Cablegate: Turkey 2003 End Use Monitoring Report

This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.



E.O. 12958: N/A



1. Since 1986, the International Narcotics Crime and Control
(INCC) program has provided approximately 5,500 units of
equipment and training, valued at over USD 5.7 million, to
five Turkish agencies with responsibility for Turkey,s
anti-narcotics programs: The Turkish Grain Board (TMO),
Jandarma (paramilitary police under the Minister of the
Interior), Customs, Turkish National Police (TNP), and the
Amatem drug addiction treatment facility. During calendar
year 2003, training and equipment valued at some USD 173,000
was provided. Very generally, the equipment provided during
these years can be assigned to the following categories:
Computers; communications; surveillance; border inspection;
and poppy processing. However, because of the number and
types of equipment provided, to report by type of resource
rather than by project, as requested in Reftel, is not
practicable. (For example, while computers have been provided
to all five agencies, they serve completely different
functions in each agency.)

2. Similarly, because this equipment has been assigned to
scores of locations throughout the country, physical
inspection of all the equipment is a practical impossibility.
Thus, Post relies upon periodic meetings with supervisory
personnel in each agency to monitor its use. (It appears that
all agencies maintain up-to-date physical inventories.) Where
feasible, Post does, in connection with such meetings, also
physically inspect some equipment. (This year, such
inspections were performed on equipment provided to TMO and
Amatem.) Local agency personnel have been uniformly
cooperative and helpful with respect to such end-use

3. Because of Turkey,s refusal to accept Leahy Amendment
language contained in the year 2000 Letter of Agreement, the
INCC program has been winding down. Unobligated funds from
1999 and prior years in the amount of $122,587 are expected
to be obligated before year end 2004, at which point the
program will suspend. Post is attempting to persuade the
current GOT to accept the disputed Leahy Amendment language,
in which case -- funds permitting -- it might be possible to
restart the program. Our local partners have made many
requests for additional training and equipment, and
resumption of the program will be of great value to Turkey,s
anti-narcotics efforts.

4. Two major lessons emerge from Post,s experience with
the program. First, the existing method of funding, under
which a predetermined amount (USD 500,000) was allocated
among each agency without regard to their needs, is
suboptimal. Should the program be revived, when agencies seek
funding they should specify the strategic goals to be
achieved, and should also suggest benchmarks against which
the success of the program and utility of the equipment and
training provided can be measured. Second, the choice of make
and model of equipment should always be made in close
consultation with the agencies, to ensure that it is suited
to their needs and local conditions.

Turkish Grain Board

5. Starting in 1992 and continuing through 2001, the INCC
program provided TMO with equipment and training valued at
over USD 900,000. No items were provided in 2003. All of the
equipment is still being used. The objectives of this program
are to reduce cost, increase the morphine content of
cultivated poppies, and reduce the amount of land under
cultivation. All of these objectives are being achieved:
Poppy capsule morphine content has doubled since the program
started, while the cost of morphine base has declined from
$665 per kilo in 1998, to $450 today. TMO hopes to reduce
land under cultivation by 50% in the next year (from 149,000
hectares to 70,000), while again doubling productivity.
During a meeting on January 19 with TMO facility manager Sen
Huseyin and two other TMO officials, Econoff was advised that
the following equipment (all of which Econoff inspected
during the visit) has been of greatest value to TMO:

a. A pilot facility placed into operation in April
2003 (purchased with funds obligated during 2001) will be
fully operational in 2004. This facility will be used to
develop new methods of determining the alkaloid content of
poppy seeds. Mr. Huseyin reported that the U.S.-built
equipment purchased through the INCC program is superior to
the domestic equipment it replaced.

b. Seed Cleaning Equipment (SCE, also purchased with funds
obligated during 2001). TMO has begun to cultivate its own
poppy plant varieties, which have 2-3 times the morphine
content of the plants currently grown by the 100,000
commercial poppy farmers who supply poppy capsules to TMO.
The SCE cleans, disinfects and packages the seeds of these
new varieties, so that TMO can distribute them to farmers.
This coming year, some 800 tons of seeds will be distributed
in this manner. Huseyin reported that this process would be
quite impossible without the SCE. While TMO is quite happy
with the equipment, it does not have the ability to separate
seeds according to color. Apparently, the market for
comestible poppy seeds (a potential by-product of morphine
production and additional source of income to TMO), requires
seeds to be sold according to color. TMO has heard that
equipment exists that permits such separation, and has asked
Post to fund its purchase.

c. High pressure liquid chromatographer (HPLC) and
computer (purchased with funds obligated during 1999). This
equipment measures the morphine content of the morphine base
manufactured at the facility, and is used both for research
and for quality control. TMO had some small compatibility
problems in the beginning (U.S. vs. European standards), but
they have now been corrected and TMO is very happy with this
equipment. TMO has asked Post to fund the purchase of a
second HPLC unit, to use as a backup.


6. Starting in 1993 and continuing through 2003, the INCC
program delivered to Jandarma training and equipment valued
at over USD 1.2 million. In 2003, the INCC program delivered
five laptop computers, valued at USD 12,250. On January 15,
Econoff met with Yildirim Cengiz, Department Head, Smuggling
and Organized Crimes, and two other Jandarma officials, to
discuss the program. While the value of equipment delivered
is large, Cengiz described the equipment as being &bits and
pieces,8 which is insufficient to carry out a
&substantial8 project, and opined that the piece-meal way
in which equipment was purchased did not fully meet
Jandarma,s needs (see paragraph 4, above). Cengiz suggested
a coordinated approach, in which Jandarma,s &real needs8
are met. The most useful items purchased have been the
above-mentioned laptops, cameras and radios. Jandarma is
currently in need of long-distance surveillance equipment,
which Cengiz asked Post to fund.

7. Cengiz also described a number of problems arising out of
the &Buy America8 policy. He noted that the technical
specifications of European equipment are different from those
of U.S. equipment, and offered as examples the purchase of
video recorders whose tapes won,t play on PAL (European
standard) VCRs, and of equipment that is designed for 110
volts, rather than the 220 volts used in Turkey. Cengiz
suggested that U.S. experts meet with Jandarma,s technical
people to consult on what equipment is best for their
purposes. Cengiz also complained about long delays in deliver
of equipment purchased in the U.S. (some orders have been
outstanding for over a year), as well as long delays in
obtaining repairs, because equipment had to be returned to
the U.S. Cengiz believes that much &American8 equipment can
be purchased from Turkish dealers, who are equipped to modify
it for the local market, as well as to provide training and


8. Starting in 1994 and continuing through 2002, the INCC
program delivered to Customs equipment valued at some USD
562,000. The majority of this equipment consists of computer
equipment delivered in 1995; the remainder consists of ion
scanners, digital cameras, and night vision pocketscopes
delivered in 2000-2002. No items were provided in 2003. On
January 15, Econoff met with Remazan Ulus, Director of
Intelligence, and two other Customs officials. Ulus reported
that the ion scanners (which detect narcotics and explosives)
and fiberscopes (for trafficking in persons) are very
actively used, along the most important smuggling routes.
Customs receives monthly reports from the field as to the
results obtained with this equipment, which Ulus describe as
&very good.8 Now that the Habur Gate entry to Iraq has
become an important border route, Ulus believes it would be
useful to install a scanner at that location, as it would
expedite inspections. (Note: Expedited inspections might help
ease the serious border delay problems that are being
experienced at Habur Gate. End Note.)

9. Also useful was a 2000 study funded by INCC on the
possible use of sniffer dogs. Based on that study, Customs
has to date purchased 25 dogs, and plans to purchase 14 more
by the end of 2005. Normally, it obtains dogs from TNP, but
this year none were made available, so Customs will have to
purchase them from commercial breeders (at a cost of USD
2-5,000 each). Ulus requested that Post assist in those
10. Ulus further noted that the computer equipment purchased
in 1995 is used to track suspicious cargo in the Marmara Sea
region. As an example of its utility, Ulus described a
request recently received from Post to track a ship bearing a
container, which the computers confirmed had previously been
used to smuggle heroin. These computers are, however, nearing
the end of their useful lives.

Turkish National Police

11. Starting in 1986 and continuing through 2003, the INCC
program provided TNP with equipment and training valued at
over USD 1.2 million. In 2003, four videoscopes were
delivered, of an aggregate value of approximately USD
123,000. On January 16, Econoff met with Senturk Demiral,
Manager of the TNP Ankara Division Technical (i.e.,
equipment) Department. Demiral reported that the equipment
furnished is essential to resolving particular types of
cases. Many items are nearing the end of their useful lives
and will be removed from service this year. The equipment
with the highest utility is used in Istanbul and Izmir. Most
useful are the above-mentioned videoscopes and a GPS tracking
system, purchased in 2000. Nevertheless, the GPS equipment is
not as useful as it might be, as it is not truly &mobile8
) it draws power from a car battery, and has a large
antennae. The equipment satisfies TNP,s current needs, and
TNP has no need of additional equipment at this time.
However, TNP does need funds for training on the latest
investigative techniques, particularly with respect to
tapping GSM phones. Mr. Demiral also delivered a message from
his superiors that TNP will cooperate fully with U.S. law
enforcement agencies with respect to information sharing.

12. On 27 January, Econoff and DEA agents met with Tufan
Erguder, Chief of the Narcotics Division of the Istanbul
Police Department. Erguder reported that there has been a
substantial increase in seizures during the past year, which
he attributed to operational improvements. Indeed, Erguder
reported that, earlier that same day, the Istanbul police had
seized one ton of heroin ) the largest such seizure in the
history of Europe, he claimed. (DEA agents later advised
Econoff that Erguder has completely reorganized the Narcotics
Division and is a very effective manager.) Erguder reported
that the Narcotics Division has need of a computer network;
of vehicles appropriate to undercover work (i.e., that do not
obviously look like unmarked police cars); and of training in
the latest surveillance techniques, such as bugging GSM phone
conversations and internet communications. Erguder confirmed
some compatibility problems with equipment provided by the
U.S., but described them as ¬ big.8


13. Amatem is a state-sponsored drug rehabilitation
facility, located in Istanbul. It has 150 beds for in-patient
treatment (averaging 3-5 weeks), and also provides
out-patient therapy. In 2003, it treated 14,791 patients,
with a professional staff consisting of 10 doctors, 6
psychologists, and 2 physical therapists. Starting in 1994
and continuing through 2003, the INCC program delivered to
Amatem computer and communications equipment valued at some
$86,000. In 2003, the INCC program provided Amatem with
various items of computer hardware and software, and a
telephone switchboard, having a total value of over $38,000.
On January 26, 2004, Econoff met with Dr. Duran Cakmak,
Amatem,s Director, and five other officials, to discuss the
program and tour the facility. These officials reported that
the equipment is being used for patient management and
rehabilitation, and to establish a hotline, and that it has
proven very useful. For the future, Amatem needs funds to
update a study of drug use among high school students; to
update its drug prevention program for high school students,
teachers and doctors; and to provide its staff with
additional professional training.

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