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Cablegate: U.S. - Eu Troika Consultations On Disarmament And

DE RUEHBS #3516/01 3521154
R 181154Z DEC 07





E.O. 12958: DECL: 12/18/2017

Classified By: A/Deputy PolCouns Vincent Carver for reasons 1.4 (b) and


1. (C) The U.S.-EU troika consultations on disarmament and
nonproliferation (CODUN/CONOP) on December 3, 2007
demonstrated shared interests and a willingness from both
sides for continued cooperation and discussion. Differences
remain, however in approaches to some key challenges, with
the EU preferring treaty- and institution-based solutions,
and the U.S. promoting more results-oriented means. The EU
committed to confidence-building measures with regard to
space and noted the need for agreement to begin negotiations
on a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty as well as on an
instrument on cluster munitions. The EU shares the U.S. goal
of making progress on multinational nuclear fuel assurances.
The EU side underscored the importance of UN action on Iran
before any additional EU sanctions could be implemented and
noted member state willingness to support the DPRK
denuclearization process as well as a desire to contribute
more in combating illicit financing in the context of WMD
terrorism. End Summary.

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Multilateral Cooperation

2. (C) Portuguese Under Director General for External Policy
Ambassador Carlos Frota opened the CODUN/CONOP discussions on
December 3 in Brussels by noting the EU's active engagement
on nonproliferation and disarmament issues, particularly
through its common policies and assistance provision. He
emphasized the EU's desire to support and strengthen the
multilateral system, of which the Nonproliferation Treaty
(NPT) is the cornerstone, and underlined the need for a
multilateral approach to proliferation problems. Principal
Deputy Assistant Secretary McNerney (ISN) welcomed the
opportunity to discuss these issues with the EU troika and
highlighted the multilateral character of the U.S. WMD
strategy of prevention, protection, and response.

3. (C) Turning to the UNGA First Committee (UNFC), Frota said
that many traditional resolutions were circulated and
adopted, but noted that old fault lines continue to exist at
the UNFC. The EU remains committed to confidence building
measures in outer space, and Frota asked whether progress
could be made. He asked for a U.S. assessment of the work of
the committee and whether there could be ways to make it a
more useful forum. U.S. Ambassador to the Conference on
Disarmament Christina Rocca agreed with Frota's assessment
that there were few new initiatives this year and that old
divisions remained in New York. She noted the U.S. would not
agree to link arms control with confidence building measures
in outer space but underscored that the U.S. had been very
forward leaning on this issue vis-a-vis Russia and thought
the EU would have been pleased with the U.S. approach. She
requested continued dialogue with the EU as the member states
consider the common EU position with regard to the draft
space treaty the Russians plan to introduce at the CD.

4. (C) Frota discussed prospects for the CD, wondering
whether progress will be made on the work plan. He noted that
the EU would like agreement to begin negotiations on a
Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) as soon as possible and
favored the inclusion of international verification measures.
Annalisa Giannella, Solana's Personal Representative on
Nonproliferation, said that the situation in the CD would be
more favorable if the U.S. and EU were able to isolate Iran
and Pakistan by getting Chinese support for the work plan.

Multilateral Nuclear Issues

5. (C) PDAS McNerney briefed on various proposals for
Multinational nuclear fuel assurances including the
Bush-Putin initiative and the Global Nuclear Energy
Partnership (GNEP), as well as other initiatives discussed
among the six supplier states and the IAEA. She highlighted
the importance of providing reliable access to nuclear fuel
as a means to deter states from developing national
enrichment capabilities. Frota said that EU member states

BRUSSELS 00003516 002 OF 004

are eager to make progress on this front and want to
"mitigate the line between the haves and the have nots."
Although cautioning that some member states may have concerns
that some initiatives are not entirely compatible with free
market principles, Giannella added that the EU wanted
particularly to work with developing countries on these
proposals. She noted that the denial of access to states that
do not possess enrichment capabilities has not been
productive and said that encouraging the development of fuel
assurances would be a key topic for the nonproliferation
symposium which High Rep Solana will host in February or
March 2008. European Commission Security Policy official
Bruno Dupre added that many of the countries that would
benefit most from the proposals, particularly those in the
Mediterranean and the Aegean, are most vulnerable in terms of
proliferation risks, so it will be necessary to maintain high
safety and security standards.

6. (C) PDAS McNerney also briefed on U.S. objectives for the
2008 NPT Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meeting, and desire
to coordinate with the EU to achieve common objectives.
Frota said that the EU would be very active during 2008.
Issues of specific interest for the EU include nuclear
security, negative security assurances, export controls and
the nuclear fuel cycle. Wolfgang Rudischhauser, a Council
Secretariat nonproliferation official, asked whether ongoing

debate about the U.S.-India nuclear deal could come up during
the NPT PrepCom and affect the process. Giannella added that
the EU, like the United States, is concerned about the role
of Egypt, especially as its position on a Middle East weapons
free zone has toughened. She explained that Egypt raised the
idea of discussing WMD in the Middle East at Solana's
proposed nonproliferation symposium. Rather than have the
symposium overwhelmed by the issue and divert attention from
Solana's intended agenda, the EU has asked the Institute for
Security Studies in Paris to hold a separate event on the
Middle East WMD question in early 2008, the exact dates still
to be determined.

Biological and Chemical Weapons Convention

7. (SBU) Frota opened the discussion of the Chemical Weapons
Convention (CWC) by characterizing the EU's objectives for
the CWC as promoting compliance through verification,
inspections, universality, and international cooperation. He
noted particularly that industrial inspection mechanisms need
to be strengthened and that universality was a problem in
the Middle East, as Egypt, Syria and Israel remained outside
the Convention. He went on to commend the U.S. on the
progress made in the destruction of its chemical arsenal.

8. (SBU) On the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), Frota
explained that the EU was focusing on how best to implement
the BWC regime, as well as how to cooperate internationally
to get a regime that is compatible with international
security concerns. PDAS McNerney encouraged that the EU and
U.S. work together in the area of transfer controls and
biosafety and biosecurity measures. Frota proposed holding
regional and subregional workshops in support of national
implementation and noted the need for a public diplomacy
campaign designed to raise awareness about the BWC. Finally,
he emphasized that improving public health systems would help
restrict the possibility of diversion of potentially
hazardous materials into the wrong hands. Giannella
described EU action in support of this final point explaining
that the EU would adopt a joint action in early 2008 in
support of the World Health Organization's efforts in this
area. Dupre drew attention to the EU's green paper on
biopreparedness detailing EU efforts to improve biosafety by
improving analysis, detection, and cooperation. Amb. Rocca
stressed the need for the upcoming BWC meeting of state
parties to stay on topic and indicated that the U.S. would
have concerns about any proposals to expand the mandate of
the Implementation Support Unit (ISU).

Regional Issues - Iran, DPRK, India

9. (C/NF) In response to U.S. arguments that EU autonomous
sanctions against Iran should be implemented as soon as
possible, Giannella said that there is "no basis" within the
EU for sanctions before a new UNSCR is agreed. She added that

BRUSSELS 00003516 003 OF 004

the EU would have few problems implementing a strong UNSCR,
and explained that a new UNSCR would provide the legal basis
for the member states to subsequently adopt a common
position. She argued that because a number of member states
are opposed to sanctions, pressing the issue ahead of UN
action could be detrimental to internal cohesion. Giannella
also briefed Solana's November 30 meeting with Iranian
nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili, calling it "very unpleasant"
and saying that Solana concluded that there was no scope for
moving forward. (Note: this discussion took place before the
release of the NIE on Iran.)

10. (C) PDAS McNerney summarized the status of the Six Party
process and North Korean disablement. Frota noted that the
EU was working on a joint action to provide 1.8 million Euros
in assistance for IAEA verification efforts. He further
inquired about the prospects for dismantlement. Giannella
told the U.S. delegation that she would be accompanying an EU
regional directors troika delegation to Pyongyang later in
December. The trip is intended to demonstrate EU support for
the denuclearization process. Member states already to play a
role in DPRK, said Giannella, and the directors will discuss
possibilities for improving economic and development
cooperation as well as ways of assisting DPRK in
reintegrating into nonproliferation and disarmament regimes.
When PDAS McNerney emphasized that the EU should be careful
not to provide rewards before the DPRK demonstrates progress,
Giannella responded that the EU wanted to take a "cautious"
approach and show the DPRK what incentives could be available
if they continued their cooperation.

11. (C) Turning to U.S.-India nuclear cooperation, Forta
raised concerns about support for the deal in the Nuclear
Suppliers Group (NSG). Giannella added that many member
states share her concern about possible implications for the
NPT review process. She cited perceptions, especially among
developing countries, that the initiative is discriminatory.
She appealed to the U.S. side to handle the NSG process in a
way that is sensitive to the NPT process.

UNSCR 1540 and WMD Terrorism

12. (SBU) PDAS McNerney expressed appreciation for the EU's
work on UNSCR 1540 assistance projects and explained the U.S.
hope that the Committee's mandate would be extended after
April 2008 and reinforced in terms developing a greater
implementation role. Frota noted that Committee Chair Burian
briefed a Committee on Nonproliferation (CONOP) session in
late October, citing Africa as a key region needing
assistance. Burian shared with the EU his vision for the
Committee, discussing efforts at dialogue, outreach and
assistance, as well as a need to expand and strengthen the
Committee's mandate. Members of the EU side explained that
the EU has gained experience on these issues by cofinancing
seminars. Now they want to turn their attention to working on
raising awareness and doing more for capacity building.
Dupre added that the EU would like to use their stability
instrument funding to do more on illicit financing. He noted
that the dialogue between the proliferation and financial
member state communities has been lacking.

13. (SBU) After the U.S. delegation presented a brief summary
of the status of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear
Terrorism, EU officials cited the precedent of their observer
status in the Global Initiative to make the case for
membership in the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).
Dupre noted that the EU can add value, particularly by
providing forensic expertise in smuggling.

Conventional Weapons

14. (SBU) Ambassador Frota said that the EU wants a
convention on cluster munitions as soon as possible. He
welcomed the U.S. agreement to allow a negotiating mandate in
the CCW framework as a helpful evolution, although said that
the EU would have preferred a more ambitious mandate. He
added that the evolution of the U.S. position gives the EU
hope that the U.S. would participate in the convention. PDAS
McNerney explained the U.S. concern that military
interoperability not be undermined through a total ban on
cluster munitions.

BRUSSELS 00003516 004 OF 004

15. (SBU) On the issue of Small Arms and Light Weapons
(SALW), Frota cited transfer controls, marking and tracing,
brokering, and ammunition as issues that required attention.
He outlined EU concerns, explaining that the Europeans wanted
to see stricter controls and more cooperation on export,
import, shipping and transport of SALW. The EU is in favor
of global standards of tracing and would like to see the
creation of an international instrument for ammunition. PDAS
McNerney noted that the U.S. had decided not to participate
in the 2008 Biennial Meeting of States on SALW and was still
considering whether to participate in the Groups of
Governmental Experts on ammunition and on the proposed Arms
Trade Treaty.

--------------------------------------------- -------
Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and
Materials of Mass Destruction
--------------------------------------------- -------

16. (SBU) PDAS McNerney said the Global Partnership (GP) was
a good news story, which the U.S. was now looking to extend
beyond the former Soviet Union. Dupre replied that both the
Council and Commission had been active in supporting the GP
and favored expanding it beyond Russia and beyond 2012.
However, he warned against committing funds and then looking
for programs on which to spend them; good programs had to
proceed funding. PDAS McNerney commented that while we
agreed that it would be best to commit funds to anticipated
programs, we need to continue to support a top level
commitment to ensure adequate priority and momentum for the

17. (U) PDAS McNerney and Ambassador Rocca have cleared this


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