Cablegate: Drc: Response to Questions for the Tenth Annual Trafficking
RR RUEHBZ RUEHDU RUEHGI RUEHJO RUEHMR RUEHRN
DE RUEHKI #0248/01 0550706
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
R 240704Z FEB 10
FM AMEMBASSY KINSHASA
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC 0259
INFO RWANDA COLLECTIVE
SOUTHERN AF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY COLLECTIVE
RHEFDIA/DIA WASHINGTON DC
RHMFIUU/DEPT OF HOMELAND SECURITY WASHINGTON DC
RHMFIUU/DEPT OF JUSTICE WASHINGTON DC
RUEAIIA/CIA WASHINGTON DC
RUEATRS/DEPT OF TREASURY WASHINGTON DC
RUEHC/DEPT OF LABOR WASHINGTON DC
RUEHC/USAID WASHDC 0037
RUEHSA/AMEMBASSY PRETORIA 0011
RUZEJAA/JAC MOLESWORTH RAF MOLESWORTH UK
UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 13 KINSHASA 000248
PASS TO G/TIP, G-LAURA PENA, INL, DRL, PRM, AF/RSA
E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: PHUM PREF KTIP KCRM KWMN KFRD KMCA SMIG ASEC ELAB CG
SUBJECT: DRC: RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS FOR THE TENTH ANNUAL TRAFFICKING
IN PERSONS (TIP) REPORT
REF: 10 STATE 2094
1. (U) This message contains Embassy Kinshasa's responses keyed to
questions in reftel on trafficking in persons.
THE COUNTRY'S TIP SITUATION
2. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 25:
--A. What is (are) the source(s) of available information on
trafficking in persons? What plans are in place (if any) to
undertake further documentation of human trafficking? How reliable
are these sources?
The following are generally considered reliable sources for TIP
reporting: UNICEF, Solidarity Center, Save the Children UK, IOM,
the Implementing Agency for the National DDR Program (UEPN-DDR), UN
Group of Experts November 2009 Report, Medecins du Monde, UN Office
for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Congolese
National Ministry of Labor, War Child, World Peasants/Indigenous
Organization (WPIO) and the UN Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO).
Numbers maintained by these sources were estimates based on limited
surveys. Estimates appeared to be reasonable given the size, lack
of infrastructure, and the depth of the problems in the DRC.
--B. Is the country a country of origin, transit, and/or
destination for men, women, or children subjected to conditions of
commercial sexual exploitation, forced or bonded labor, or other
Yes, the DRC is a country of origin, transit, and destination.
Are citizens or residents of the country subjected to such
trafficking conditions within the country? If so, does this
internal trafficking occur in territory outside of the government's
control (e.g. in a civil war situation)?
Yes, trafficking occurred inside and outside areas of GDRC control.
Outside of government control, Congolese armed rebel groups
continued to recruit and maintain child soldiers and operated in a
situation of rebellion against the government. Also, a number of
foreign armed groups operated in the DRC due to the government's
inability to defend its own territory.
From where are people recruited or from where do they migrate prior
to being subjected to these exploitative conditions?
Reliable sources indicated that most people were trafficked
internally within the DRC. Some girls and women were trafficked to
Uganda and Southern Sudan. Others were trafficked to South Africa.
There was sex trafficking of girls between Angola and the DRC.
To what other countries are people trafficked and for what
purposes? Provide, where possible, numbers or estimates for each
group of trafficking victims.
Medecins du Monde estimated that 9 out of 10 girls (average age 12)
living on the streets in Kinshasa survive by prostitution. This
was based on a survey conducted among their target population. The
UN Group of Experts stated that from November 2008 to October 2009,
there were 623 cases of child soldier recruitment attributable to
the FARDC or ex-CNDP elements of the FARDC. Mai-Mai groups were
also responsible for recruiting child soldiers. UNICEF estimated
that there remained 3,000 child soldiers with armed groups in North
and South Kivu Provinces. OCHA estimated that the Lord's
Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan rebel group, had abducted over
1486 people including 185 children in 2009. The WPIO estimated
that nearly 200 enslaved Pygmies were working in the agricultural
and mining sectors in Eastern DRC.
Have there been any changes in the TIP situation since the last TIP
KINSHASA 00000248 002 OF 013
Report (e.g. changes in destinations)?
--C. To what kind of conditions are the trafficking victims
Among rebel groups, women and children work in makeshift military
camps. Women and girls work as domestics in maintaining the camps,
collecting firewood, and cooking. They are also used as sex
slaves. Boys work either on the front lines as soldiers or are
running ammunition and supplies between the rebel troops. At
artisanal mining sites, boys work nine to ten hours a day digging
tunnel mines and open-pit mines using rudimentary equipment and
without any safety gear. Outside mining sites, girls involved in
prostitution work in tents or small huts that are organized as
brothels. Street children (girls) involved in prostitution are
forced to turn over their earning to gangs who offer "protection"
or to madams. Pygmies continued to be abused and forced to work as
agricultural or domestic workers in some parts of the country.
--D. Vulnerability to TIP: Are certain groups of persons more at
risk of human trafficking (e.g. women and children, boys versus
girls, certain ethnic groups, refugees, IDPs, etc.)? If so, please
specify the type of exploitation for which these groups are most at
Children were the most at risk to be trafficked in the DRC. Boys
were most likely to be recruited for child soldiering and in
working in the mines. Girls were most likely to be found working
in prostitution or as sexual slaves in armed groups. Of all the
ethnic groups, Pygmies were the most likely to be exploited and
--E. Traffickers and Their Methods: Who are the
traffickers/exploiters? Are they independent business people?
Small or family-based crime groups? Large international organized
Traffickers included insurgent armed groups, both Congolese and
foreign, such as various Mai Mai groups, LRA and the Democratic
Front for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). Another group of
traffickers were middle men in the mining sector who enticed
children into working in the mines or who manipulated them into
debt bondage. With regards to girls working in prostitution, the
traffickers were street gangs and madams. Elements of the National
Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), which have
integrated into the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC), have also been
suspected of continuing to recruit child solders.
What methods are used to gain direct access to victims? For
example, are the traffickers recruiting victims through lucrative
job offers? Are victims sold by their families, or approached by
friends of friends? Are victims "self-presenting" (approaching the
exploiter without the involvement of a recruiter or transporter)?
Child soldiers were abducted, enticed to join by being promised
money, or sent by their parents. Middlemen in the mining sector
enticed children into working in the mines by promising them wages.
They also manipulated them by forcing them into debt bondage.
Street gangs often offer protection to girls on the street.
However, the girls often end up working in prostitution. Madams in
brothels also offer protection to homeless girls as well as food
If recruitment or transportation is involved, what methods are used
to recruit or transport victims (e.g., are false documents being
used)? Are employment, travel, and tourism agencies or marriage
brokers involved with or fronting for traffickers or crime groups
to traffic individuals?
The majority of victims were trafficked internally. Little or no
KINSHASA 00000248 003 OF 013
documentation is used, even for international trafficking.
End responses to paragraph 25.
SETTING THE SCENE FOR THE GOVERNMENT'S ANTI-TIP EFFORTS
3. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 26:
--A. Does the government acknowledge that human trafficking is a
problem in the country? If not, why not?
-- B. Which government agencies are involved in efforts to combat
sex and labor trafficking - including forced labor - and, which
agency, if any, has the lead in these efforts?
No one government agency had the lead on anti-trafficking efforts,
although in many instances the Ministry of Justice has the
responsibility to investigate and prosecute suspected cases of the
use of children in illicit activities. The Ministry of Social
Affairs is responsible for overseeing and investigating child
trafficking cases. The Ministry of Gender, Families, and Children
is responsible for overseeing and investigating cases of commercial
sexual exploitation of children. The Ministry of Labor is
responsible for investigating hazardous child labor and forced
child labor cases.
The following is a description of what government agencies are
doing to combat TIP:
The Ministry of Human Rights drafted a document on the current
state of trafficking in the DRC, efforts by the government to stop
the practice, challenges, and government recommendations on taking
action to prevent trafficking. The Ministry of Gender directed the
development of the GDRC's first annual National Strategy Against
Sexual Violence. The Ministry of Labor facilitated the creation of
the National Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.
The government body responsible for DDR (Unite d'Execution du
Programme National de DDR, UEPNDDR) has a specific program
dedicated to children associated with armed forces and groups
(CAAFAG). Their role is to coordinate the identification,
verification and release of child soldiers by collaborating with
MONUC, UNICEF and partner NGOs. UNICEF has supported UEPNDDR in an
advocacy campaign to end the use of child soldiers, the deployment
of CAAFAG program coordinators into the field, and the functioning
of the DDR working group. UEPNDDR's partnership with UNICEF in
2009 supported the release and care of 2816 children (47% of all
new releases were UNICEF assisted).
The Katangan Provincial Ministry of Interior helped to fund and
operate a center for homeless and street children in Lubumbashi.
The Provincial Ministries of Education in Orientale, Kasai
Oriental, and Katanga are working closely with Save the Children UK
and Solidarity Center in implementing projects that aim to reinsert
children working in mines into the formal education system.
Bukavu police arrested a nightclub owner for allegedly prostituting
10 girls and seven boys in his facility. The Kipushi Military
Tribunal sentenced Kynugu Mutanga (aka Gedeon) to death for crimes
against humanity, including illegal child conscription. Seven of
his codefendants received sentences ranging from seven to 10 years'
imprisonment for complicity in these crimes, 11 received lesser
sentences, and five were acquitted.
-- C. What are the limitations on the government's ability to
address these problems in practice? For example, is funding for
police or other institutions inadequate? Is overall corruption a
problem? Does the government lack the resources to aid victims?
Corruption: Corrupt officials siphoned meager financial resources
KINSHASA 00000248 004 OF 013
available to government agencies to combat human trafficking.
Police and soldiers often were not paid. Due to corruption, there
was little room for training, capacity building, and assistance to
victims in government ministries.
Financial: The government lacked sufficient financial, technical,
and human resources to address not only trafficking, but even basic
levels of security and services.
Security services: The police and military were poorly trained,
supplied, paid, and managed. The FARDC lacked sufficient command
and control to compel many FARDC commanders, much less militia
commanders, with child soldiers serving under them to comply with
standing orders to release them.
-- D. To what extent does the government systematically monitor its
anti-trafficking efforts (on all fronts -- prosecution, victim
protection, and prevention) and periodically make available,
publicly or privately and directly or through
regional/international organizations, its assessments of these
The GDRC does not have the ability to systematically monitor or
assess anti-trafficking efforts. However, it did work with MONUC,
UNICEF and international NGOs to demobilize child soldiers. Some
provincial ministries also worked with international NGOs to
encourage children working in the mines to return to school. The
GDRC is working with international organizations to assess the
current state of child labor and to develop a national strategy
against this practice. In 2009, the government designated UNICEF
and Save the Children to maintain the database of children who have
been separated from armed groups and forces.
-- E. What measures has the government taken to establish the
identity of local populations, including birth registration,
citizenship, and nationality?
The GDRC adopted the National Plan of Action on Birth Registration.
--F. To what extent is the government capable of gathering the data
required for an in-depth assessment of law enforcement efforts?
Where are the gaps? Are there any ways to work around these gaps?
The government lacks the capacity for an in-depth assessment of law
enforcement efforts. Judiciary and penitentiary statistics are
difficult to compile and access in the DRC justice system. The
UNJHRO is trying to put this issue on the agenda of the Ministry of
Justice. However, in line with the DRC's Action Plan for Justice
Reform, the government's efforts are underway with regard to the
following: 1) the establishment of new judicial institutions, with
an emphasis on developing the procedures for recruitment,
selection, evaluation and promotion of magistrates, as well as the
basic organizational procedures for the Judicial Council (CSM) and
the Constitutional Court; 2) enhancing the skills and procedures in
the judiciary and Ministry of Justice and strengthening management
skills among magistrates and judicial personnel, with an emphasis
on developing more transparent financial management and budget
procedures; 3) striving towards improving the transparency,
accessibility and effectiveness of court operations in pilot
jurisdictions outside of Kinshasa, including developing procedures
and budgets for mobile courts; and 4) increasing access to justice
for vulnerable populations, including allowing for civil society
efforts to expand access to justice (often with support from
End responses to paragraph 26.
INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS
4. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 27:
KINSHASA 00000248 005 OF 013
-- A. Existing Laws against TIP: Does the country have a law or
laws specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons -- both sexual
exploitation and labor? If so, please specifically cite the name
of the law(s) and its date of enactment and provide the exact
language [actual copies preferable] of the TIP provisions.
There is no specific law on human slavery or Trafficking in
Persons, however Article 162 of the Law No 09/001 on Child
Protection prescribes and imposes penalties up to 20 years of
imprisonment, for trafficking of children for exploitation
purposes. Also, the DRC's new draft Criminal Code imposes
Please provide a full inventory of trafficking laws, including
non-criminal statutes that allow for civil penalties against
alleged trafficking crimes (e.g., civil forfeiture laws and laws
against illegal debt). Does the law(s) cover both internal and
transnational forms of trafficking? If not, under what other laws
can traffickers be prosecuted? For example, are there laws
against slavery or the exploitation of prostitution by means of
force, fraud, or coercion? Are these other laws being used in
The Child Protection Code, Law 09/001, enacted January 10, 2009,
prohibits all forms of forced child labor, child prostitution, and
the use of children in any illicit activity. In Article 131, this
law provides for 1 to 5 years of imprisonment as a sanction against
child kidnapping. In Article 162, it prescribes penalties of 10 to
20 years of imprisonment for child slavery trade or trafficking;
Article 183 imposes penalties ranging between 10 and 20 years of
imprisonment for cases of sex slavery. The worst forms of child
labor (forced labor) have penalties ranging between 1 and 3 years
of imprisonment, and the enlistment of children into the armed
forces and the police have penalties ranging between 10 and 20
years of imprisonment.
The 2006 Sexual Violence code, Law 6/018, enacted July 20, 2006,
includes provisions against, and penalties for, trafficking in
persons for sexual purposes, forced prostitution, procuring or
supporting prostitution (i.e. pimping), sexual slavery, and the
prostitution of minors. It applies to all relevant trafficking
activities within Congolese jurisdiction.
The Congolese Constitution expressly forbids involuntary servitude.
In addition, it forbids enlistment of persons less than 18 years of
age into the armed forces.
The Labor Code prohibits the employment of children under the age
of 15, including as apprentices, unless exempted by a labor
inspector. It also prohibits employment of children between the
ages of 15-18 without parental consent.
-- B. Punishment of Sex Trafficking Offenses: What are the
prescribed and imposed penalties for the trafficking of persons for
commercial sexual exploitation, including for the forced
prostitution of adults and the prostitution of children?
Trafficking people for sexual exploitation carries a minimum
sentence of 10 years and a maximum of 20 years.
-- C. Punishment of Labor Trafficking Offenses: What are the
prescribed and imposed penalties for labor trafficking offenses,
including all forms of forced labor?
To the best of our knowledge, the government did not impose
penalties for labor exploitation.
If your country is a source country for labor migrants, do the
government's laws provide for criminal punishment -- i.e. jail time
-- for labor recruiters who engage in recruitment of workers using
knowingly fraudulent or deceptive offers with the purpose of
subjecting workers to compelled service in the destination country?
KINSHASA 00000248 006 OF 013
We know of no laws that punish recruiters for trafficking.
If your country is a destination for labor migrants (legal/regular
or illegal/irregular), are there laws punishing employers or labor
agents who confiscate workers' passports or travel documents for
the purpose of labor trafficking, switch contracts without the
worker's consent as a means to keep the worker in a state of
compelled service, or withhold payment of salaries as means of
keeping the worker in a state of compelled service?
-- D. What are the prescribed penalties for rape or forcible sexual
The penalties in accordance with the law (Article 170 of the
Criminal Law, as modified and completed by July 20, 2009, Law NC,B0
06/018, on Sexual Violence) range between 5 and 20 years of
imprisonment. Punishment for trade slavery or trafficking of
children for commercial exploitation ranges between 10 and 20 years
-- E. Law Enforcement Statistics: Did the government take legal
action against human trafficking offenders during the reporting
period? If so, provide numbers of investigations, prosecutions,
convictions, and sentences imposed, including details on plea
bargains and fines, if relevant and available. Also, if possible,
please disaggregate numbers of cases by type of TIP (labor vs.
commercial sexual exploitation) and victims (children under 18
years of age vs. adults). What were the actual punishments imposed
on convicted trafficking offenders? Are they serving the time
sentenced? If not, why not?
The Kipushi Military Tribunal sentenced Kynugu Mutanga (aka Gedeon)
to death for crimes against humanity, including illegal child
conscription. Seven of his codefendants received sentences ranging
from seven to 10 years' imprisonment for complicity in these
crimes, 11 received lesser sentences, and five were acquitted.
Please note the number of convicted trafficking offenders who
received suspended sentences and the number who received only a
fine as punishment.
Per our knowledge, no traffickers received suspended sentences.
Please indicate which laws were used to investigate, prosecute,
convict, and sentence traffickers.
Article 41 of the law on defense and the armed forces prohibits the
maintenance of armed groups formed by young combatants less than 18
years. This is also found in the Constitution.
The Child Protection Code of 2009 specifically prohibits the
recruitment and use of children by the armed forces, armed groups,
and the police. The GDRC has not yet applied the law for
prosecution. Although the law was passed Jan 10, 2009, it was not
officially published until May 25, 2009.
-- F. Does the government provide any specialized training for law
enforcement and immigration officials on identifying and treating
victims of trafficking? Or training on investigating and
prosecuting human trafficking crimes?
The government provided training to some police and military
personnel on preventing sexual violence and child soldiering, but
there is no specific training related to trafficking.
Specify whether NGOs, international organizations, and/or the USG
provide specialized training for host government officials.
KINSHASA 00000248 007 OF 013
The Defense Institute for International Legal Studies is training
FARDC investigators, prosecutors, and magistrates. The focus is on
the investigation, prosecution, and trial procedures for a wide
range of military justice issues including TIP. MONUC provided
training to FARDC troops for demobilizing child soldiers. The
International Labor Organization provided capacity training to the
members of the National Committee Against the Worst Forms of Child
--G. Does the government cooperate with other governments in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases?
Per our knowledge, the GDRC did not participate in any cooperative
international investigations of trafficking.
If possible, provide the number of cooperative international
investigations on trafficking during the reporting period.
-- H. Does the government extradite persons who are charged with
trafficking in other countries? If so, please provide the number
of traffickers extradited during the reporting period, and the
number of trafficking extraditions pending. In particular, please
report on any pending or concluded extraditions of trafficking
offenders to the United States.
Per our knowledge, no requests for extradition were made.
-- I. Is there evidence of government involvement in or tolerance
of trafficking, on a local or institutional level? If so, please
explain in detail.
-- J. If government officials are involved in human trafficking,
what steps has the government taken to end such complicity? Please
indicate the number of government officials investigated and
prosecuted for involvement in trafficking or trafficking-related
criminal activities during the reporting period. Have any been
convicted? What sentence(s) was imposed? Please specify if
officials received suspended sentences, or were given a fine,
fired, or reassigned to another position within the government as
punishment. Please indicate the number of convicted officials that
received suspended sentences or received only a fine as punishment.
It should be pointed out that there is no GDRC judicial presence in
many areas where TIP occurs. The generalized impunity for
violations perpetrated against children remains a major challenge.
Despite the existing legal provisions, there are few systematic
investigations, convictions or sanctions against those responsible
for grave crimes against children.
-- K. For countries that contribute troops to international
peacekeeping efforts, please indicate whether the government
vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced
nationals of the country deployed abroad as part of a peacekeeping
or other similar mission who engaged in or facilitated severe forms
of trafficking or who exploited victims of such trafficking.
-- L. If the country has an identified problem of child sex
tourists coming to the country, what are the countries of origin
for sex tourists? How many foreign pedophiles did the government
prosecute or deport/extradite to their country of origin? If your
host country's nationals are perpetrators of child sex tourism, do
the country's child sexual abuse laws have extraterritorial
coverage (similar to the U.S. PROTECT Act) to allow the prosecution
of suspected sex tourists for crimes committed abroad? If so, how
many of the country's nationals were prosecuted and/or convicted
during the reporting period under the extraterritorial provision(s)
for traveling to other countries to engage in child sex tourism?
KINSHASA 00000248 008 OF 013
End responses to paragraph 27.
PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS
5. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 28:
-- A. What kind of protection is the government able under
existing law to provide for victims and witnesses? Does it provide
these protections in practice?
The Katangan Provincial Ministry of Interior provided food and
shelter to street children in Lubumbashi through its center for
street children. The Government also works with NGOs and religious
entities throughout the country that provide such activities.
-- B. Does the country have victim care facilities (shelters or
drop-in centers) which are accessible to trafficking victims?
Yes, please see above.
Do foreign victims have the same access to care as domestic
Yes, in principle, although it is hard to verify, particularly in
Where are child victims placed (e.g., in shelters, foster care, or
juvenile justice detention centers)?
Child soldiers were handed over to MONUC, UNICEF, Save the Children
UK, and other NGOs for assistance, rehabilitation, and
reunification with their families. UNICEF supported over 270
foster families and 17 temporary care centers in 2009 to provide
protection and care to children separated from armed forces and
groups, pending their reunification with families.
Does the country have specialized care for adults in addition to
Does the country have specialized care for male victims as well as
No, however, the DDR program does provide services for both male
and female children.
Does the country have specialized facilities dedicated to helping
victims of trafficking? Are these facilities operated by the
government or by NGOs? What is the funding source of these
facilities? Please estimate the amount the government spent (in
U.S. dollar equivalent) on these specialized facilities dedicated
to helping trafficking victims during the reporting period.
Yes. NGOs operated centers to help rehabilitate demobilized child
soldiers. Their funding source was from international donors.
UEPNDDR received funds from the World Bank for child DDR. It also
received funds from ADB, but we are unsure if those monies were for
adults only. Funding amounts are not known.
-- C. Does the government provide trafficking victims with access
to legal, medical and psychological services? If so, please
specify the kind of assistance provided.
No. The government-issued Operational Framework for DDR includes
specific standards for child DDR including medical screening and
psychosocial care. Government funds from the World Bank for child
DDR programs ensure access to holistic services during temporary
care and reunification.
KINSHASA 00000248 009 OF 013
Does the government provide funding or other forms of support to
foreign or domestic NGOs and/or international organizations for
providing these services to trafficking victims? Please explain
and provide any funding amounts in U.S. dollar equivalent. If
assistance provided was in-kind, please specify exact assistance.
Please specify if funding for assistance comes from a federal
budget or from regional or local governments.
The GDRC allowed, and in some cases worked closely with, NGOs and
international organizations to provide these services. These
organizations informed the GDRC of their activities.
-- D. Does the government assist foreign trafficking victims, for
example, by providing temporary to permanent residency status, or
other relief from deportation? If so, please explain.
No, but in practice victims are very rarely subject to deportation.
-- E. Does the government provide longer-term shelter or housing
benefits to victims or other resources to aid the victims in
rebuilding their lives?
-- F. Does the government have a referral process to transfer
victims detained, arrested or placed in protective custody by law
enforcement authorities to institutions that provide short- or
long-term care (either government or NGO-run)?
When child soldiers were apprehended or showed up to brassage
centers, the FARDC and UEPN-DDR referred them to MONUC, UNICEF and
NGOs for care.
-- G. What is the total number of trafficking victims identified
during the reporting period? (If available, please specify the
type of exploitation of these victims - e.g. "The government
identified X number of trafficking victims during the reporting
period, Y or which were victims of trafficking for sexual
exploitation and Z of which were victims of nonconsensual labor
exploitation.) Of these, how many victims were referred to care
facilities for assistance by law enforcement authorities during the
Per UNICEF, approximately 5,000 children were demobilized during
By social services officials?
To our knowledge, none.
What is the number of victims assisted by government-funded
assistance programs and those not funded by the government during
the reporting period?
The government-run child center in Lubumbashi held a capacity of
-- H. Do the government's law enforcement, immigration, and social
services personnel have a formal system of proactively identifying
victims of trafficking among high-risk persons with whom they come
in contact (e.g., foreign persons arrested for prostitution or
Per our knowledge, no.
For countries with legalized prostitution, does the government have
a mechanism for screening for trafficking victims among persons
involved in the legal/regulated commercial sex trade?
-- I. Are the rights of victims respected? Are trafficking victims
KINSHASA 00000248 010 OF 013
detained or jailed? If so, for how long? Are victims fined? Are
victims prosecuted for violations of other laws, such as those
governing immigration or prostitution?
The FARDC occasionally detained demobilized child soldiers on
charges of being members of illegal armed groups. However, they
were released quickly if discovered by MONUC, UNICEF or NGOs.
-- J. Does the government encourage victims to assist in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking?
We are not aware of any government encouragement.
How many victims assisted in the investigation and prosecution of
traffickers during the reporting period?
We are not aware of any assistance by victims.
May victims file civil suits or seek legal action against
Yes. Although, not aware of any cases filed during reporting
Does anyone impede victim access to such legal redress? If a
victim is a material witness in a court case against a former
employer, is the victim permitted to obtain other employment or to
leave the country pending trial proceedings? Are there means by
which a victim may obtain restitution?
Not aware of any cases filed.
-- K. Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in identifying trafficking victims and in the
provision of assistance to trafficked victims, including the
special needs of trafficked children?
Not aware of any specialized training.
Does the government provide training on protections and assistance
to its embassies and consulates in foreign countries that are
destination or transit countries?
Not aware of any training.
What is the number of trafficking victims assisted by the host
country's embassies or consulates abroad during the reporting
period? Please explain the type of assistance provided (travel
documents, referrals to assistance, payment for transportation
Not aware of any cases.
-- L. Does the government provide assistance, such as medical aid,
shelter, or financial help, to its nationals who are repatriated as
victims of trafficking?
Not aware of any government assistance to repatriated victims.
-- M. Which international organizations or NGOs, if any, work with
MONUC, UNICEF, IOM, BVES, CAJED, Save the Children UK, Lazarius,
COOPI, REEJER, AASD, Aiglons, Simama Developpement, Reconfort,
APEDE, BICE, Caritas, Don Bosco, Midima, CRB, and more.
What type of services do they provide?
Services included: community re-integration, vocational training,
re-enrollment in primary or secondary education, conflict
resolution seminars, sexual violence counseling, psychological
counseling, mediation between children and families, medical
KINSHASA 00000248 011 OF 013
treatment, and income generating activities.
What sort of cooperation do they receive from local authorities?
They usually received full cooperation.
End responses to paragraph 28.
6. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 29:
-- A. Did the government conduct anti-trafficking information or
education campaigns during the reporting period? If so, briefly
describe the campaign(s), including their objectives and
effectiveness. Please provide the number of people reached by such
awareness efforts, if available. Do these campaigns target
potential trafficking victims and/or the demand for trafficking
(e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or beneficiaries of forced labor)?
-- B. Does the government monitor immigration and emigration
patterns for evidence of trafficking?
Not aware of any government monitoring.
-- C. Is there a mechanism for coordination and communication
between various agencies, internal, international, and multilateral
on trafficking-related matters, such as a multi-agency working
group or a task force?
Not specifically. The DDR working group at the central level is
chaired by UEPNDDR; such coordination groups are functional in some
provinces. However, FARDC, UEPN-DDR, UNICEF, MONUC DDR, MONUC
Child Protection, and international NGOs have created communication
links between themselves and with host country officials to quickly
demobilize child soldiers once they are discovered.
-- D. Does the government have a national plan of action to address
trafficking in persons?
No. There is a national strategy to combat sexual violence.
If the plan was developed during the reporting period, which
agencies were involved in developing it? Were NGOs consulted in
the process? What steps has the government taken to implement the
-- E: Required of all Posts: What measures has the government taken
during the reporting period to reduce the demand for commercial sex
acts? (see ref B, para. 9(3) for examples)
-- F. Required of all Posts: What measures has the government taken
during the reporting period to reduce the participation in
international child sex tourism by nationals of the country?
N/A - No sex tourism here.
-- G. Required of posts in countries that have contributed over 100
troops to international peacekeeping efforts:
End responses to paragraph 29.
7. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 30:
KINSHASA 00000248 012 OF 013
-- A. Does the government engage with other governments, civil
society, and/or multilateral organizations to focus attention and
devote resources to addressing human trafficking? If so, please
During the year government officials participated in a tripartite
dialogue on child labor in Katanga Province with unions,
enterprises, and the International Labor Organization.
-- B. What sort of international assistance does the government
provide to other countries to address TIP?
None that we are aware of.
End responses to paragraph 30.
NEW REQUIREMENTS FOR CHILD SOLDIER PREVENTION ACT
8. (SBU) Begin responses to paragraph 31:
--A. Report if the following occurred: conscription or forced
recruitment of persons under the age of 18 into governmental armed
forces; voluntary recruitment of any person under 15 years of age
into governmental armed forces; the extent to which any person
under the age of 18 took a direct part in hostilities as a member
of governmental armed forces; recruitment (forced or voluntary) of
persons under the age of 18 by armed groups distinct from those of
the governmental armed forces, including paramilitary forces,
illegal paramilitary groups, guerrillas, or other armed groups.
All of the above mentioned violations took place in 2009 by both
the armed forces and armed groups. The 1612 Monitoring and
Reporting Mechanism and the Task Force, led by MONUC and UNICEF,
report regularly on six grave violations against child rights,
including abduction, recruitment, and sexual violence.
--B. Describe trends toward improvement of the above-mentioned
practices, including steps and programs the government undertook or
the continued or increased tolerance of such practices, including
the role of the government in engaging in or tolerating such
The government allowed EUSEC to conduct a census of troops allowing
for the identification of child soldiers. The UEPNDDR government
agency is engaged in advocacy to end the use and recruitment of
children. The national army has resumed the recruitment of
children, a practice which observers thought ended by 2008. This is
a major step, rolling back progress with the Government of DRC.
Simultaneously, no progress has been made in the development of an
Action Plan with the Government to end recruitment of children,
despite a letter from the UN Mission to the Minister of Defense.
However, MONUC was able to obtain from the higher military command
of Kimia II, orders for the release of all children, asking all
commanders to cooperate. That support, in some cases, facilitated
access to children for their release.
--C. Report abuse of children recruited by armed forces or the
armed groups noted above (e.g., sexual abuse or use for forced
labor). Describe the manner and age of conscription.
Children recruited and used by armed forces and groups face a
variety of abuses from forced labor to sexual abuse. The ranking of
uses of children is as follows: combatants, escorts, domestic
labor, porters, and sexual exploitation. Voluntary recruitment,
forced recruitment and abduction are all used to associate children
into armed conflict.
--D. In discussing activities of armed groups distinct from those
of governmental armed forces, explain the position of the
government towards the armed group (opposition, tolerance, support,
etc.) in detail.
KINSHASA 00000248 013 OF 013
The Government does not tolerate the presence of armed groups or
their use of children.
End responses to paragraph 31.
9. Post's contact officer is Political Officer Lisa Overman,
+243-81-556-0151 ext. 2620 (Embassy phone) and OvermanLL@state.gov.
Time spent preparing report by Polcouns, Poloff, Political LES, and
USAID: 40 hours.