Cablegate: 2005 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.




E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: (A) STATE 209561

I. Summary

1. The Netherlands continues to be a significant transit
point for drugs entering Europe (especially cocaine), an
important producer and exporter of synthetic drugs
(particularly Ecstasy - MDMA), and a substantial consumer of
most illicit drugs. The current Dutch center-right coalition
has made measurable progress in implementing a five-year
strategy (2002-2006) against production, trade and
consumption of synthetic drugs. According to the public
prosecutor's office, the number of Ecstasy tablets seized in
the U.S. that could be linked to the Netherlands dropped to
0.2 million in 2004 from 1.1 million in 2003 and 2.5 million
in 2002. This number does not take into account the amount of
Ecstasy seized in Canada that is destined for the U.S.
Operational cooperation between U.S. and Dutch law
enforcement agencies is excellent, despite some differences
in approach and tactics. In July 2005, ONDCP Director John
Walters and Dutch Health Minister Hans Hoogervorst signed an
agreement to exchange scientific and demand reduction
information. The Netherlands actively participates in DEA's
El Paso Information Center (EPIC). The 100% controls at
Schiphol airport on inbound flights from the Caribbean and
some South American countries have resulted in a dramatic
decline in the number of drug couriers. Dutch popular
attitudes toward soft drugs remain tolerant to the point of
indifference. The Government of the Netherlands (GONL) and
the public view domestic drug use as a public health issue
first and a law enforcement issue second. End summary.

II. Status of Country

2. The central geographical position of the Netherlands,
with its modern transportation and communications
infrastructure, one of the world's busiest container port in
Rotterdam and one of Europe's busiest airports, makes the
country an attractive operational area for international drug
traffickers and money launderers. Production of Ecstasy and
marijuana is significant; there is also production of
amphetamines and other synthetic drugs. The Netherlands also
has a large (legal) chemical sector, making it an opportune
location for criminals to obtain or produce precursor
chemicals used to manufacture illicit drugs.

III. Country actions against drugs in 2005

Policy Initiatives

3. Major Dutch government policy initiatives in 2005

4. The National Crime Squad (Nationale Recherche or NR),
which officially started functioning in January 2004, had a
very successful year in 2005. Not only did it make the
largest cocaine seizure ever in the Netherlands, it also
dismantled the largest Ecstasy laboratory ever found in the
country (see below for more details).


5. As announced in the 2004 Cannabis Letter, the Dutch
Government has given top priority to discouraging drug
tourism and cannabis cultivation, particularly in the
southern border regions. In November 2005, Justice Minister
Donner sent the Second Chamber an assessment of the
government's cannabis policy, highlighting the most important

- Maastricht shortly is expected to begin the trial project
with special coffeeshop passes for its local residents. If
successful, the experiment, which will limit the purchase
soft drugs in Dutch coffeeshops to Dutch nationals, will be
- In October 2005, Justice Minister Donner proposed amending
the Opium Act to make it easier for local governments to
close down premises where drugs are sold illegally.
Currently, closure of such drug premises is possible with a
judge's order, but only if there is concrete evidence they
are causing serious public nuisance;

- The public prosecutor's office and the police in the
southern provinces of Brabant and Limburg have started a
pilot project targeting the criminal organizations behind
illegal cannabis cultivation, rather than merely focusing on
individual growers;

- In anticipation of parliamentary ratification of the
bilateral law enforcement cooperation treaties with Germany
and Belgium, practical measures have been taken to reduce
drug trafficking in border regions. Cross-border
surveillance has been intensified and license numbers of drug
tourists are being exchanged;

- To implement the EU framework decision on illegal drug
trafficking of November 2004, the Government currently is
drafting a proposal raising the sentence for large-scale
cannabis cultivation and illegal cannabis trafficking either
or not in organized form from 4 to 6 years' imprisonment;

- The 2004 National Drug Monitor, published by the Trimbos
Addiction Institute in April 2005, showed that recent (within
the last-month) cannabis use among young people aged 12-18
dropped from 11% in 1996 to 9% in 2003. Lifetime prevalence
(ever-used) of cannabis in this age group dropped from 22% to
19% over the same period. In 2004, Trimbos began a 3-year
mass- media publicity campaign, subsidized by the Health
Ministry, to discourage cannabis use among young people;

- The average THC content in Dutch-grown cannabis
(Nederwiet) was 20% in 2003-2004, and appears to be
stabilizing at between 17 and 20%. The State Institute for
Health and Environment (RIVM) has been ordered to investigate
acute health risks of cannabis with high THC levels. Results
of this study are expected in March 2006.

6. A July 2005 study estimated the total number of
coffeeshops in the Netherlands at 737 at the end of 2004,
down from 754 in 2002. Only 22% of the 483 Dutch
municipalities allow coffeeshops within their cities - 70% do
not allow any at all. Half of all coffeeshops are located in
the five largest cities. On average, coffeeshops are
controlled four times per year, and criteria for operating
such shops usually are well observed.

7. In a November 28, 2005 letter to the Second Chamber,
Health Minister Hoogervorst stated that legal sales of
medicinal cannabis by pharmacies have largely failed. He
said the policy to allow medicinal sales in pharmacies could
only be effective if an official cannabis-based medicine were
registered. Hoogervorst intends to end the experiment if the
pharmaceutical industry fails to develop such a medicine
within one year. Since March 2003, doctors have been allowed
to prescribe medicinal cannabis for their chronically ill
patients. The Health Ministry's Bureau for Medicinal
Cannabis buys the cannabis from two official growers,
controls quality and organizes the distribution.

Cocaine Trafficking

8. In July 2005, the Justice Ministry expanded prosecutions
of South American and Caribbean cocaine couriers at Schiphol
airport. Previously, the government only prosecuted couriers
carrying 3 kilos or more of cocaine; couriers carrying
smaller quantities were sent home. Under the new policy,
couriers carrying 1.5 or more kilos are prosecuted.
Government officials expect to prosecute all couriers,
regardless of quantity carried, by January 2006. This has
become possible because of the dramatic decline in the number
of couriers due to the stricter controls. During a Justice
Ministry budget debate in November 2005, the Second Chamber
questioned the high amount of money spent annually on the
100% controls: 27 million euros by Justice, and 6.5 million
euros each by the KMAR military police and Customs. In early
2006, the Justice Ministry will publish an assessment of the
Schiphol drug policy, including a long-term plan.

9. In September 2005, Justice Minister Donner signed
agreements with his Colombian and Venezuelan counterparts on
intensified cooperation in combating cocaine trafficking in
the regions.

10. In June 2005, the Justice Ministry agreed to resume
sharing the list of all blacklisted Schiphol couriers with
DEA's El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) after a two-month
hiatus due to Dutch concerns over privacy protections. To
date, approximately 5,300 courier names have been provided to

11. In August 2005, the Rotterdam police seized 4,500 kilos
of cocaine - the largest cocaine seizure ever in the
Netherlands. The cocaine, hidden inside two large steel
cable spools, was worth an estimated 273 million dollars.
The investigation involved close cooperation with DEA offices
in Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Cooperation among
Dutch, German and Spanish police led to the seizure of 1,650
kilos of cocaine at the Port of Rotterdam in November. The
cocaine, with an estimated street value of 60 million
dollars, was hidden in tins of asparagus and red peppers.


12. In July 2005, Justice Minister Donner submitted to the
Second Chamber an interim evaluation of the Government's 2002-
2006 Ecstasy action plan. The report, which covers the
period up to 2004, indicated positive effects, such as
increased seizures, suspects, and completed investigations.
(For more details, see para on cultivation/production.)

13. On November 29, 2005, the National Crime Squad (NR) and
the FIOD-ECD fiscal and economic investigation service
dismantled the largest Ecstasy lab ever found in the
Netherlands. The professional lab was found in Nederweert
(southern Limburg province), and was estimated to have had a
production capacity of 20 million Ecstasy tablets. The
police also found more than 300 liters of PMK and a small
quantity of MDMA powder and amphetamine. In addition, more
than 50,000 liters of chemicals were discovered at a
different location. Six people were arrested, all of them
from Limburg province. The investigation, which began in May
2005, was carried out in close cooperation with German and
Belgian authorities. This was the first Ecstasy lab
discovered in 2005; previously, only amphetamine laboratories
had been found this year.

Heroin Experiment

14. In June 2005, Ministers Donner and Hoogervorst informed
the Second Chamber that projects providing free heroin to
hard-core drug addicts would be expanded to another 15
municipalities, for which 7 million euros would be made
available over the next few years. Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The
Hague, Utrecht, Groningen and Heerlen already have such
projects, which include a total of 300 addicts. In total,
980 addicts could be treated with the extra money.


15. The new National Crime Squad (NR) has proved very
effective in drug investigations, and resulted in closer
cooperation with the DEA. In July 2005, the national police
(KLPD) assigned a liaison officer to China to work on joint
precursor chemical investigations. In addition to working
directly with the Chinese, the Netherlands is an active
participant in the INCB/PRISM project's taskforce.
Law Enforcement Efforts

16. Overall the Health Ministry coordinates drug policy,
while the Ministry of Justice is responsible for law
enforcement. Matters relating to local government and the
police are the responsibility of the Ministry of Interior. At
the municipal level, policy is coordinated in tripartite
consultations among the mayor, the chief public prosecutor
and the police.

17. The Dutch Opium Act punishes possession, commercial
distribution, production, import, and export of all illicit
drugs. Drug use, however, is not an offense. The act
distinguishes between hard drugs that have unacceptable
risks (e.g., heroin, cocaine, Ecstasy), and soft drugs
(cannabis products). Trafficking in hard drugs is
prosecuted vigorously and dealers are subject to a prison
sentence of up to 12 years. When trafficking takes place on
an organized scale, the sentence is increased by one-third
(up to 16 years). Sales of small amounts of cannabis
products (under five grams) are tolerated (i.e., not
prosecuted, even though technically illegal) in coffeeshops
operating under regulated conditions (no minors on premises,
no alcohol sales, no hard drug sales, no advertising, and not
creating a public nuisance).

18. The Dutch National Police (KLPD) and the National
Prosecutors office continue to give high priority to
combating the illegal drug trade. The new National Crime
Squad (Nationale Recherche - NR), a branch of the KLPD,
became operational on January 1, 2004; two of the NR's
primary missions are investigating of smuggling and cross
border trade in cocaine and heroin, and investigating the
production and trade of synthetic drugs. As part of the
bilateral Next Steps law enforcement negotiations, DEA has
obtained increased access to the NR office in The Hague,
which focuses on cocaine investigations, and is working
toward a similar relationship with the NR office in Helmond,
which focuses on synthetic drugs. In September 2004, DEA
assigned an additional special agent to The Hague Country
Office, increasing the office's manpower to six, the largest
it has ever been.

19. In April 2005, the Dutch participated in the
International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) in Santiago,
Chile. This conference, involving approximately 50 nations,
meets to share drug intelligence, identify joint targets and
assist in coordinating international drug trafficking
investigations. In July 2005, the KLPD assigned a liaison
officer to Beijing, China to facilitate joint cooperation on
precursor chemical investigations. In November 2005, the
Dutch hosted the Synthetic Drug Enforcement Conference
(SYNDEC II), which focused on ways to increase international
cooperation on synthetic drug and precursor chemical

20. All foreign law enforcement assistance requests continue
to be sent to the DIN (International Network Service), a
division of the NR. The DIN has assigned two liaison
officers to assist DEA and other U.S. law enforcement
agencies. Since the reorganization into the NR, the DIN has
allowed DEA and other liaison officers to contact one of the
five NR offices directly with requests. In addition, DEA has
been allowed to contact regional police offices on a case-by-
case basis. This policy has permitted better coordination
during ongoing enforcement actions, such as controlled
deliveries and undercover operations. Under Dutch law
enforcement policy, prosecutors still control most aspects of
an investigation. Dutch police officers must get prosecutor
concurrence to share police-to-police information directly
with foreign liaison officers. This can hamper the quick
sharing of information, which could be used proactively in an
ongoing investigation. However, the quick sharing of police-
to-police information is improving as a result of the
increased access for DEA agents with NR units. This improved
information sharing led to the seizure of approximately 4,500
kilograms of cocaine and the dismantling of a Colombian
cocaine transportation cell operating in the Netherlands and
Spain in September 2005. Dutch law enforcement has also
become much more willing to undertake controlled delivery
operations with DEA. In fiscal year 2004, the Dutch did not
accept any requests from DEA for controlled delivery
operations. In FY 2005, the Dutch and DEA conducted 10
inbound controlled deliveries of cocaine. This trend is
continuing with three controlled delivery operations
attempted so far in FY 2006. Most of these controlled
deliveries are small amounts of cocaine (less than five
kilograms) contained in parcels being sent from South America
or the Caribbean.

21. The 100% controls on inbound flights from the Caribbean
and some South American countries continue at Schiphol
Airport. Currently couriers with more than 1.5 kilograms of
cocaine are prosecuted. The Dutch Ministry of Justice
anticipates prosecuting all cocaine couriers, regardless of
quantity, at Schiphol beginning in January 2006. The
manpower required to conduct these 100% controls remains a
major monetary expense and logistical challenge for the
authorities at Schiphol. The program negatively affects the
number of flights targeted for outbound checks, and as a
result, the number of outbound drug couriers going to the
United States arrested at Schiphol remains low.


22. The Dutch government is committed to fighting national
and international corruption. It does not encourage or
facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or
psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the
laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. No
senior official of the Dutch government engages in,
encourages or facilitates the illicit production or
distribution of such drugs or substances, or the laundering
of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. Press reports of
low-level law enforcement corruption appear from time to time
but the problem is not believed to be widespread or systemic.
In November 2005, 140 officers of the special Schiphol
CargoHarc drug team staged a preventive security control
action of the airport's baggage basement, searching for drugs
and other potential criminal activities. The action did not
result in any arrests.

Agreements and Treaties

23. The Netherlands is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention,
the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1961
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the 1972 Protocol
amending the Single Convention. The Netherlands is a member
of the UN Commission on Narcotics Drugs and the major donors
group of the UNODC. The Netherlands is a leading member of
the Dublin Group of countries coordinating drug-related
assistance. The Netherlands ratified the UN Convention on
Transnational Organized Crime in 2004, and ratified the
protocols on trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling in

Cultivation and Production

24. Although commercial (indoor) cultivation of hemp is
banned, about 80 percent of the Dutch cannabis market is
Dutch-grown marijuana (Nederwiet). A 2004 national police
report of the Dutch drug market estimated the Netherlands has
between 17,000-22,000 cannabis plantations producing about
68,000-99,000 kilos of Nederwiet. In 2004, 2,261 hemp
plantations were dismantled, up from 1,867 in 2003. Although
the Dutch government has given top priority to the
investigation and prosecution of large-scale commercial
cultivation of Nederwiet, tolerated coffeeshops appear to
create the demand for such cultivation. To end the
controversial policy of allowing front-door cannabis sales
in coffeeshops but banning back-door deliveries, a Second
Chamber majority urged the Government in October 2005 to
approve a trial program regulating cannabis cultivation.
Proponents, including the Mayors of Amsterdam and Maastricht,
argued that the measure would end large-scale home
cultivation, in which organized crime plays an important
role. Justice Minister Donner and Interior Minister Remkes
strongly opposed the experiment on the grounds that it would
violate international treaties to which the Netherlands is

25. The Netherlands remains one of the largest producers of
synthetic drugs, although the National Crime Squad (NR) has
noted a production shift to Eastern Europe. According to the
NR, there also appears to be a shift from Ecstasy to
amphetamine production. According to a July 2005 report by
the National Crime Squad (NR), 197 Ecstasy suspects were
arrested in 2004, down from 214 in 2003. The NR seized
11,120 liters of chemical precursors compared to 11,453
liters in 2003. The NR completed 60 criminal investigations
in 2004 and 40 in 2003. The Fiscal and Economic
Investigation Service (FIOD-ECD) completed 23 investigations
in 2004 and 19 in 2003. The total number of Ecstasy tablets
with an alleged Dutch connection confiscated by U.S.
authorities continued to drop from almost 2.3 million tablets
in 2002, and 1.1 million in 2003, to about 0.2 million in
2004. The number of registered Ecstasy tablets seized in the
Netherlands totaled 5.6 million in 2004, compared to 5.4
million in 2003.

26. According to the same NR report, 2004 drug seizures
around the world that could be related to the Netherlands
involved more than 10 million MDMA tablets (2003: 12.9
million) and more than 1,000 kilos (2003: 870 kilos) of MDMA
powder. MDMA (powder and paste) seizures in the Netherlands
in 2004 dropped to 303 kilos from 435 kilos in 2003. The
number of dismantled production sites in the Netherlands for
synthetic drugs dropped to 29 in 2004 from 37 in 2003. Of
the 29 production sites, 13 were for amphetamine and 11 for
Ecstasy production, and 5 were meant for Ecstasy tableting.

Drug Flow/Transit

27. The Netherlands remains an important point of entry for
drugs to Europe, especially cocaine. According to a November
2003 report by the National Crime Squad, an estimated 40,000-
50,000 kilos of cocaine are smuggled annually into the
Netherlands, of which about 20,000 kilos enter via Schiphol
and the remainder via seaports and road from Spain (Dutch
cocaine use is estimated at 4,000-8,000 kilos annually). The
Dutch government has stepped up border controls to combat the
flow of drugs, including the successful Schiphol Action Plan.
Cocaine seizures in the Netherlands dropped to 12,387 kilos
in 2004, of which about 8,155 kilos were seized at Schiphol.
The government has expanded the number of container scanners
in the port of Rotterdam and at Schiphol airport. Controls
of highways and international trains connecting the
Netherlands to neighboring countries have also been

Money Laundering

28. The Netherlands participates in the FATF. Forty
separate anti-money laundering measures recommended by FATF
have been integrated in the financial sector. Additionally,
legislation making money laundering a separate, stand-alone,
offense became effective in 2002. (Septel)

Asset Seizures

29. The Dutch have signed the Strasbourg Convention and have
drawn up national legislation to enable courts to confiscate
the proceeds of drug-related crime. The U.S. and the
Netherlands have an asset seizure agreement.

Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty
--------------------------------------------- -

30. The U.S. and the Netherlands have fully operational
extradition and mutual legal assistance agreements (MLAT).
Some defense attorneys, however, have argued that suspects
who may be accused in the United States of terrorist offences
should not be extradited because of the way they may be
treated in the U.S. Courts have been receptive to this

Demand Reduction

31. The Netherlands has a wide variety of demand and harm-
reduction programs, reaching about 80 percent of the
country's 26,000-30,000 opiate addicts. The number of opiate
addicts is low compared to other EU countries (2.6 per 1,000
inhabitants); the number has stabilized over the past few
years; the average age has risen to 40; and the number of
overdose deaths related to opiates has stabilized at between
30 and 50 per year. Needle supply and exchange programs have
kept the incidence of HIV infection among intravenous drug
users relatively low. Of the addicts known to the addiction
care organizations, 75 percent regularly use methadone.

32. According to the 2004 National Drug Monitor, the out-
patient treatment centers registered some 29,173 drug users
seeking treatment for their addiction in 2003, compared to
27,768 in 2002. The number of cannabis addicts seeking
treatment rose to 4,485 in 2003 from 3,701 in 2002, but the
number of opiate addicts seeking treatment dropped from
16,043 in 2002 to 15,195 in 2003. Statistics from drug
treatment services show a sharp increase in the number of
people seeking help for cocaine addiction, from 6,103 in 2000
to 9,216 in 2003. About 65 percent of addicts seeking help
for cocaine problems are crack cocaine users.

33. Drug use among students ages 12-18, 1999 and 2003
(percent reporting life-time (ever) use and last-month use)

Life-time use Last-month use
------------- --------------
1999 2003 1999 2003

Cannabis 20.0 19.0 9.0 9.0
Cocaine 2.8 2.2 1.2 0.8
Heroin 0.8 1.1 0.4 0.5
Amphetamine 2.8 2.2 1.1 0.8
Ecstasy 3.9 2.9 1.4 1.2

(Source: National Drug Monitor 2004, Trimbos Institute


34. Drug prevention programs are organized through a network
of local, regional and national institutions. Schools are
targeted in efforts to discourage drug use, while national
campaigns are conducted in the mass media to reach the
broader public. The Netherlands requires school instruction
on the dangers of alcohol and drugs as part of the health
education curriculum. The Netherlands Institute of Mental
Health and Addiction (the Trimbos Institute) has developed a
project in the field of alcohol and drugs in the context of
teaching healthy living in classrooms. About 75 percent of
Dutch secondary schools participate in the project. In 2004,
the Health Ministry and the Trimbos Institute launched a
three-year cannabis information campaign warning young people
in the 12-18 age group about the health risks. The 24-hour
national Drug Info Line of the Trimbos Institute has become
very popular.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives

Bilateral Cooperation
35. U.S. and Dutch law enforcement agencies maintained
excellent operational cooperation, with principal attention
given to countering the Netherlands' role as a key source
country for MDMA/Ecstasy entering the U.S. The U.S. Embassy
in The Hague has made the fight against the Ecstasy threat
one of its highest priorities. Dutch law enforcement has
dramatically improved its acceptance of controlled delivery
operations with the DEA, but continues to resist use of
criminal infiltrants in investigations of drug traffickers.
They are also reluctant to admit the involvement of large,
international drug organizations in the local drug trade and
do not use their asset forfeiture rules often. The fourth
bilateral law enforcement talks, which were held in
Washington in April 2005, resulted in additional agreements
to the Agreed Steps list of action to enhance law
enforcement cooperation in fighting drug trafficking.

36. The U.S. and the Netherlands cooperate closely on law
enforcement activities throughout the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. The U.S. is also working with the Kingdom to
assist Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles in countering
narcotics trafficking. The 10-year FOL agreement between the
U.S. and the Kingdom for the establishment of forward
operating locations on Aruba and Curacao became effective in
October 2001.

37. Since 1999, the Dutch Organization for Health Research
and Development (ZonMw) has been working with NIDA on joint
addiction research projects.

The Road Ahead

38. We expect U.S.-Dutch bilateral law enforcement
cooperation to intensify in 2006. The bilateral Agreed
Steps process will continue to promote closer cooperation in
international investigations, including Ecstasy and money
laundering cases. In particular, increased access for DEA
agents to NR drug units is expected to result in enhanced
police-to-police information sharing and coordination. The
Dutch government's Ecstasy Action Plan is expected to result
in further improvements in Dutch counter narcotics efforts.
The Dutch synthetic drug unit, which now is part of the
National Crime Squad, will continue to make concrete
progress. The stationing of the Dutch liaison officer in
China in July 2005 is expected to increase cooperation among
the U.S., China and the Netherlands on precursor chemicals.
We have also noticed improved and expedited handling of
extradition requests.

V. Statistics

37. Drug Seizures
2003 2004
---- ----
Heroin (kilos) 417 1,244
Cocaine (kilos) 17,560 12,387
Ecstasy (tablets) 5,420,033 5,600,193
Ecstasy (powder and paste)(kilos) 435 303
Ecstasy production sites 37 29
Amphetamine (kilos) 843 533
Amphetamine (tablets) 14,000 10,355
LSD (doses) - 52,000
LSD (tablets) 1,642 -
Methadone (tablets) 57,430 13,866
Cannabis resin (kilos) 10,719 16,101
Marijuana (kilos) 7,067 7,491
Nederwiet (kilos) 1,179 2,163
Hemp plants 1,111,855 1,127,174
Dismantled hemp plantations 1,867 2,261

(Source: KLPD National Police Force)

Chemical Control
38. Responses below are keyed to the questions in reftel.

-- (a) The Netherlands is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention and 1990 European Union Regulations. Trade in
precursor chemicals is governed by the 1995 Act to Prevent
Abuse of Chemical Substances (WVMC). The law seeks to
prevent the diversion of legal chemicals into the illegal
sector. Violations of the law can lead to prison sentences
(maximum of six years), fines (up to 50,000 Euros), or asset
seizures. The Fiscal and Economic Information and
Investigation Service (FIOD-ECD) oversees implementation of
the law.

The NR synthetic drug unit and the Public Prosecutor's Office
have strengthened cooperation with countries playing an
important role in Ecstasy production, in particular with
countries exporting chemical precursors. The GONL signed an
MOU with China concerning chemical precursor investigations.

-- b) The Dutch continue to work closely with the U.S. on
precursor chemical controls and investigations. This
cooperation includes formal and informal agreements on the
exchange of intelligence. The Netherlands is an active
participant in the INCB/PRISM project's taskforce.

-- (c) Yes, the Netherlands is a party to agreements on a
method of maintaining records of transactions of an
established list of precursor and essential chemicals.

-- (d) The Netherlands established such procedures in 1994.

-- (e) The Netherlands has efficient national chemical
control legislation in place which imposes record keeping and
reporting requirements for listed chemicals.

-- (f) No, the Netherlands doesn't encourage illicit
production of controlled substances or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions.

-- (g) No.


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