations involving persons forced to commit
criminal acts as a direct result of trafficking. Canada recognizes
that international best practices indicate that, where possible,
persons should not be charged for criminal acts they were forced to
commit as a direct result of trafficking.

J. Victims are not required to assist with the investigation or
prosecution of alleged traffickers nor are victim access to support
and assistance dependent upon their cooperation or support of an
investigation/prosecution. Nonetheless, the provision of services
and assistance to victims throughout the criminal justice process
enhances victim support for criminal prosecution. Canada's
Criminal Code contains numerous provisions to facilitate a
victim's/witness' participation in a criminal proceeding including

A Section 486.1(1) authorizes the presence of a support
person for a child witness or person with a mental or physical
disability when that person testifies in any proceeding unless the
support person's presence would interfere with the proper
administration of justice;

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A Section 486.1(2) authorizes the presence of a support
person for all other witnesses where doing so would be necessary to
obtain a full and candid account from the witness. In determining
whether to permit a support person in this case, the judge/justice
must take into consideration the age of the witness, whether the
witness has a physical/mental disability, the nature of the
offense, the nature of any relationship between the witness and the
accused, and any other circumstances that are considered relevant
by the judge/justice;

A Section 486.2(1) authorizes the giving of testimony
outside of the court room (via closed-circuit television) or behind
a screen or other device by a child witness or a witness who has
difficulty communicating evidence by reason of a mental or physical
disability. Such measures must not interfere with the proper
administration of justice;

A Section 486.2(2) authorizes the giving of testimony
outside the court room (via closed-circuit television) or behind a
screen or other device for all other witnesses if the judge/justice
is of the opinion that it is necessary to obtain a full and candid
account from the witness of the acts complained of. In determining
whether to permit such measures, the judge/justice must take into
consideration the age of the witness, whether the witness has a
physical/mental disability, the nature of the offense, the nature
of any relationship between the witness and the accused, and any
other relevant circumstances; and,

A Sections 714.1-714.4 authorizes a witness to provide
evidence by means of audio or video technology, where deemed
appropriate by the court, from either within Canada or outside

Foreign national victims of trafficking who are issued a TRP may
receive a subsequent longer term TRP to allow them to escape the
influence of traffickers, to provide time to decide if they wish to
return home, to assist in the investigation or prosecution of the
trafficker(s), or to allow them to recover from physical or mental

While a victim is not required to testify or cooperate in an
investigation to receive a TRP, the issuance of these documents can
facilitate a victim's ability to stay in Canada for purposes of
cooperating with an investigation or prosecution. During the
reporting period, victims assisted in at least 22 TIP cases that
are before the courts. This number does not include victims who are
currently assisting law enforcement during on-going TIP

Victims may prepare a victim impact statement describing the harm
done to them and, more generally, the impact the crime has had on
their lives. The statement must be taken into account by the court
when considering the sentence the offender will receive. At the

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federal level, the Criminal Code requires the imposition of a
victim fine surcharge in addition to any other sentence ordered for
an offender convicted or discharged of an offense, except in cases
of undue hardship.

In addition, offenders sentenced for trafficking offenses under the
Criminal Code may receive restitution order as part of their
sentences. A judge may order restitution in three instances: to
cover the cost of damage to, the loss of or destruction of the
property of any person as a result of the commission of an offence;
to cover all pecuniary damages, including loss of income or
support, to any person who has suffered bodily or psychological
harm as the result of the commission of an offense; and, to cover
the cost of all actual and reasonable expenses incurred by a member
of the offender's household associated with a person having to move
out of that household to cover temporary housing, food, childcare,
and transportation. Restitution orders require the offender to pay
an amount directly to the victim of the offense to cover the
victim's monetary losses or damage to property caused by the crime.

Civil redress by victims against the perpetrators of crime is a
matter of provincial/territorial responsibility. Provinces and
territories have enacted legislation in their respective
jurisdictions which outline numerous rights for victims of crime
including, in most cases, the right to seek compensation.

K. Canada's embassies and high commissions develop relationships
with civil society and participate in international conferences.
They have drafted consular guidelines for Canadian officers at
missions abroad on the issue of sexual exploitation of children by
Canadians abroad. These guidelines discuss the law concerning
child sex tourism and recommend that the complainant be referred to
the local law enforcement/local Interpol office/RCMP liaison
officer or delegate. Information outlining labor standards and
workers' basic rights in Canada is available in five languages at
Canadian overseas missions and Ports of Entry.

The federal government provided funding to the province of British
Columbia's Office to Combat Trafficking in Person for the
development of curriculum and toolkits for First Responders (those
most likely to be a position to encounter trafficked persons) in
both government and community agencies. This project will be
completed in the fall of 2010.

L. Social programs such as universal health care, emergency
housing, legal aid, or emergency financial assistance are primarily
at the provincial/territorial levels in Canada. Canadian citizens
are entitled to apply for these services as a right, though the
exact eligibility requirements for those services based on
financial need (such as legal aid or social assistance) will vary
from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. None of these services are
linked to the fact that the individual has the status of victim of

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M. Canada has worked with international organizations and civil
society to prevent TIP and promote awareness of the risks
associated with human trafficking, to protect trafficked victims,
and to prosecute traffickers. See Questions 3 (F) and 4 (C) for
services and programs provided domestically and Questions 6 (A) and
6 (B) for international work with other countries, civil society,
and multilateral organizations to address trafficking in persons.


A. In January 2008, the government provided new and ongoing
funding of C$6 million (US$5.7 million) per year, in part to fund
the CCSA's national awareness campaign on human trafficking to help
raise public awareness of the potential dangers of human
trafficking and to help the public identify occurrences and to
provide information on where to report suspected cases. The
existing national tip-line is used as a central point for reporting
suspected cases of human trafficking and for obtaining general
information about TIP. Another portion of this money is funding
the RCMP Human Trafficking Regional Coordinators.

SWC supports community and collaborative projects to advance the
equality of women.

In 2009, the HTNCC and regional HTACs conducted awareness sessions
to approximately 4,500 members of civil society across Canada. The
RCMP developed an "I'm not for sale" campaign and the awareness
material relating to this campaign is included in a tool kit. As
part of the campaign, these tool kits have been distributed to
thousands of law enforcement and NGOs. Included in the tool kits
are two type of TIP posters, one for the public and one for
victims. The posters come in six languages, including languages
from source countries, and have been posted in public areas across
the country. The HTNCC is planning to promote the "I'm not for
sale" campaign among the public and youth in 2010.

CIC, in collaboration with HRSDC, distributes information to
temporary foreign workers that indicates where they can seek
assistance on issues related to employment and health and safety
standards. Live-in caregivers also receive information prior to
their arrival in Canada, such as a sample contract and contact
information for provincial/territorial labor standards offices and
live-in caregiver associations. In addition, the government funds
group orientation sessions in Manila to further prepare live-in
caregivers for work in Canada.

Provinces and territories have primary responsibility for
enforcement of labor standards, which apply equally to temporary
foreign workers, Canadian citizens, and permanent residents of
Canada. Alberta has set up two special advisory offices for
temporary foreign workers and established a team of inspectors to
ensure they receive fair treatment in their workplaces. Manitoba

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has introduced legislation to protect temporary foreign workers
from abusive practices by third party recruiters. Ontario has
introduced legislation to protect live-in caregivers from abusive
practices by third party recruiters. British Columbia's Office to
Combat Trafficking in Persons trained over 2,000 individuals in
government, community agencies, universities, and schools in TIP
awareness and information sessions. In June 2009, the Senate
Standing Committee on Human Rights began an examination of child
sexual exploitation in Canada. In 2009, CIC launched a public
awareness campaign to warn about fraudulent activities and
unscrupulous third party recruiters and consultants. CIC is
examining additional ways of combating fraud, and has been
consulting with stakeholders and recent immigrants to gain a better
understanding of the role of third parties, such as consultants and
labor recruiters.

The National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) supports prevention of
trafficking in persons from a programming and a policy perspective.
The NCPC funded the development and broad dissemination of a
practical assessment tool entitled "Guidance on Local Safety
Audits: A Compendium of International Practice." This tool
promotes integrated action by relevant stakeholders, identifies the
means to gather a clear picture of crime and victimization in a
given city, specifies key populations and issues that should be
examined, including human trafficking, and guides the development
of an effective prevention strategy. Available in English, French,
Spanish, and German (with three other languages forthcoming), this
tool is included in the United Nations (UN) Global Initiative to
Fight Human Trafficking (GIFT) toolkit. The NCPC has also funded a
number of initiatives for vulnerable populations: street youth,
youth at risk of or involved in gangs, and youth involved with
drugs. They have also developed aboriginal-specific initiatives.

See Question 6 (B) for additional information on Canada's technical
assistance international projects that include prevention and

B. Integrated Border Enforcement Teams (IBETs) are designed to
enhance border integrity and security along the shared Canada/U.S.
border by identifying, investigating, and interdicting persons and
organizations that pose a threat to national security or are
engaged in other border-related criminal activity. There are 15
IBET regions with 24 locations along the Canada/U.S. border. The
core IBET agencies are the RCMP, CBSA, the U.S. Bureau of Customs
and Border Protection, the U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Customs
Enforcement, and the U.S. Coast Guard. In addition to these five
core agencies, there are also federal, provincial, territorial,
state, and municipal agencies within IBETs. Co-located
intelligence teams support IBETs and partner agencies by
collecting, analyzing, and disseminating tactical and strategic
intelligence pertaining to cross border crime between Canada and
the U.S. This intelligence is shared with participating agencies
to target international/national/criminal organizations.

The Criminal Visa Screening Unit, as well as the National Security
Screening Unit within the CBSA, gathers intelligence on potential

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travelers to Canada from foreign countries for the purpose of
targeting organized crime and human trafficking. The enhanced
criminal screening process along with location visits and on-site
interviews in Canada by the RCMP and CBSA determine the validity of
the travel request, the accuracy of information presented by the
visitor, and any potential organized crime links. Information
gathered is returned to CIC visa officers for determination of visa

The RCMP and CBSA completed a regional intelligence probe in 2008
to monitor visa applicants from selected countries to identify
potential organizations involved in TIP. CBSA monitors irregular
migration to Canada and publishes regular intelligence analyses
which identify trends and patterns in irregular migration and
migration-related crime, including trafficking in persons.

CBSA employs a multiple borders strategy and performs a number of
functions to help prevent victims from entering Canada, to deter
trafficking organizations from using Canada as a destination
country or a transit country, and to investigate and support the
prosecution of trafficking offenders. This strategy provides the
opportunity for border officers to identify and intercept high risk
travelers, including potential trafficking victims at each point
along their journey to Canada:

A Migration Integrity Officers (MIOs) work with airline
security and local authorities in 45 countries around the world to
prevent irregular migration, including migrant smuggling, by
interdicting individuals before they arrive in Canada;

A MIOs provide advice and training to airlines regarding
persons who may be attempting to travel without proper
documentation, and assist visa officers in combating visa fraud;

A MIOs work with international law enforcement partners to
detect trends and patterns in irregular migration and collect and
report intelligence information on irregular migration, organized
migration crime rings and the routes and methods they use;

A CIC's visa officers posted abroad also receive training
to be vigilant in identifying possible victims of trafficking when
examining both permanent and temporary applications submitted

A CBSA maintains Border Services Officers at 245 Ports of
Entry (highway crossings, airports, and harbors) who examine
foreign nationals seeking entry to Canada to ensure they have
genuine, properly-obtained travel documents, and are entering
Canada for a genuine and lawful purpose; and,

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A Enforcement officers receive training to identify
possible victims of trafficking and to refer them to CIC officials.

Canadian immigration visa officers and MIOs at Canadian embassies
and high commissions abroad collaborate in anti-fraud activities to
ensure the integrity of the Canadian migration program. Canada
cooperates with host country police, as well as the immigration and
law enforcement officers of relevant Canadian embassies and high
commissions, in identifying, investigating, and disrupting criminal
organizations involved in document forgery and TIP. Canadian
immigration officers also provide technical assistance to support
anti-TIP collaboration efforts between Canadian embassies/high
commissions and host countries.

C. Canadian federal efforts are under the coordination of the
IWGTIP (see Question 2 (B).)

The National Missing Children Services, as part of the Canadian
Police Centre for Missing and Exploited Children, analyzes all
abduction and runaway missing requests for assistance from Canadian
police to determine if there are any potential linkages to the
trafficking of children. If linkages exist or are suspected, these
files are forwarded to the RCMP HTNCC for further investigation.
The RCMP is a member of the INTERPOL Working Group on Trafficking
in Human Beings. Regular meetings among participating countries
afford an opportunity to share and gather intelligence on new human
trafficking trends globally and share best practices for combating
TIP. RCMP International Liaison Officers are responsible for
developing and maintaining liaison as well as exchanging
information with foreign officials and international partners,
often in Asia and Eastern Europe. The liaison officers are
responsible for sharing foreign intelligence with the HTNCC. The
HTNCC is in the process of completing MOUs with the United
Kingdom's Human Trafficking Coordination Centre and the USG's Human
Smuggling and Trafficking Center to facilitate the exchange of

The HTNCC coordinates anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts as
well as intelligence relating to TIP with a priority to develop
international partnerships to assist Canadian law enforcement with
the international component of TIP investigations. British
Columbia's Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons plays a
coordinating role between and among all federal, provincial,
municipal, and community partners involved in providing protection
to trafficked persons, and prevention of further trafficking of

D. Canada does not have a national plan of action to address TIP.
The government focuses on four broad areas -- the 4 "Ps" -- to
combat TIP: prevention; protection of victims; prosecution of

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offenders; and, domestic and international partnerships.

E. Canada's primary measure to reduce the prevalence of incidents
involving the sexual exploitation of women and girls, including
through the sex trade, is continued awareness and victim
identification training of law enforcement officials and
prosecution of offenders. Police services across Canada regularly
conduct investigations into and raids at establishments, such as
brothels, massage parlors, and adult entertainment establishments
where prostitution and/or human trafficking is suspected. Law
enforcement agencies make use of the legislative tools available to
lay charges related to human trafficking or prostitution, where
appropriate. Canada supports a broad range of prevention,
awareness and research to address factors that can contribute to
the demand leading to exploitation of persons. See responses to
Section 3 (L) for a description of the legislative measures
addressing child sex tourism.

F. DFAIT's tourist publication "Bon Voyage, But..." advises
Canadian travellers of the Canadian child sex tourism offense and
that child sexual exploitation is prohibited in the destination
country. DFAIT also provides related information, as appropriate
in its Country Reports, designed for travellers to consult prior to
departure. See Question 4 (K) for description of the Guidelines
for Consular Officers posted abroad. See Question 3 (L) for
information on how Canada's criminal laws address the issue of
child sex tourism and numerous programs and policies that are in
place directly to combat exploitation. These measures are
monitored and enhanced, as appropriate, better to protect children
and others from harm.

The RCMP is the international contact point for investigation and
assignment of files involving Canadian suspects and victims of
Internet-facilitated child sexual exploitation. The RCMP's National
Child Exploitation Coordination Center (NCECC) receives information
through national and international partnerships, Interpol, and
domestic law enforcement agencies, including on individuals
believed to be engaged in sex tourism due to their use of the
Internet in organizing and communicating travel activities as well
as posting/distributing sex abuse images. The NCECC coordinates
intelligence, provides investigational support, and expertise to
enable Canadian law enforcement to investigate these offenses.

G. See response to Section 3 (K) for measures adopted to ensure
that Canadian nationals deployed abroad as part of peacekeeping or
other missions do not engage in or facilitate severe forms of
trafficking or exploit victims.


OTTAWA 00000208 027 OF 031

A. See Question 6 (B) outlining international projects with other
governments, civil society and/or multilateral organizations and 5
(A) for more information about the government's partnerships with
the CCSA. See Questions 3 (F) and 4 (C) for initiatives involving
other governments, civil society, and/or multilateral organizations
and Question 6 (B) of other international assistance provided to
other countries, civil society, and multilateral organizations to
address trafficking in persons.

Canada engages bilaterally on the issue of trafficking in persons
with other governments in the context of its security
consultations. TIP was a separate agenda item in bilateral
security consultations with Mexico and Colombia in February and May
2009, respectively. Canada shares best practices and strategies to
combat human trafficking through regional and multilateral
processes such as the United Nations, the Organization of American
States (OAS), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe, the G8, and the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM).
Canada funded an OAS TIP-related meeting on March 3-4, 2009, with
civil society throughout the Americas to exchange experiences,
ideas, and recommendations on different aspects of human

Within the RCM, Canada participates in its Liaison Officer Network
to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling. To combat
TIP, the United States, Mexico, and Canada deliver, at the request
of interested RCM member countries, a course on the detection of
fraudulent travel documentation to immigration and consular
officials. Canada provides an annual update to the RCM's
"Comparative Matrix of Legislation against Trafficking in Persons
and Smuggling of Migrants in RCM Member Countries." Canada is
considering funding a TIP seminar this year in El Salvador through

In December 2009, Canada participated in the International
Organization for Migration's Caribbean Regional Seminar:
"Responding to Needs of Trafficked Victims, Migrant Children and
other Vulnerable Groups." CIC delivered a presentation regarding
the protection of TIP victims in Canada and Canada's plans to
combat TIP at the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

In preparation for the 2010 Winter Games, Justice Canada funded
Vancouver's Information Services for its project "Enhanced
Interpretation Services for Victims of Crime and Human Trafficking
during the 2010 Olympics and Paralympics in Vancouver," which will
help ensure that visitors to British Columbia have access to
information and support. Justice Canada also provided funding for
the Canadian Council for Refugees' National Forum in December 2009
on "Improving Services and Protections for Victims of Trafficking."
Justice Canada and Public Safety Canada are funding British
Columbia's Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons on the project
"Human Trafficking Training Curriculum and Tools for Effective
Response," which entails the development, pilot testing, and
initial delivery of a training curriculum and tool kit on human

OTTAWA 00000208 028 OF 031

trafficking for first responders in British Columbia.

In 2009, Public Safety Canada established the Contribution Program
to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking
(CPCCSEHT) to support projects and initiatives specifically aimed
at combating child sexual exploitation on the Internet and human

SWC funded the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs to develop an Action
Plan to promote national awareness and prevention strategies to
eliminate the sexual exploitation of First Nations women and
children in Canada.

B. DFAIT provides program support to combat TIP internationally
through the new Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program (ACCBP).
Supporting efforts to combat human trafficking is a specific
priority of the ACCBP, which provides assistance to prevent
trafficking in persons, protect victims, prosecute offenders, and
promote partnerships. ACCBP programming will consist of an annual
contribution of C$8.5 million (US$8 million) in 2009-10 and C$15
million (US$ 14 million) thereafter. Eligible recipients include
foreign states and entities, international organizations,
non-governmental organizations, professional organizations, private
sector representatives, or organizations, including academic and
research institutions, and other implementing bodies such as
Canadian federal entities. Funded activities include promoting
public awareness of trafficking in persons, especially among
vulnerable populations.

The Human Security Program at DFAIT is funding a human trafficking
project with C$257,778 (US$ 244,000) from 2007 to 2010 to
strengthen capacity of Latin American and Caribbean peacekeeping
forces to recognize the crime of trafficking in persons and to
contribute to its prevention on UN peacekeeping missions. The
project addresses the prevention element of anti-trafficking in
persons in the following OAS member states, all of which are
currently contributing to UN peacekeeping missions around the
world: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Dominican
Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Paraguay;
Peru; and, Uruguay.

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funded
anti-trafficking projects and programs in China, West Africa,
Central and Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia, with a core focus
on prevention, protection, and rehabilitation. At the multilateral
level, CIDA provides core funding to UNICEF, UNIFEM, UNDP, UNHCR,
ILO, and the IOM to address issues such as trafficking in persons,
commercial sexual exploitation of women and children, human rights,
gender equality, children's rights and protection, and migration

OTTAWA 00000208 029 OF 031

CIDA also supports the Child Protection Partnership in conjunction
with the International Institute for Child Rights and Development
(C$2.85 million - US$2.7 million -- 2008-2011) to improve the
capacity of law enforcement agencies and supporting services to
combat online child exploitation and abuse in developing countries.
In developing countries, online child exploitation is a new and
growing problem that is frequently intertwined with child
trafficking as child vulnerability grows in the context of emerging
economies and increased economic migration.

In East Asia, CIDA supports the Labor Rights: Prevention of Labor
Trafficking Project in partnership with the International Labor
Organization (ILO) (C$4 million - US$3.8 million -- 2009-2012) in
order to contribute to the improvement of labor rights in China
with the goal to reduce trafficking in women and children migrant
workers. The project strengthens provincial action plans against
trafficking, and develops and implements inter-provincial
arrangements for safe migration.

In Eastern Europe, in partnership with the Organization for
Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), CIDA supports the Human
Dimension of Security Project (C$5.1 million - US$ 4.8 million --
2004-2010). Through OSCE programming in the human dimension of
security, it seeks to achieve results in the following key areas:
gender equality; combating trafficking in human beings;
migration/freedom of movement; and human rights.

CIDA also supports a European regional program to combat the
trafficking of human beings, an initiative of the Office for
Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) of the OSCE
(C$2.46 million - US$2.3 million -- 2007-2011), including its
Anti-Trafficking Program across the former Soviet Union and
Southeast Europe. Activities include: supporting the development
of multi-agency anti-trafficking structures through the promotion
of National Referral Mechanisms (NRMs); improving strategies to
identify, protect, and assist trafficked persons, including victims
of sexual and labor exploitation and Roma victims; raising
awareness of and addressing gaps in identification models;
strengthening access to alternative protections available to other
at-risk groups, such as migrant workers; and, strengthening the
access of trafficked persons to justice and rights by monitoring
and raising awareness of rights.

In Southeast Asia, CIDA supports Southeast Asia Regional
Cooperation in Human Development (SEARCH) (C$9.25 million - US$ 8.7
million-- 2004-2010). SEARCH is working with the United Nations
Interagency Program to address the issue of trafficking in the
Greater Mekong Sub-region.

HRSDC supported the International Labor Organization in a technical
assistance project to strengthen government enforcement capacity to

OTTAWA 00000208 030 OF 031

identify, investigate, and prosecute offences for forced labor and
human trafficking and to support the establishment of an efficient
and regulated recruitment mechanism in Jordan.

The RCMP provided TIP training to local police officers as well as
customs and immigration officers from twelve countries in West
Africa in September and December 2009 in coordination with
INTERPOL, the Netherlands, Denmark, and the United States. In
October 2009, the RCMP provided TIP training to approximately 250
middle managers from the newly created police service in Mexico.

The HTNCC developed TIP training for law enforcement in Asia,
Africa, and Mexico for basic awareness, investigative techniques,
intelligence-led policing, victim management and risk assessment,
partnerships, and international cooperation. In March and November
2009, the RCMP provided TIP and child exploitation training
including combating sex tourism to 80 officers from the Cambodian
National Police attached to the Anti-Trafficking and Juvenile
Protection Unit in coordination with the Canadian Police Chiefs
International Training Agency, the Vancouver Police Department, and
the Toronto Police Service. Following the training, officers in
Siem Riep, Cambodia uncovered two cases of sex tourism/child
exploitation using several techniques learned from the Canadian
police instructors.


Joy Smith is one of Canada's leading anti-trafficking activists and
has used her role as an elected federal Member of Parliament since
2004 to raise awareness of human trafficking at the national level.
Mrs. Smith's achievements include passage of a unanimous
(non-binding) private member's motion in Parliament in 2007
condemning trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation and
calling on Canada to adopt a comprehensive national strategy to
combat human trafficking. She continues tirelessly to lobby
federal ministers and fellow legislators to develop, fund, and
enact this national strategy. As Vice-Chair of the House of
Commons Status of Women Committee in 2004, she prompted the
Committee to study and issue a highly regarded report on human
trafficking. She has led the national discussion on trafficking,
resulting in important changes to the Immigration and Refugee
Protection Act to extend temporary resident permits to trafficking
victims. Mrs. Smith currently has a private member's bill (Bill
C-268) in Parliament that would, if passed, impose a five-year
mandatory minimum prison sentence for the trafficking of a minor
under the age of 18 years. Mrs. Smith is an impassioned public
speaker, advocate, and facilitator in the struggle against human
trafficking, frequently appearing as keynote speaker at conferences
and bringing together law enforcement, educators, international
trafficking experts, activists, non-governmental organizations,
aboriginal organizations, and students. She works directly to
support street-level outreach to trafficked women and minors as
well as to mobilize resources to protect women and children from
sexual exploitation. Colleagues throughout the political spectrum
have recognized her central role as a catalyst in raising awareness
of human trafficking at the federal level and in promoting all
party cooperation to combat this crime.

OTTAWA 00000208 031 OF 031


The point of contact for the TIP report is Emily S. Fertik at and (613) 688-5240. Completion of the TIP
report entailed:

n FS-04: approximately 100 hours

n LES-11: 50 hours

n FS-02: two hours

n FE-OC: three hours

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