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Cablegate: South America Esth News, Number 101

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UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 18 BRASILIA 002068

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SIPDIS

DEPT PASS USAID TO LAC/RSD, LAC/SAM, G/ENV, PPC/ENV
TREASURY FOR USED IBRD AND IDB AND INTL/MDB
USDA FOR FOREST SERVICE: LIZ MAHEW
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INTERIOR PASS USGS FOR INTERNATIONAL: J WEAVER
JUSTICE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES: JWEBB
EPA FOR INTERNATIONAL: CAM HILL-MACON
USDA FOR ARS/INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: G FLANLEY
NSF FOR INTERNATIONAL: HAROLD STOLBERG

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: SENV EAGR EAID TBIO ECON SOCI XR BR
SUBJECT: SOUTH AMERICA ESTH NEWS, NUMBER 101

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1. The following is the one-hundred-first in a series of
newsletters, published by the Brasilia Regional Environmental Hub,
covering environment, science and technology, and health news in
South America. The information below was gathered from news sources
from across the region, and the views expressed do not necessarily
reflect those of the Hub office or our constituent posts.
Addressees who would like to receive a user-friendly email version
of this newsletter should contact Larissa Stoner at
stonerla@state.gov. The e-mail version also contains a calendar of
upcoming ESTH events in the region. NOTE: THE NEWSLETTER IS NOW
ALSO AVAILABLE ON THE BRASILIA INTRANET PAGE, BY CLICKING ON THE
'HUB' LINK.

2. Table of Contents

Forests
--(3)New World Bank Facility Would Help Against Forest Degrading
--(4)Brazilian Police Dismantle Gang That Smuggled Endangered Wood
to United States
--(5)Amazon Loggers Hold Greenpeace Activists Captive
--(6)Guyana: Government Cites Companies over Breaches of Forestry
Procedures
--(7)Fires Burning Across Brazil Put Biodiversity at Risk

Wildlife
--(8)Guyana: Spain to Fund Aquarium Upgrade In Exchange For
Manatees
--(9)Manatee Reintroduction Slated For Brazilian State of Amazonas

Protected Areas
--(10)Brazil Congress Committee Considers Reducing Amazon
Protections
--(11)Biosphere Created, Indian Lands Granted In Ecuador
--(12)Argentina: Backlash Greets Wetland-Conservation Drive
--(13)Bolivian Settlers Push for Parkland Acreage

Science & Technology
--(14)Brazil to Make 385-Mln-Dollar Bid for Orbit Concession
--(15)Activist, Guard Killed on Brazil Biofarm
--(16)U.S. restricts use of dual technology in Sino-Brazilian
satellite
--(17)Telemedicine links Galapagos to mainland

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Solid Waste Management & Pollution
--(18)Regional Concern about Pesticides on Rise
--(19)Brazil Tries to Break Solid-Waste Stalemate
--(20)Smelter Fined In Peru for Air, Water Pollution
--(21)Santiago Battles to Put Anti-Smog Effort on Track

Energy
--(22)Brazil's Lula Signs Biofuels Deal in Congo
--(23)Chile Approves Renewable Energy Bill

Climate Change
--(24)Climate Change Helps Spider Specimen Move to Magallanes Region

--(25)Latin America Proposes Solutions to Climate Change
--(26)Argentine Environmental Negotiator Loses His Post
--(27)As Glaciers Melt, So Does Climate Record

General
--(28)Guyana: Grant Aid for Sustainable Forest, Gold Ops Signed
--(29)'Unknown' Peru Amazon Tribe Seen
--(30)Copper Project New Focus for Peru's Mine Debate
--(31)Argentina, Uruguay At Odds As Pulp Mill Nears Completion


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Forests
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3. New World Bank Facility Would Help Against Forest Degrading

OCT. 22, 2007 - The World Bank is working to develop the new fund
that would pay developing countries hundreds of millions of dollars
for protecting and replanting tropical forests which store huge
amounts of carbon and thereby fights climate change. The fund is
called the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and is part of the UN
climate change negotiations in Bali in December. The facility will
provide financial incentives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from
deforestation unlike the Kyoto Protocol which offers credits for
replanting destroyed forests. The fund will initially have US$300M
to finance emissions reduction and to help prepare countries with
the necessary tools to monitor forests. According to a Reuters

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article, the proposed facility has already attracted interest from
more than a dozen developing countries, including Indonesia, Brazil
and several in Africa's Congo River Basin. The World Bank expects to
first test the mechanism in three to five countries. Part of the
testing involves providing participating countries with the means to
prove they are reducing rates of deforestation and those countries
will have to prove that they are reducing deforestation.

Source - Stabroeknews

4. Brazilian Police Dismantle Gang That Smuggled Endangered Wood to
United States

OCT. 18, 2007 - Brazilian police launched an operation in six states
to dismantle a gang alleged to have illegally cut down and exported
to the United States a rare wood commonly used to make musical
instruments. Some 350 federal officers, backed by state police and
government environmental agents, arrested 23 people and were
searching for two others, police inspector Tatiana Torres said from
the southeastern city of Belo Horizonte. The U.S Fish and Wildlife
Service's Northeast Region Office of Law Enforcement said it carried
out a search in central Massachusetts but gave no details. Federal
Brazilian police also began serving 67 search and seizure warrants
for the illegal extraction of Brazilian rosewood, an endangered tree
species that is native to and found only in eastern Brazil.

Source - The Associated Press

5. Amazon Loggers Hold Greenpeace Activists Captive

OCT. 18, 2007 - Brazilian loggers besieged eight Greenpeace
activists on October 17 in a remote Amazon town, angered by a
campaign against global warming that they fear could hurt their
image. Hundreds of townspeople, including dozens of loggers in
trucks, cars and motorcycles, blockaded the activists in a local
branch of the government's environmental protection agency Ibama, a
Greenpeace spokesman said. The incident, the second time in nearly
two months that Greenpeace activists have been harassed in the
Amazon jungle, underscores the often violent conflicts over natural
resources between farmers and loggers on one hand and peasants and
Indians on the other.


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Source - Reuters (no link)

6. Guyana: Government Cites Companies over Breaches of Forestry
Procedures

OCT. 09, 2007 - [Guyana's] President Bharrat Jagdeo disclosed that
recent alleged breaches of forestry procedures involve collusion
between Barama Company Limited, some concessionaires and staffers at
the Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC). It is the first time that the
name of a logging company has been mentioned publicly since a probe
was launched into the fraud. Jagdeo warned that there will be
consequences for the company and the other parties, noting that
based upon preliminary investigations it seems as though there was a
system among the three groups to defraud the government. Contacted
for a comment last evening, Girwar Lalram, Chairman of Barama said
it was premature for his organization to make a comment on the issue
at this time.

Source - Stabroeknews

7. Fires Burning Across Brazil Put Biodiversity at Risk

OCT. 8, 2007 - Severe drought has been identified as the main cause
of the fire that consumed three hectares of the Macico da Pedra
Branca forest in Rio de Janeiro state in one September day. In that
same week, 170 other fire points were seen along the forests and
conservation parks of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fire officials
said lack of environmental responsibility is to blame for these
fires, many of them caused by human beings. Local plant biodiversity
and animal habitats have been damaged, although no human injuries
were reported, this despite the lack of resources from the state
fire brigade that pressed their two helicopters to the maximum, as
their one and only fireplane was broken. Hundreds of miles away,
fire crews fought to save a region of native forest in Sao Paulo and
parts of the Parque Nacional da Ilha Grande, on the borders of the
states of Parana and Mato Grosso. In that region, no rain has fallen
for two months and not even helicopters are available to fight the
10 fires that have broken out there this year. In the Pantanal
wetlands in west-central Brazil, more than 150,000 hectares have
burned without remedy. The inhabitants of nearby towns have had
difficulty breathing because of the thick smoke.


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Source - Environmental News Service

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Wildlife
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8. Guyana: Spain to Fund Aquarium Upgrade In Exchange For Manatees

OCT. 17, 2007 - A pair of manatees was exported to Spain under an
agreement that will provide funding for improvements to the aquarium
to house the Arapaima exhibits at the Guyana Zoological Park. The
manatees were exported through the [Guyana] National Parks
Commission (NPC) and they will be used to increase the population
and improve the genetic stock of this species at the Faunia Zoo in
Madrid, and at other zoos in Europe. A similar agreement was
finalized with the Odense Zoo in Denmark in 2001 as zoological parks
around the world build partnerships to develop conservation and
management programs to curb the decline of several endangered plant
and animal species.

Source - Stabroeknews

9. Manatee Reintroduction Slated For Brazilian State of Amazonas

SEPT. 2007 - A trio of conservation entities has joined in an
unprecedented effort to reintroduce Amazon manatees, an endangered
species, into Brazil's rainforest rivers. Researchers plan to place
two male members of the freshwater species (Trichechus inunguis)
into a tributary of the Rio Negro next February. Manatee numbers in
Brazil plunged in the period 1930-50, when hides from some 200,000
of the animals-known locally as "peixe bois" or "fish cows"-were
turned into industrial belts here and abroad, often for sewing
machines. Killing manatees for their pelts ended with the
development in the 1950s of synthetic rubbers. But the animals face
other threats, including habitat loss and death at the hands of
Amazon hunters, who sell manatee meat to river dwellers.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

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Protected Areas

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10. Brazil Congress Committee Considers Reducing Amazon Protections

OCT. 09, 2007 - Environmentalists expressed concern at legislation
before congress they said could lead to the destruction of a
California-sized chunk of Amazon rainforest. A congressional
committee is considering legislation that would reduce the amount of
forest landowners in the Amazon must leave standing as forest
reserve. Under a 2001 executive decree, landowners in the Amazon may
only clear-cut 20 percent of their land for pasture and planting and
must maintain 80 percent standing as forest reserve. Many landowners
say the restrictions hinder development in the poor Amazon region,
which covers nearly 60 percent of Brazilian territory. Rep. Jorge
Khoury, the committee's co-chair, denied the hearing was the first
step toward reducing the forest reserve. "This is just one more
hearing to collect information and create a report to suggest
changes to the law," Khoury said in a telephone interview.
Nonetheless, environmentalists noted there are two separate projects
before congress seeking to reduce the amount of required reserve to
50 percent from the current 80 percent.

Source - The Associated Press

11. Biosphere Created, Indian Lands Granted In Ecuador

OCT. 2007 - Green advocates applauded two conservation gains in
Ecuador: the designation of the country's fourth biosphere reserve
and the deeding of rainforest land to the nation's Shuar indigenous
community. Granting official recognition to historic Shuar land
claims, the government of Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa on
Sept. 20 approved the titling of 17,000 acres (7,000 has) to three
Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon-Yaupi, Achunts Mankusas
and Chinkianas. Welcome as this news of the Shuar land-titling was
to conservationists, the creation of Ecuador's fourth biosphere,
also on Sept. 20, was the higher-profile development. The United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
extended biosphere status to a vast 2.82-million-acre
(1.14-million-ha) swath of land encompassing Podocarpus National
Park, the upper watershed of the Nangaritza River and the Csndor
mountains, as well as territory of the Saraguro and Shuar Indians
and two religious and tourism centers-El Cisne and Vilcabamba. The

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reserve, named Podocarpus-El Condor, is extraordinarily biodiverse
owing to its location at the intersection of the Amazon watershed,
the Andes and the Ecuadorian paramo.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

12. Argentina: Backlash Greets Wetland-Conservation Drive

SEPT. 2007 - Hoping to block conservation purchases in Argentina's
Corrientes province, opponents of Former U.S. clothing entrepreneur
Douglas Tompkins [Esprit] in June amended the provincial
constitution. Using a constituent assembly convened primarily to
address gubernatorial terms, they inserted a new article, 61,
prohibiting foreigners and corporations controlled by them from
buying lands "in security areas or in protected areas or [areas]
that constitute strategic resources." Tompkins since the late 90s
has been making a series of conservation purchases in the Esteros
del Ibera, which feature vast expanses of marsh grasses dotted with
lagoons and gallery forests. Increasingly, the Esteros del Ibera
have come under pressure from farming and logging. Some experts say
the wetlands' hydrology also is being affected by nearby Yacyreta,
the Argentine-Paraguayan hydroelectric dam that in recent years has
raised the water level of its reservoir to generate more power.
Tompkins hopes to address the development pressures much as he has
done in Chile, where his acquisitions led to the creation of Pumalin
Park, a government-recognized nature sanctuary stretching from the
Andes to the Pacific at the northern tip of Chilean Patagonia. He
seeks to restore the lands environmentally and donate them to the
national government on condition their protection be guaranteed, but
his critics see darker motives. "Douglas Tompkins isn't a
philanthropist, he's a liar who wants to use the ecology line to
gain control of our resources. Though it must seem crazy, I believe
Tompkins is installing a United States enclave in Argentina," says
Araceli Ferreyra, a constituent assembly member who voted for the
constitutional changes.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

13. Bolivian Settlers Push for Parkland Acreage


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SEPT. 2007 - Colonizers and residents looking to ease landholding
and development restrictions in Bolivia's highly prized Madidi
National Park are threatening to resume protests if the government
doesn't give them what they want. Bolivia's government appears to
be acceding to demands made during angry protests last May for a
roadway and oil development in the park. But leaders of those
demonstrations say another key demand-park acreage for farming,
logging and ranching-has gone unmet. That could spell more trouble
for Madidi, an extraordinarily biodiverse, 4.5-million-acre
(1.8-million-ha) expanse in northwest Bolivia where Andean-mountain
and Amazonian ecosystems merge. The government of Bolivian
President Evo Morales initially reacted to the May protests with
indignation and disbelief. Morales at one point said "drug
traffickers and wood smugglers" were behind the demonstrations. He
sent 400 soldiers and police to quell the unrest, then announced a
military base would be built in Madidi to "preserve sovereignty and
guarantee national integrity." In negotiations, however, the
government has backed down, making it known to protest leaders that
it would study the possibility of completing the Apolo-Ixiamas road,
which was briefly under construction in 2002 though no environmental
or technical studies had been done. The government also has agreed
to conduct oil exploration in the park. Environmental groups worry
government concessions could cause wholesale destruction in Madidi.


Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

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Science & Technology
--------------------

14. Brazil to Make 385-M-Dollar Bid for Orbit Concession

OCT. 23, 2007 - The Brazilian government is to bid 700 million reais
(385 million U.S. dollars) for the concession of a space orbit
strategic to South America. "We need that orbital position," said
Helio Costa, Brazil's Minister of Telecommunications, in an
interview with a local newspaper. Costa will have a meeting in
Geneva, Switzerland with representatives from Colombia, Bolivia and
Peru to solve the impasse concerning the concession of the so-called
orbit 68. The exploitation of the orbit was conceded to the Andean

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countries seven years ago. However, according to the minister, they
had to launch a satellite by Sept. 2007 in order to keep the
concession, which they failed to accomplish. According to
international rules on space exploration, other countries could bid
for the orbit if the deadline expires. But Colombia, Peru and
Bolivia are struggling for a time extension, which they claimed
would allow them to launch their own satellite. Other countries
have also demonstrated an interest in the orbit. In a partnership
with Uruguay, Venezuela is seeking authorization from the ITU to
launch into the orbit its first Simon Bolivar satellite, said the
newspaper.

Source - English People

15. Activist, Guard Killed on Brazil Biofarm

OCT. 22, 2007 - Two people were shot dead when activists were
confronted by armed men as they invaded a Swiss-owned farm that has
been a flashpoint in the debate over biotech crops, authorities and
the company said. A security guard and an activist were killed by
gunfire at the research farm owned by Syngenta AG, a global company
with a heavy focus on genetically modified seeds. While Brazil's
national government allows use of genetically modified seeds for
some crops, Parana's state government recently outlawed genetically
modified corn and has tried repeatedly tried to shut down the
Syngenta farm.

Source - The New York Times

16. U.S. restricts use of dual technology in Sino-Brazilian
satellite

OCT. 22, 2007 - Story criticizes USG restrictions on the exportation
of dual-use technologies by companies in the United States to
Brazilian companies working in the Sino-Brazilian environmental
remote imaging satellites CBERS 3 and 4. Story highlights that the
"restrictions aren't directed specifically at Brazil, but rather at
[China], a military power that is now also a space [power]," but
calls the restrictions "Orwellian." In a sidebar, a short op-ed by
National Space Research Institute (INPE) Director Gilberto Cmara
says that, "Unfortunately, the positive [U.S.-Brazil] relations in
the space area aren't reflected in the positions of the Department

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of State and in the U.S. legislation." According to the op-ed U.S.
officials who are in charge of controlling sensitive technologies
"have told Inpe that they know that the CBERS is a civilian program
and that there is no technology transfer from Brazil to China. Even
so, they say that U.S. legislation prohibits the exportation of
space components to any program with Chinese participation." Another
sidebar quotes U.S. Embassy Information Officer Richard Mei: "There
is a very specific law for U.S. technology: no matter where it is
going first. If there is a dual purpose, it is subject to this law,
because its final destination would be China."

Source - Public Affairs US Embassy Brasilia. Original source -
Folha de Sao Paulo

17. Telemedicine links Galapagos to mainland

OCT. 18, 2007 - The Equinoctial Technology University in Ecuador
opened a telemedicine center that will use satellite connections to
train medical staff and provide better healthcare in remote areas
like the Galapagos Islands. The new center will also offer
long-distance training for health staff and will eventually provide
coverage nationally. The university has invested US$250,000 in
equipment, and the Ecuadorian air force has granted three hours of
free satellite access a day, two for patient care and one for
training, which will save the university around US$10,000 a month.
The project is supported by US-based University of New Mexico.

Source - SciDev


18. Solid Waste Management & Pollution
Regional Concern about Pesticides on Rise

OCT. 2007 - Experts say that as pesticide use increases in a region
scrambling to tap world agricultural markets [i.e. Latin America],
toxic chemicals often are being used without proper controls,
endangering millions of farm workers. At the same time, they
contend, government pesticide regulations-where they exist-often go
unenforced. According to health researchers the results of
increasing pesticide use are demonstrated by the elevated odds of
birth defects and developmental problems among the children of farm
workers and a growing risk of skin disease, miscarriages, sterility

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and cancer among the workers themselves. Bolivia has Latin
America's highest rate of growth for pesticide imports, which more
than doubled over the past five years. Of those imports, an
estimated 30% is contraband. Pesticide sales in Latin American
countries are projected to reach a total of $7.5 billion by 2009.
Industry observers say the rapid growth is driven by expanding crop
areas, new disease outbreaks and an increase in plantings of
pesticide-tolerant genetically modified crops. In recent years,
Brazil and Argentina in particular have experienced a huge surge in
pesticide purchases.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

19. Brazil Tries to Break Solid-Waste Stalemate

OCT. 2007 - Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has sent
Congress a national solid-waste management bill, the first ever
proposed by the executive branch, to break a years-long
congressional stalemate on the issue. Though the bill appears to
have won impressive early support from stakeholders and legislators,
its deliberate lack of crucial details will likely prompt
special-interest battling over implementation if the measure is
enacted. The new bill represents an attempt to clear a stalemate
that has left Brazil with no nationwide solid-waste-management rules
aside from norms issued by an environmental regulatory body
regarding disposal of used tires, batteries and construction waste.
Since 1991, lawmakers have introduced nearly 100
solid-waste-management bills in Congress, but the measures typically
founder amid opposition from industry groups. The new legislation
addresses myriad problems including clogged and insufficient
sanitary landfills, illegal dumping and burning of waste in open-air
dump sites as well, as the country's low recycling rate.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

20. Smelter Fined In Peru for Air, Water Pollution

SEPT. 2007 - Doe Run Peru in August was fined US$230,000 for
environmental violations caused by its metals smelter in the Andean
town of La Oroya in Peru's central Junn department. And on Aug. 31,

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the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights ordered the Peruvian
government to take steps to protect the health of residents of La
Oroya, where repeated studies have found high blood lead levels,
especially in children. Doe Run has been the target of protests
since shortly after it bought the smelter from Peru's state-run
mining company in 1997. Underlying them is concern over heavy-metals
and sulfur-dioxide emissions at the smelter, which processes lead,
copper and zinc. Carlos Rojas, regional executive secretary of the
National Environment Council, Peru's top environmental authority,
says the enforcement action underscores a need for greater community
oversight and reporting of green issues.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

21. Santiago Battles to Put Anti-Smog Effort on Track

SEPT. 2007 - In one of the coldest winters to hit Chile in decades,
smog over the months of May through August soared to its worst
levels since 1999, triggering 22 environmental alerts and six
official pre-emergencies. That roughly equals or exceeds the totals
for each of the past six years. On May 12, the index used to track
particulates in Santiago registered 409, well above the 301 level at
which particulate contamination is considered "critical." The
biggest factor in this year's severe smog was unusually dry winter
weather brought on by La Nia, a periodic cooling of east-central
equatorial Pacific Ocean waters that every few years drives down
temperatures and rainfall here. Because Santiago is sandwiched
between the Andes and the Cordillera de la Costa mountain range, air
circulation is often blocked on especially dry days as a layer of
warm air settles over the city and traps airborne contaminants
below. But La Nia isn't the only cause of Santiago's bad air. Also
contributing is an increase in automobile use-a reflection, in part,
of the problems plaguing Transantiago, the capital's new public
transportation system. And despite city-government calls on
residents to cut back on the use of firewood for home heating, the
request has fallen on deaf ears amid low winter temperatures and
rising energy prices.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)


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Energy
------

22. Brazil's Lula Signs Biofuels Deal in Congo

OCT. 18, 2007 - Brazil has signed two agreements with the Democratic
Republic of Congo to provide the poor central African state with
training, technology and financing to produce biofuels from sugar
cane and palm oil. "We are ready to accompany the continent and we
are willing to help those countries which want to follow Brazil's
example: today we are self-sufficient in energy," [President] Lula
told the news conference. Brazil's state oil company Petrobras
expects ethanol sales at home, in Latin America's largest country,
to beat gasoline consumption by around 2020. Africa produces a
range of crops that could be used to make biofuels, including sugar
cane, sugar beet, maize, sorghum and cassava -- all of which can be
used to make ethanol -- and peanuts, whose oil can be used to power
diesel engines.

Source - Reuters (no link)

23. Chile Approves Renewable Energy Bill

OCT. 16, 2007 - Chile's Chamber of Deputies unanimously approved an
environmental bill focused on the development of unconventional
renewable energy (ERNC). The bill aims to diversify the electrical
industry and promote clean energies. The initiative mandates that
electrical companies with a capacity greater than 200 megawatts (MW)
- including Endesa, Colbun and Gener - must use unconventional
renewable energy sources to generate at least five percent of their
total production by 2010. This percentage will increase gradually
until arriving at eight percent in 2024. The bill is aimed at
forcing major companies to develop "unconventional" sources of
energy, such as solar, geothermal, Aeolian (solar thermoelectric and
photovoltaic), biomass (solid, liquid, and biogas) and hydraulic
energy. Most environmental experts consider the proposal
insufficient, especially "because in 2024 we will have greater
financial and technical abilities in the renewable energy field."

Source - Santiago Times (no link)


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Climate Change
--------------

24. Climate Change Helps Spider Specimen Move to Magallanes Region

OCT. 21, 2007 - Climate change consequences in the entomologic field
have reached Magallanes Region in the far south of Chile. Local
authorities are now cautioning about the appearance of a small
spider identified as the "false black widow", which can be lethal
for people suffering different allergies. The scientific name of the
specimen is Steatoda gross, and until recently the furthest south
she had been found was in Osorno, a hundred kilometers north of
Puerto Montt, an area not exposed to the extreme temperatures of
Magallanes. According to Patagonia Institute biologist Eduardo
Fagundez who has been researching the spider in Magallanes, the
poison of the arachnid attacks the nervous system and thus is
potentially dangerous for people who suffer from allergic reactions.
Fagundez believes the false black widow reached the north of Punta
Arenas sometime a year ago approximately.

Source- MercoPress

25. Latin America Proposes Solutions to Climate Change

OCT. 2007 - The over 1,500 representatives from Latin America who
were present at the International Meeting on Climate change held in
Ecuador October 15-18 presented a document to President Rafael
Correa (Ecuador) with a series of proposals to deal with climate
change. Among suggestions were: 1) define a new model for
development in Latin America that is socially responsible and
harmonic with nature; 2) elaborate policies for adaptation to
climate change; 3) establish funding and technology transfer
mechanisms for climate change adaptation and mitigation from
developed to developing countries; 4) identify melting Andean
glaciers as a high environmental priority and fund appropriate
research efforts; 5) strengthen climate observatory systems; 6)
develop strategies for water management; and 7) establish payment
mechanism from developed countries to developing countries for
keeping their forests intact (avoided deforestation). A total of 21
proposals were suggested and are available in Spanish at
www.sur.iucn.org.

BRASILIA 00002068 015.3 OF 018

Source - IUCN

26. Argentine Environmental Negotiator Loses His Post

OCT. 2007 - Argentine diplomat Raul Estrada Oyuela, a much-praised
protagonist in the talks that birthed the Kyoto climate-change
agreement, was removed from his post as the Argentine Foreign
Ministry's environmental-affairs representative September, two days
after declaring that his country "has no environmental policy."
Oyuela, who in 1997 presided over the international meeting that
produced the Kyoto Protocol and was described by a U.S. negotiator
as a "grandmaster of diplomacy and the godfather of Kyoto," made the
remark during a Sept. 19 conference at the United Nations office in
Buenos Aires. He also said Argentina urgently must adopt strategies
aimed at adapting to climate change. Since his dismissal, Oyuela
has continued to speak out. He recently faulted the national
government for not intervening in controversies over huge mining
projects slated for several Argentine provinces. And in the
immediate aftermath of his firing he strongly defended his
suggestion that Argentina lacks an environmental policy.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

27. As Glaciers Melt, So Does Climate Record

SEPT. 2007 - The Andes are topped by the largest concentration of
ice anywhere in the Earth's tropics. While the melting of the
tropical glaciers contributes little to global sea-level rise in
comparison to the melting of ice in Greenland and Antarctica, the
rapid retreat of Andean glaciers is threatening irrigation and
drinking water supplies, hydroelectricity production and tourism.
It also is erasing a valuable record of the planet's climatic
history. In 1991, tropical Andean glaciers covered an estimated
1,065 square miles (2,758 sq kms), with 70% in Peru, 20% in Bolivia
and the rest in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Since then,
glaciers have disappeared from Venezuela and are shrinking in the
other countries. Figures from 2002 put the area at 962.6 square
miles (2,493 sq kms), a loss of nearly 10% in just over a decade.
To stay abreast of the changes, the Glaciology and Water Resources
Unit of Peru's National Institute of Natural Resources (Inrena) in

BRASILIA 00002068 016.3 OF 018


Huaraz currently is conducting a new nationwide glacier inventory.
Among the points of particular interest will be the Santa River
valley, known as the Callejon de Huaylas, which lies at the foot of
the Cordillera Blanca. Because the question seems to be not if, but
when such runoff reductions occur, Inrena's glacier inventory is
aimed not just at mapping glacial retreat, but at determining how
much fresh water remains in the country's mountain reserves and how
long it can be expected to last.

Source - EcoAmericas (For complete article please contact Larissa
Stoner)

-------
General
-------

28. Guyana: Grant Aid for Sustainable Forest, Gold Ops Signed

OCT. 24, 2007 - WWF Guyana launched the second phase of its regional
environmental project entitled Guyanas Sustainable Natural Resources
Management Project and signed four grant agreements in the total
amount of $86.14M. The agencies receiving the grants were the
Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC), the Hydrometeorological Service of
the Ministry of Agriculture and the Guyana Geology and Mines
Commission (GGMC). The primary conservation focus of this project
phase is on sustainable forest management, protected areas
management, freshwater species conservation and gold mining
pollution abatement in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.

Source - Stabroeknews

29. 'Unknown' Peru Amazon Tribe Seen

OCT. 04, 2007 - A previously unknown indigenous group living in
isolation has been found deep in Peru's Amazon jungle, a team of
ecologists has said. The ecologists spotted the 21 Indians near the
Brazilian border as they flew overhead looking for illegal loggers.
Contact with outsiders can be fatal for isolated tribes people who
have no immunity to many diseases. Some groups have fled deep into
the jungle to avoid contact with loggers and oil and gas
prospectors. A pan-American human rights group criticized Peru's
government this year for doing little to protect the groups from

BRASILIA 00002068 017.3 OF 018


illegal loggers who are chopping down the mahogany-rich forests in
which they live.

Source - BBC

30. Copper Project New Focus for Peru's Mine Debate

OCT. 2007 - Ro Blanco [in northern Peru's Piura region] is the site
of the latest flashpoint in the battle over large-scale mining in
Peru. [Mining company] Majaz proposes to create a US$1.44 billion
open-pit copper mine that would rank among the 20 largest copper
mines in the world. Opponents worry that mining in Andean cloud
forests here near the Ecuadorian border will reduce the flow of the
region's rivers and pollute them with acid runoff. Supporters,
however, argue only mining can help this impoverished border area,
where most residents near the mine site are subsistence farmers or
small-scale coffee growers. Legislation sent to Congress on
September 21 by Peru's executive branch lists Ro Blanco among 20
mining projects of "national interest" that should receive
preferential consideration. The Mining Company Majaz now must file
an environmental impact assessment and renegotiate land-use rights
with the communities of El Carmen de la Frontera and Segunda y
Cajas. Local leaders say the company failed to get community
approval for the exploratory phase, a claim supported by the
government Ombudsman's Office last year.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)

31. Argentina, Uruguay At Odds As Pulp Mill Nears Completion

SEPT. 2007 - Tension between Argentina and Uruguay is growing as a
massive pulp mill Uruguay has allowed a Finnish company to build
near the countries' common border nears completion. A source of
cross-border angst during its planning and development stages, the
complex has stoked new Argentine-Uruguayan tension as it prepares to
start production. On Aug. 29, Uruguayan President Tabare Vazquez
inaugurated the private port, which Botnia will use to export pulp
to Europe and China. In a press statement, Argentina's Foreign
Relations Ministry referred to the port-opening ceremony as "an
aggravation of the controversy." It is unclear when production at
the new plant will begin. After August's port inauguration, Botnia

BRASILIA 00002068 018.3 OF 018


announced the start-up would take place in September, but Uruguay's
top environmental official, Mariano Arana, said the government
needed to receive information from Botnia before allowing the plant
to go into operation.

Source - EcoAmericas (please contact Larissa Stoner for complete
article)


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