Due Diligence on Cannabis Harm, Not ‘Fear’
FAMILY FIRST NEW ZEALAND
26 May 2019 (for immediate release)
A response to Alison Mau – Due Diligence on Cannabis Harm, Not ‘Fear’
Alison Mau seems desperate to shut down our petition (“Family First is trying to scare you - don't fall for it” SST, 19 May 2019) which calls for an Inquiry into a possible link between cannabis and violence – emphasis on ‘possible’.
Over the past couple of decades, studies around the globe have found that higher levels of THC – the active compound in cannabis – is strongly linked to psychosis, schizophrenia, and violence.
And with increasing THC levels being found in marijuana products consumed via edibles, vaping, and dabbing, the risk is growing. In Colorado the average THC content of all tested flower in 2017 was 19.6%, and for concentrated extract products, 68.6%. Potency rates can now be as high as 99.9%.
Researchers have studied alcohol and violence for generations, proving that alcohol is a risk factor for domestic abuse and assault. Far less work has been done on cannabis.
And that’s effectively the work that we’d like to see done – before we move to legalise it.
We would argue that the evidence is already building.
A just-published study in The Lancet concluded that “people who smoked marijuana on a daily basis were three times more likely to be diagnosed with psychosis... For those who used high-potency marijuana daily, the risk jumped to nearly five times.”
Research published in 2016 in the journal Psychological Medicine concluded that continued cannabis use is associated with 7-fold greater odds for subsequent commission of violent crimes.
As with all research, there are limitations in the studies mentioned above. But those same limitations also apply to studies which say there is no association.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) summed up the issue in their 2012 report, saying that the increasing potency of cannabis can increase psychotic symptoms in regular users.
Last year, Texas’s report on child abuse deaths said that half the child abuse deaths in 2017 were coupled with substance abuse. Marijuana was the most-used substance. Arizona’s 2017 report showed a similar finding.
Earlier this month in California, Bryn Spejcher, an employed, well-educated 28-year-old with no criminal record or history of mental illness appeared in court accused of stabbing her boyfriend to death -- after smoking pot for the first time. The coroner testified that the victim had been stabbed 108 times. A forensic scientist confirmed that no drug other than THC was present in Bryn's blood and no drug other than THC was found in the bong.
Here in New Zealand last year, a man who stalked several women during a 24-hour drug-induced psychosis left one of his victims with “a lasting fear”. He lost his job after failing a drug test and then embarked on a four-day cannabis binge. The judge said that resulted in a psychosis.
The new paper “Cannabis use and violence in patients with severe mental illnesses: A meta-analytical investigation” is the most comprehensive survey yet on the issue. Findings showed a moderate cannabis-violence association in severe mental illness. What's also striking is how recent most of the papers examined are - 10 of the 12 papers are in the last decade, and 7 of the 12 since 2016.
Mau says she contacted Otago University associate professor Joseph Boden. So did I. Boden is in favour of some form of legalisation.
We both agreed that high-THC cannabis would increase the risks we’re identifying. He argued that a regulated market in New Zealand would keep this risk down by limiting THC levels. It’s a nice theory, but I’ve been to Colorado and California. Regulation simply empowers a black market – as is being seen inColorado, California, and now Canada.
Mau also refers to ‘the scientific community’ of 75 academics and medical professionals who wrote an open letter attacking a book which raises these issues. She forgot to mention the lobbyists from NORML and the Drug Policy Alliance in that list. She also conveniently left out the bit where the signatories reiterated “their support for an end to marijuana prohibition and for the legal regulation of marijuana for adult use.”
Just this month, more than 40 clinicians, researchers, and scientists from Massachusetts, including many from Harvard Medical School, released aStatement of Concern, highlighting negative effects of THC - “Increased risk of serious mental health problems including acute psychosis (e.g., hallucinations, delusions), paranoia, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and suicide, with growing scientific evidence that daily use of high THC products bring greater risk”. They highlighted 2018 research from the Copenhagen University Hospital which found that “41% of those who experience cannabis-induced psychosis later convert to schizophrenia.”
Last month in Vermont, the Department of Mental Health warned legislators, stating, “.. multiple studies have linked regular cannabis use to an estimated doubling of the risk of a psychotic illness… Violent behaviour as a result of cannabis induced paranoia and other psychotic symptoms is also an increasing concern.”
In Maryland, neuroscientist Christine Miller warned legislators, “The causal link between marijuana use and the development of psychosis is quite simply the most well-replicated, high-impact finding in schizophrenia research today. Given current use rates and the strong potency of the drug available, it stands to be responsible for a larger proportion of schizophrenia cases than any other established factor…”
In the same way that there is some real evidence that components of marijuana can be made into medicine, there is building scientific evidence suggesting that components of the plant can lead to mental illness, at times severe, that can lead to violence.
We are simply asking for research and scientific consensus before moving forward as a country with a change this massive.
We believe this to be a responsible and thoughtful way to move forward.